This study investigates subjective evaluation of transmitted speech sound from open windows. When windows are opened, sound pressure level difference decreases, but background noise increases in sound receiving room. This paper describes the results of an experiment under conditions of open windows. The results of this paper are as follows. 1. When windows are opened, background noise increases in sound receiving room, yet point of subjective evaluation for sound insulation decreases. 2. The relation of word intelligibility to level difference between transmitted speech sound and background noise level shows a defferent tendency in comparison with conditions of closed windows.
In recent years, structure-bone sound generated by water piping system influences on the rooms in hotels and apartment houses etc, and a problem caused by the noise are increasing. So the experimental investigations on the sound and vibration reduction of structure-bone sound at water piping systems by two size of expansion chamber type mufflers were carried out. The following conclusions were obtained. As the result, it was shown that calculation values by plane wave theory on sound transmission loss of two size of expansion chamber type mufflers and experiment values were in good agreement comparatively at frequency bands which resonance frequencies of longitudinal wave of inner water are not included.
It is said that personal adjustments make the environment more comfortable, but there are some reports which deny this statement. To make sure this, authors made subjects adjust lighting in working room. As expected, subjects who had decisional control reported significantly higher subjective rating scores than those who had not. However under bad lighting condition, the subjects who had no perceived control reported that there was significantly less need for adjusting lighting than those who had. It can be said that decisional control has positive effect and perceived control sometimes has negative effect on subjective rating.
This paper presents a new approach to predict temperature and heating load of a building with slabs of reinforced concrete under intermittent heating by applying the lumped constant system. The average temperature of the slabs (floors and walls) is used to evaluating the temperature of the building by single value, since the air temperature after heating stopped and the heat load are dependent upon this temperature. In this method, two time constants connected to the heating and cooling processes on slabs are used as a basis for predicting the temperature and heating load. The applicability of this method was tested by computer simulation.
To clarify the hygrothermal environment of vertical edge insulation methods in moderate and humid climate region, especially in the summer involving the rainy season, temperature and relative humility of 12 houses have been measured. From the measurement results, the temperature variation in the crawl space tends to slide slightly backward compare to the outdoor air. Evaporation from the drying concrete keeps the humidity in the crawl space rather high, especially in the summer just after completion. But it becomes moderate on condition that it passes through the winter. Daily diurnal range of temperature in the crawl space is smaller, and absolute humidity is lower, than the other construction method, that also ensures against condensation proofing.
The objective of this paper is to estimate the natural convective heat transfer coefficients for the human body at sedentary posture and its segments, based on measured dry heat dissipation rate with heat flow meters. The following results were obtained : 1) The natural convective heat transfer coefficients for trunk, forearm, thigh and shin had distribution over the skin. The mean values of local coefficients at each segment were calculated and factors were determined to estimate the mean value of natural convective heat transfer coefficients from that at the measured point. 2) The estimated local convective heat transfer coefficient for the peripheral segments were agreed with the previous experimental data and the estimation formula based on non-dimen- sional heat transfer coefficient formula concerning simple solids which were simulated to the human segments. The convective heat transfer coefficients for a head and a trunk were fairly agreed with the previous studies. 3) Convective heat transfer coefficient for the whole body were calculated as the weighted mean of the local convective heat transfer coefficients for each segments. The value stood at 3.7 to 3.8W/m2<C under this experiment's condition. If using the mean coefficient based on the its distribution, the coefficient stood at 5.2 to 5.5W/m2<C
Thermal plumes in wall free space were numerically simulated with the standard k- e model and the results were compared with the basic experiment which had been conducted by Yokoi. The purpose of this study is to confirm the accuracy and reliability of the numerical simulation of thermal plumes from the view point of practical use of simulation for fire safety planning. The flow fields associated with various conditions concerning the computational domain, mesh dividing system and so on were simulated and compared with the Yokoi's formula in order to evaluate the accuracy and reliability of the CFD performance based on the standard k-ε model. The distributions of Cell Reynolds numbers gave us a good criteria for practically reliable simulations.
