The purpose of this study is to clarify the modernization of the multiple dwelling units in the Southern part of China. First, by means of the adjacency graph, we found most of the unit plans after 1990s are living-room-connected type. Second, the main focus of this paper is to investigate the change under the influence of Western style, Japanese style and the Modernization in China. The findings are as follows. 1. As the Western style, open type and semi-open type kitchens increase continuously. Two or more bath units have appeared in recent years. One is for public use, and the other is annexed to bedroom for private use. 2. As the Japanese style, most people take off shoes before they enter the house. Units with built-in storage space is on the increase. And the entrance and storage space are also affected by the Japanese style. 3. More attention has been given to the privacy of bedroom in modern China. The housing units with work space and study room have been increasing. However, the traditional characteristic of receiving guests remained the same.
In group home for the elderly with dementia, there are some issues from the view of daily life performance. At first, low quality of private room physically leads to unsuitable residential space because of few furniture arrangements, and basic private activities are pursued in common space by some residents. Then most of principal activities in private room are performed on “bed”, for example eating and drinking, conversation with someone, watching TV, reading or listening or playing game and so on. Planning concept of private room should be change to more “normal” living condition.
Through this study, the important issues for planning open-plan learning environment were summarized as follows: 1. Teachers are satisfied with ‘open space’ for various learning style and they want to use open spaces more conveniently. 2. Teachers recognize advantage of open-plan learning environment in terms of learning effects and psychological aspect. However, if the indoor environment such as acoustic condition has significant problems, teachers don't highly evaluate the open-plan. 3. Open-plan learning environments work properly in the cooperative teaching management system by each grade. 4. When student numbers exceeds the capacity of learning environment, it is difficult to manage a grade as a group. In this case, class activities are mainly managed by each class and the class uses open space as an extension of its classroom. 5. Teachers require the classrooms that can be both open and closed condition with appropriate acoustic performance for open-plan learning environment.
In this paper, evaluation to the environment of existing facilities, differences thereof, and issues to be addressed and points to be taken account of in constructing a living environment for people with various disabilities, were considered. This consideration is based on the results of a questionnaire survey and a hearing investigation, conducted in advance, of three types of facilities, that is, facilities for people with physical, intellectual and severe motor and intellectual disabilities.
This study seeks to establish techniques for planning living spaces in order for robots to live together with humans. It focuses on a small, mobile robot and identifies distances at which the robot can approach individuals, particularly adult males. The distance sought is the distance from the robot to a person beyond which the person does not wish the robot to approach. This paper also clarifies how the distances to individuals change as the robot's speed and angle of approach varies. The following three results were obtained by the study: 1. For the distance beyond which individuals did not wish the robot to approach, the robot's angle of speed did not have effect on the distance. 2. Compared by speed, 0.08m/s was a tendency for an individual to allow the robot to come closer as it moved forward, whereas the distance of the robot in chair-sitting form to an individual tended to be greater as it moved forward. 3. Overall, there were no noticeable differences among the angles of approach. Their distances to a person were almost entirely the same. Their distances to a person traced a semicircular with the individual at the center.
The purpose of this article is to clarify residents' attitudes toward social relationships in condominiums. We conducted questionnaire to residents who live in large scale condominiums, and clarified the following things. About 75 percent of respondents seek some relationships with other residents. The respondents who have children are more satisfied with their present relationships than those who don't have children. The respondents who don't seek relationships and who regard intimate relationships as important, tend to be satisfied with their present relationships. Social relationships in the large scale condominiums are not weak, but it doesn't spread into all residents.
This paper aims to construct a theoretical framework to explore a creative design process, which might be described as a “reflective conversation with situation” in D. A. Schön's term. For this purpose, 1) we introduce C. S. Peirce's semiotics into the study on design process, 2) examine how we apply it to design processes, 3) obtain the cases of design processes through a design experiment, and 4) analyze those cases using Peirce's semiotic model. Thereby, we propose that the design process as a “conversation with situation” can be understood as circulative chains of signs on Peirce's sign division.
Recently, community co-operative stores have been collaboratively established by local residents in rural areas of Japan. We examine the foundation and operation of community co-operative stores in Honshu, Shikoku and Kyushu, and collaboration among residents and organizations. In all cases, the establishment of the stores was triggered by discontinuance of local JA stores and local residents took the initiative in restoring them as community co-operative stores. The business services offered are not limited to sales, but cover agricultural management, welfare, etc. The stores struggle to survive, requiring support buying and volunteerism by residents, and are supported mainly by local residents and organizations. Community-based associations, self-governing organizations for local development, JA, commerce and industry associations, administrative agencies, etc. provide intermediate support in the finance,workforce and information areas.
On this paper, we aimed to figure out the essential conditions for establishing Generation-Circulable Agricultural Community (GCC), which has stabilized population structure of farmers and enables next generation to succeed to community management and rural resources. Using agricultural census data in Japan, we got the results as follows. 1. GCCs are distributed in each region of Japan, but the number of GCC is only about 5% of agricultural community based on 2005 agricultural census. 2. GCCs are mainly characterized by the extent of financial dependence on agriculture and liquidity of agricultural land. Those two factors are highly related to the geographical and social conditions of a location of GCC. 3. In GCCs which has especially even distribution of young and old generations, the source of income has unified to agriculture or non-agriculture. It tends to be multiple according to the increase of old generation.