This paper presents experimental visualization results of airflow in rear of blades of dampers installed in duct systems and measurement of pressure differences between upstream and downstream of blades for parallel and opposed-blade dampers. Rear flow of damper blades is visualized using the smoke wire method with liquid paraffin. Pressure differences between the upstream and downstream of damper blades were measured with Pitot tubes and a micropressure gauge in accordance with ISO7244-1984. We compared flow fields aft of blades for parallel and opposed-blade dampers. Good agreements are made between numerically simulated results and experimental results. An opposed-blade damper is appreciated more favorably than a parallel-blade damper in view of less uneven flow aft of blades and the controllability of pressure drops for a duct system.
Long term measurements on the airborne particles were made. Investigation on mite-allergen concentration and on the medical symptoms of allergic children in the eight bedrooms equipped with an air-cleaner and occupied by a person including six allergic children were also made. Three of the patients showed significant improvement. The short term particulate concentration decreased rapidly. Although the air-cleaner performance has been expressed so far in the inclination of the concentration decay curves, this method is not suitable when the initial values are low. Thus, authors proposed a new evaluation method which takes into account of the initial and the back-ground concentration.
Indoor air pollution caused by the chemical substances such as formaldehyde and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) is a serious problem in Japan. Even if the emission rates of chemical substance are small, the concentration shows a tendency of high levels due to the increase of the air-tightness in residences. Bake-out might be a novel approach to reduce formaldehyde or VOC levels in a new residence. Bake-out is based on the theory that vapor pressure from building materials will be increased by elevating temperature in rooms. Some quantitative reports on bake-out are indicated by J. R. Girman et al.. But, in these reports, we can't find useful information which is related to Japanese construction method. So, this study was carried out to determine the effectiveness of the bake-out practice on VOC or formaldehyde concentration.
Airborne molecular contaminants (AMCs) can affect device characteristics in semiconductor processes. Understanding the relationship between gas phase concentration and wafer surface concentration is helpful for AMCs control requirements. The aim of this study is to create the adsorption model of organic compounds on silicon (Si) wafer surfaces in cleanroom ambient for estimating the surface concentration. The molecular deposition velocity in unidirectional flow cleanroom for predicting deposition was developed by the effect of the molecular diffusion and the eddy diffusion. Then the adsorption model was composed of the Langmuir adsorption theory including the molecular deposition velocity, the sticking probability, the desorption rate, the saturated surface concentration and the volume concentration in cleanroom. This model was applied to predict the dioctyl phthalate (DOP) concentration on the Si wafer surface.
With the economic rapid development in Asian developing countries, megalopolis such as Shanghai and Bangkok have been grown rapidly and have significant effects on an urban thermal environment and air pollution. It is an urgent work to find a way to improve the urban environment in the developing countries. In this study, a method has been developed to establish a digital database of land use based on a land use map because there are few GIS data in the developing covmtries. By this method, five megalopolises, New York, London, Tokyo, Shanghai, Bangkok have been selected as a case study. Based on the evaluation, a comparison between those five megalopolises has been investigated in order to determine the characteristics of thermal environment in those five megalopolises. The results showed the average air temperatures are affected mainly by built areas and water surface areas. A large river, such as that in New York has a good effect on mitigating the urban thermal environment. A good arrangement of green spaces like London can also mitigate air temperature. The increase of the urban area in the developing countries will significantly affect the thermal environment in future. Therefore, a good plan with the consideration of green and water spaces is needed in order to conserve the environment.
Evaporative cooling on pavement has recently been developed in order to reduce the heat in summer in outdoor spaces. In this pavement system all materials have capillary ability. Stored rain water is used and no motive power is required to supply water to the system. Appropriate bricks and textiles which have capillary ability are chosen. These materials suck up and spread water efficiently and wet the whole surface. The results of measurements in summer show that the wet surface is 10 degrees cooler than the dry surface, and more than 25 degrees cooler than asphalt surface. Water supply through the materials continues for several days. Sensible and latent heat fluxes from wet pavement at noon in summer are about 70W/m^2 and about 430 W/m2, respectively. It is estimated that thermal diffusion coefficient of both wet bricks and wet sand are 0.00126m^2/h and surface wet ratio is 0.70.
The elderly population increases rapidly while younger population becomes decreasing year by year in Japan. People over 65 years old are estimated to reach over 27 % of population by the year 2025. In order to facilitate the participation of elderly individuals and to integrate them with other generations in the rapidly aging society, we need various strategies to solve social problems. The present occupational environments are not always fit to elderly workers. It is an urgent issue that we should redesign occupational environments regarding physical and mental deterioration of elderly people. 370 elderly workers over 60 years-old and 430 workers from 40 to 49 years-old completed questionnaires. Questions were done about preferred age-group to work with, major concern of elderly capability to work with, major desired design to extend elderly employment, concerns to their working environments, own physical deterioration etc. Fundamental design concept in occupational environments based on symbiotic relations is discussed in this paper.
The first part of this study outlines a comprehensive research on sustainable building policy of OECD Member countries. Five criteria were selected. Those are resource, energy &CO2, pollution prevention, social function and system approach. This study also overviews regulatory, voluntary, economic, information and technical policy tools for sustainable buildings. Next, 151 policies presented by 16 countries and EU are analyzed according to the criteria and policy tools. Main results are that almost half of sustainable building policies aim at energy efficiency and that North American policies rely on less regulations than European and Japanese polices, etc..
This paper analyzes the multiple generation living from the viewpoint of transfer of managing roles in urban living in order to find out the importance of multiple generation living and an indicator of multiple generation house planning. The results are as follows : 1) Roles move from parent generation to child generation along lifestages progress and the changes of family structure, regardless of the space division between generations. 2) Sharing spaces between generations promotes recognition about shared family area, shared generation area, and divided individual area. 3) High level recognition of multiple generation living promoted by past multiple generation living experience and the progress of lifestages must be taken in to the planning of multiple generation houses. 4) There is a gap between the actual and potential extent of flexibility, so greater consideration needs to be given to the possibilities of the future use of housing at an early stage of its planning.
The purpose of this paper is to clarify spatial composition of Muya Tibetan house. In conclusion, (1)The houses have three stories. As going up, the spatial hierarchy grows high. (2) People live on the second floor. The main room is square. The column which is touched by divinity is placed in the center of this room. (3) The main room is divided into two spatial sections, which are male space and female space, by this diagonal axes. These principles of spatial composition are similar to Qiang's. (4) The southeastern corner is the most dominant space in the main room. And the northwestern corner is the most subordinate.
In public elementary and junior high schools all over Japan, not only leveling up of school education system, but also various kinds of school-community complex such as open-school for lifelong learning and cooperative activities between school students and community residents, have recently progressed. Therefore, the future school-community complex needs to plan the system for functional combination between school and dwelling society, being over the level of simple co-sharing of the facilities. This paper studies the necessary factors to plan and manage much more active and positive school-community complex. For the purpose, the level of complex with viewpoints of 1) co-sharing space (facility complex) and 2) fusion with various lifelong learning activities in the area was searched and the attainable goal introduced from different conditions in the area where the school is located, was tried to make clear.
Recent lifelong learning needs to be natural activities such as hobby, sport .and acquiring knowledge and technologies in dwelling area. In this sense, roles of the public taken place on community facilities and supporting system of community activities will be much more important in the future. In the present paper, the role of public lifelong learning facilities is made clear through the study on the relationship between the present situations of lifelong learning activities and opportunities provided by community facilities in dwelling area. And planning conditions for supporting and activating the related activities is deduced from the results.
In this report we aim to clarify collective form of housing units expressed by exterior building elements. It is one of the important subjects which decides the compositional characteristics of collective housing, that is how to make the spatial units and how to combine them. First, we classified the building elements which compose the external form, and we found diachronic tendency of elements in examples. Secondly, we defined the compositional units in external form through analyzing the relationships between the building elements and housing units. Then we found typological compositions in collective housing. Through comparing these compositions, we found some characteristic collective form of housing units expressed by building elements. We think these results are structural framework of the exterior composition of collective housing.