Old photographs attract attention in understanding the modern history. I thought that a part of the modern history of the community planning in Pioneer Villages can be understood as forming process by using old photographs from prewar days when there wasn't enough map information. I deciphered the spatial transition of Hirano village developing the method of deciphering the process of formations of Pioneer Villages through old photographs that M families own. This paper is intend to report the method and its results. Results show the method is useful in decipherment of the spatial tarnsition of Pioneer Villages.
Eibohen, an illustrated anthology of poems written in classical Chinese style, was edited and published by Kumasaka Taishu in 1788. The original illustrations are stamped by Shuhshun and Shukukan. A revised edition with drawings by Tani Buncho was printed around 1792, although this date is a premise of this paper. A detailed semiological comparison of both sets of illustrations, analyzing their elements and composition, reveals contrasts between the two styles. The original drawings faithfully depict the topographical conditions and local activities at the sites, while I can conclude that only three of Buncho's drawings are based on actual sketches. It seems probable that most of the other illustrations by Buncho are skillful composite images influenced by the sense of perspective common in Chinese landscape paintings, whereby he successfully evokes an idealized atmosphere of each place.
The main purpose of this study is to develop a spatial and environmental database by collecting and generating several related digital data and build up a tools for data management and analysis in combination with GIS and numerical simulation software. Based on this database, to investigate objective knowledge of relationship between urban structure and ambient microclimate in new housing area in tropical country. As a result, it became clear that usability of developed spatial database and analysis environmental for a process which contains data modeling, management and visualization through the qualitative and quantitative consideration of numerical simulation effectively, and several new fundamental findings of relationship between deference of building type, open space, and block density and ambient physical environment objectively.
External Insulation Finishing System (EIFS) have been focused on mainly in cold districts in Japan. But EIFS is effective not only in cold districts but also in other districts in terms of elongation improving. Today in Japan, EIFS is not often used and the cost of EIFS is higher than that of conventional repair. The purpose of this study is to examine the payback period of the cost increment by the use of EIFS. This study is LCC simulation of the cost increment and focuses on electric cost reduction by the use of EIFS, specifically that of air conditioners. The main results are: 1. It is difficult to collect cost increment only by longer repair cycle and cost reduction of materials. 2. For Rooftop repair, built-up roofing with wear course is less expensive than with single-ply roofing in terms of total LCC. 3. In consideration electric cost reduction, payback period of cost increment can be examined 40 years. 4. By extending the time for usage, for example open school after school, payback period of cost increment is extended by 0-15 years.
Delving the history of foghorn buildings in Japan, this paper shows that most of them were built on the cape of Hokkaido and Tohoku area between 1879 and 1932, and their construction materials were changed from steel in Meiji period to concrete in Taisho period. In the Meiji period, they were designed as a rectangular room with a vaulted roof and all made of steel panels. The Inubosaki's foghorn building is the latest, largest, and well-designed one of them. It is also the last one in existence, therefore it is now having a new value as a cultural asset.
This paper clarifies the construction techniques of stone masonry based on rubble-core system, in Armenian churches from the fourth to the seventh centuries. As can be considered from observation of the horizontal joints of stone masonry, each height of well-cut stone at the surface of wall seems to be utilized for attainment of stable constructing of wall. Furthermore, this technique was applied to make an unified and stable wall of the monument, which is necessary to set up stone vault and dome, new vaulting elements introduced during the second half of the centuries.
This research is an investigation of external design images of the houses in case of the university architecture students in Fukushima Prefecture and Hokkaido. As a result of the investigation, the following six conclusions were obtained. 1) The students' preferences do not relate to the roof type of the house where they reside. 2) As for their externals images, the one that exists in the environment of which it grew up is Japanese style. The other images are Western style. 3) The students in Fukushima want to leave a traditional house. However in case of the desire of the students Hokkaido is rare. 4) The factor of favor is "Expensive feeling". The students in Fukushima like "Familiar design". The students in Hokkaido like "Heavy feeling" and "City design". 5) The relation between "Preference" and "Japanese style and Western style" is rare. However, they feel. that the Japanese style is "Country design" and Western style is "City design". 6) The students like house built in recent years. In one case, the tradition is not at all but Western style. Another case is a heritage design of Fukushima Prefecture. Both of the roofing geometry are complicated.
The forest around urban area was desolated tremendously by imprudent cutting trees in 19 C. Recovering of these forests was begun from the early 1900's to keep the trees for source of water supply, protection of landslide and scene from the urban area. This paper discusses the relationships between the preservation of the forest scene and its management, and the development as the park. Dr. T. Tamura who is a specialist on the scenery and the park, and Mr. U. Kugo who is a technocrat on the forest management of Okayama Prefecture participated in the manifestation and preservation of the scene of Misao-yama hill as a borrowing landscape from the Kohraku-en garden that is historical Daimyo garden. However, Dr. Tamura planned the forest park in the Misao-yama hill as a developing urban infrastructure for hygiene and recreation space.