This study is mainly considered in the points that follow, through the comparison of findings about questionnaire surveys to residents who have chances of housing improvement and repair work by themselves, so-called do-it-yourself. 1. The percentage of residents who, have each experiences of various kinds of hosing improvement and repair work by themselves. 2. The differences of the percentage by the housing type, the year of completion, and the region of residents, experienced and inexperienced. 3. The cause of which residents give up their motive for housing improvement and repair work by themselves. 4. The suggestion for building system design with housing improvement and repair work by residents.
In this study, the flow of action regarding to disassembly and repairing work(DRff) for preservation of historical buildings was made clear by examples. And the chenges of members that compose buildings were indicated clearly by symbolization of the members. The process for works of DRff was divided into 4 steps, and common .elements of each work were sampled. And matrices of 4 process of works and the elements of each work were made. By symbolization and by these matrices, a framework that is able to examine precise building system for preservation by DRff are shown.
This longitudinal study examined the development of spatial knowledge in a house from the model of a child's own house, using the model house kit. The second experiment was conducted after 2 years in the same way as the first one. The experiment involved 12 primary school children (3-6 grade) who had participated in the former experiment. Compared with the both results, we analyzed their advances from following aspects. 1) Making-procedure analysis showed that the thought process had the tendency to remain unchanged for two years. At a certain stage in development, children got the new observing point and they extended the understanding. 2) Comparing the room-position of the model and the house plan revealed that to understand the room location was rather easy, but to grasp the scale was difficult for children.3) The third stage of spatial cognition, comprehension of the exact location of rooms, was attained at roughly 3 grade.
The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between spatial information and cognitive distance(CD) in an architectural space. The subjects have used the building of experiment for more than 2years, they estimated each walk of the 10 routes in there. Each of those routes(50m-144m) is longer than the standard route(34m). Before estimating the distance, the pictures of both ends and some places from the routes were given on display. Ratio method was used to obtain the CD data. The CD data were converted to logarithm before analyzing, and compared with the real walks. Then, the CD data of approximate walk were paired, and each pair was compared. As a result, the CD in an architectural space depend not only on the amount of the spatial information but also the spatial conditions (width, height, and opening) of the routes.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the effect that shape and position of the space occupied have on perception of room volume and spatial impressions. The various shape and position of the space occupied is presented ran- domly. In experiment 1, The Method of Magnitude Estimation is used; subjects are then compared the volumes of two rooms. In experiment 2, subjects are then asked spatial impressions on 3 topics (i.e. sence of oppressed, feeling of cramped, feeling of comfortable). The results are summarized as below ; 1).Perceived room volume is smaller than an actual room volume. 2).Perception of room volume and spatial impressions has highly correlated with the wall area that covered by the object in the occupied space.
This paper analyzes and verifies the size of working areas around sickbeds based on two simulations of medical/nursing activities and the questionnaires on the size of service clearance around sickbeds. The questionnairing was conducted on 35 medical and nursing staffs in active service. The first experiment was done on a portable X-ray camera while it was shooting patients in different poses on a bed. The second experiment simulated the whole process of medical and nursing operations on three types of patients with advanced diseases. The operations were played realistically by using all real things including medical and nursing staffs in active service. The experiment programs and operations were put in a script in advance and the experiment was performed in accordance with the script. The whole process of the simulation was filmed with video cameras and image data was read into a computer to perform related analyses. Through the experiment, the medical and nursing staffs might have felt that the sizes of their service clearances were too narrow. The questionnairing conducted on them was to check their desires for increments on the sizes of their service clearances around sickbeds in the departments they belong to. The movement loci of the portable X-ray camera during operation were drawn, and based on the envelope lines of the locus areas, the degree of influence on the size of service clearance around sickbeds was checked. The analysis based on the simulation over the whole process of medical/nursing operations on patients explains the size of required service clearance. The analysis was performed by classifying different combinations of operators and equipment at a certain time in an area section (time section) and finding the maximum combination value from the classified results. The result has proved that the floor size of service clearance around sickbeds is 3.6m x 5.1m.
This paper attempts to survey and analyze the public use systems of the street space in six European and U.S. cities, through a study of the control on sidewalk cafes, and to suggest the way of making the most of the street space in Japan in order to enhance the attractiveness of the urban environment. To sum up, the conclusions of the study are the following : 1) European and U.S. cities positively promote the public use of the street space, while they prepare the explicit rules to control multiple use of the street space and prevent confusion. 2) European cities control the use of the street space by the strict ordinance, while U.S. coordinate it more flexibly by the guidelines. And the recent policy in European cities tend to control the cityscape more consciously as well as the physical use of the street space.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the developmental characteristic of small rental shops, and to clarify the function of urban block to incubate young shopkeepers . The results are as follows. 1.The urban block collecting small and cheap rental shops has the function to incubate young shopkeepers setting up business on their account. 2.The small rental shops have the types of the developmental characteristic. They are the type to increase shops in number near at central district, the type to move at central district searching wider shop and more customers, and the type to increase shops in a wide area searching various customers.
The aim of this study is to examine the reality and the way of succession of SHTTENNOU-JI school in SENDAI-HAN. HOZAWA family was the master carpenter in SENDAI-HAN. HOZAWA Masanao was succeeded SHITENNOU-JI school by FUKAYA Harunao that was a pupil of HEINOUCHI Masaharu in the Houreki period (1751-1764). HOZAWA Naoyoshi, next successor, had edited many architectual manual books and had been active as a successor of SHITENNOU-JI school. HOZAWAS established the school family in SENDAI-HAN. This school family was composed of pupils called MON-JIN ( PI A ) that come from variety range of social standings. On the other hand, the pupils called KEIKO-NIN (?§"£" A) had been in SENDAI-HAN. KEIKO-NIN was selected from among young carpenters by SENDAI-HAN. The succession of SHITENNOU-JI school was very strict.
This paper studied the establishment of Tutimikado-karasuma-dono. ・Shirakawa-in planed that in-kinsin-zyury6 build the Imperial Palace except Dairi after Emperor Toba s ascending the throne, and wanted to build the Imperial Palace formed Dairi style after building Ohoi-dono. Finally, he could realize these plans to build from building Tut i m i kado-karasuma-dono. ・The reason that Shirakawa-in built Tutimikado-karasuma-dono as Dairi style was that he wanted to rank Dairi with Tutimikado-karasuma-dono. These were the reasons of building Tutimikado-karasuma-dono. In this way, Shirakawa-in completed the Insei as the style of residence.
This study aims to clarify the state of samurai house and samurai classes residential district in the castle town Ueda at the end of Edo period, by researching historical materials, such as the plans, the regulations, the records, and the like. The results of the research are as follows; 1. Plans were drawn by black and red lines. Black-line means the official space. (That was offered from master to retainer.) And red-line means the part of addition. The extension of house was looked generally, besides it was often carried out at inhabitant's own expense. 2. The nine types of standard plan were fixed up, then those regulations were applied to a retainer's new house. 3. The influence of the regulation plans was confirmed about 70 per cent on the plans. But in almost all plans, the black-line's area was larger than standard's. As the number of regulation plans go up, the difference tend to increase.
This study is intended to elucidate the situation with the early stage of the Osaka Kurayashiki of the Saga Feudal Clan, changes in the premises, the architectural configuration and functions. The specific situation with the Osaka Kurayashiki can be presumed from the Tamatsukuri yashiki built in 1597. This yashiki is confirmed to have existed by November 6, 1600, but its subsequent existence is unknown. In 1605, the existence of the Temma yashiki was found. This yashiki had the feudal lord's residence called "onyakata" and a rice granary. It provided the functions of the upper and lower yashiki. The onyakata in the Genroku era consisted of various spaces for reception of customers, living facilities, services, a public office, and other purposes. As it was extended or rebuilt several times, those spaces were reorganized and improved. At the onyakata in the Kyoho era, the apace for the reception of customers was established and the independence of the space for living facilities was achieved. For this Purpose, "mura (hamlet)" and "akichi (opening)" were laid out to identify the function of each space.
Certain researchers studied on the history of the chateau-neuf of Versailles, the enveloppe by Le Vau. But they haven't any harmony with themselves about the traitement of the Louis XHTs chateau and the first design for the chateau-neuf. It is for the difficulty of three Colbert's documents. For resolve these problems, one must compare the analyses of the documents in the former researchs one of which, measuring the chateau, clarified that one wanted to conserve the Louis XIITs chateau. And some measurements given by Colbert indicate that there was an another precedant plan that one can reconstruct by these.
This paper deals with Gottfried Senper's view of polychrony nainly in his two writings, "PreliMinary Reearks on Polycbroae Architecture and Sculpture in Antiquitf (1834) and "The Four Elesents of Architec lure"(1851), fFOB two aspects of the political and artistic "progran" and the "beauty (artistic expression)". Senper believed that his contemporaries of art and industry could learn something of fundaiental iiportance to all productivity of good quality frou "old teachers", the Greeks. Senper asserted aany tines that white Barbie with its noble grain and crystalline transparency, dressed with "ename coloring", showed those Bost perfect finish treataents in their Greek tenples, that his conteaporaries should endeavor to master.
Italian Medievalism in the 19th century based on the political motivation of the independence of the nation, demanded the liberalization of architectural style. Its theoretical base came from the foreign research of the medieval architecture. P.Servatico and C.Boito interpreted "Stile Lombardo" pointed out by T.Hope as the superiority of the Italian medieval architecture over Europe. But what was in question after Unity of Italy is the legitimacy of Medievalism from the North Italy in all Italian architectural culture. Therefore "Stile Lombardo" had to be legitimatized by the rationality of the structure and the diffusion in every place of Italy.
As for this study, I analyzed relation between the plane form of the shrine architecture and the belief form of it, through "the existing corridor" and "the corridor which is seem on the old drawing". In the way of the study, at first, I classified the plane form of the corridor into five types- □ -shape, □ -shaped transformation, 3 -shape, L-shape, - -shape, and then consider what belief form on the history each type was related with. As a result, We must not jump to conclusion, but it is possible to say the following. 1. As for □ -shape and □ -shaped transformation, they have a great influence on the Buddhist temple, and -. shape has a lot of elements having to do with the first source at "Shintoism" which deals with the nature one for the belief.Then, as for ⊐ -shape, the shrine of both intermingled. 2. It is seemed that of □ -shape and ⊐ -shape and then, generally speaking, the historic process of the change in the corridor at the shrine with is not an order with- -shape.
This paper reviews physiological and psychological results of human obtained through the saltwater pool experiment. Thalasso-theraphie is a traditional measure of health care and has a long history in European countries. Currently in Japan, Thalasso-Therapie is getting more popular as a new facility of the coastal area. However, data on physiological and psychological effects to human has been limited. In order to grasp these effects, experiment using saltwater pool was conducted under several conditions, and characteristics of flotation by use of SD method and physiological effects by heart rate fluctuation analysis were clarilied.
A variety of graduation study subjects of the students in the industrial design course requires useful tools to assist their work, but few systems satisfy them of this matter. Such a system should deal with facility related information with relevant decisive attributes. This paper clarifies the major constituent factors of the database system to be developed through two questionnaires against faculty and undergraduate students on how they utilize these resources in their practical work. Major results of the investigation are confirmation of the necessity of the DBMS system and clarification of the main constituent factors of the database.
The meaning of the article UA8 of the regulation of the "Plan de sauvegarde et de raise en valeur" in Dijon in France explained in the above paper is to be discussed as follows. According to the paper, this article of regulation pertains to the spatial interrelation of detached houses to be constructed on a parcel located inside a block. But this article of regulation pertains to the spatial interrelation of buildings to be constructed on the same parcel without regard to the location of the parcel
Mr.Suzuki insists that the regulation of the article 8 of "Plan de Sauvegarde et de Mise en Valeur" in Dijon in France pertains to the buildings to be constructed on the same parcel without regard to the location of the parcel. However in the safeguarded sector, on a parcel facing street, it is obliged to construct a building in a way that it abuts the buildings on both side in order to restore traditional landscape. Therefore the article 8 is applied only in a parcel located inside a block.