The aim of this research is to gain some basic knowledge which helps planning a sustainable development of suburban new town community by analyzing degree of satisfaction & needs for community facilities. We research in typical suburban new towns in Kansai-area, which are Woody-town & Flower-town in Sanda-city.' We make clear the facts that 1. Degree of satisfaction for community facilities is not so high in both new town compared with some other residential area 2. Especially women tend to have lower degree of satisfaction 3. There is high correlation between degree of satisfaction for community facilities and intension of permanent resident, and so on.
By describing the living conditions of the care-needing elderly before relocating to elderly institutions, this study aims to capture merits and demerits of their pursuing life at home in preparation for studying the environments for the bases in community. It focuses on the physical environments, the people and the services which support the elderly as part of the system forming their life and analyses their behaviors seen in their life before relocation. Through the findings, it also tries to study the key factors which can be considered as requirements for continuing the life elements.
The number of emotionally disturbed children in Japan has been increasing recently; However, only few attempts with an aim at improving children's living space have been made at treatment centers. We conducted some field surveys on the cottage-type residential center to examine the relationship among space, communication, and the effectiveness of therapy. In addition, to clarify conditions of treatment for children with emotional disturbances, the children's daily life with milieu therapy was observed. The main results are as follows. 1. In the milieu therapy, it consisted of two dimensions, "counseling" and "daily life", and they were strongly associated. 2. On their daily life, members were working together to establish appropriate relationships. Then, based on their relationships, the staff conducted counseling using spacious elements in the better settings. 3. It can be said that the characteristics such as floor space, the number of children, and the organization of the space, contributed to a better condition for the milieu therapy.
The sequence of approach spaces to Buddhist temples was studied, from the point of leading peoples to. Attractions of 51 photographs, representing elements (entrance, stone pavement, stone steps, gate, main hall, bridge, bend), taken in 6 temples approach spaces in Nagano prefecture liyama city, were evaluated in 7 stages by 35 peoples. As results, 1:Attractions of entrance, stone pavement, stone steps and bridge were different in go and back. 2:Attractions were changing stronger gradually according to the approaching the main hall. 3:The space attraction between the gate and the main hall was developed by the existence of the gate.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the circumstances in which the residents' postures are changed in a nursing home. The residents' behavior tracking survey and the interviews with the staff were performed for this study. The results are as follows. 1)As the body functional capacity declines, the ratio of staying in a common space decreases. Some with akathisia or with dysphagia were observed bedridden for the whole day. 2)As the body functional capacity declines, the variation and the number of the residents' postures decreases. 3)Among the postures observed of those who are unable to transfer or with akathisia and dysphagia. "sitting on a wheelchair" holds 100% of the data in the common spaces. And some were observed staying seated for quite a long time in one day
It has so far been said that it is difficult to identify the distinction between traditional Buddhist architecture in Laos and Thailand. In this paper, the planning element of the traditional Buddhist architecture in Laos and Thailand is analyzed. The Phoutthasima building of typical traditional Buddhist architecture in Vientiane, Luang Prabang, Xieng Khouang, Ayutthaya and Chiang Mai are investigated. We proved that the difference in the characteristic of traditional Buddhist architecture in Laos and Thailand could be distinguished by some planning elements. Those are scale, plan shape, location of verandah and feature of column etc.
It is hard for the visually handicapped to attain their objects by walking alone. Improving the walking environment is important for them. The behavior to recognize the spaces must be clarified for the improvements. In this study, the experiments ware carried out in nine model laboratories which are five square models and four corridor models, and the behavior of the visually handicapped was analyzed. As a results, the characteristics of the behavior ware clarified in each model laboratory. Especially in square models which had two axis, the behavior was influenced by the length of wall without a break, the degree of restriction in a corner and the complication of factors in spaces.
This study is part of a complex research on current Japanese office environments. Based on qualitative and quantitative data from group interviews and questionnaires, 'free-layout' and seating positions in 'isle-type' layout, as well as levels of workspace enclosures were defined and then cross-tabulated by the following psychophysical environmental characteristics: visual- and acoustical privacy (noise issues) and ease of communication. Layout differences did not have strong effects on privacy and noise issues, but affected intersectional communication. Seating positions affected workers' visual and acoustical privacy, as well as communication. Enclosure levels had the strongest mediating effects on privacy and communication. Communication and visual privacy showed significant positive correlations with different facets of productivities. Noise and lack of privacy were pointed out as most serious issues.
Qianlong Jingcheng Quantu, the oldest map of Beijing in the Qianlong period (1750), pictures the various institutional facilities and Beij ing-courtyard houses called Siheyuan in the Inner City of Beijing. The street block which form the whole plan of Beijing are different district by district though they are considered to follow the strict grid pattern. This paper discusses the relationship between neighborhood units and the distribution of wells, gates and small religious temples. Firstly, we distinguish the order of neighborhood units based on the analysis of a literature written in Japan, and then considers the connection of the street blocks and its related facilities. Our previous paper launched the basic model of street block division. We think our hypothesis becomes more valid. This research discusses transformation process of the Beijing-courtyard residences, with following analysis on courtyard subdivision development. This paper aims to illustrate the historical formation and transformation of physical residential environment of Beijing, and to propose a guide to the historic architectural- and environmental conservation.
Clarifying the process of urban formation and the form of townhouses in Willemstad(Curacao, Netherland Antillen), this paper discusses the influence and modification of Dutch colonial City planning in Caribbean Region. Willemstad is one of the best preserved Dutch colonial cities in Caribbean region. With numerous historical buildings and houses,Willemstad was registered as UNESCO World Heritage site in 1997. The research project this paper is based on was launched under the title 'Field Research on Origin, Transformation,Conversion and Conservation of Urban Space of Colonial Cities' the major target of which are the Dutch colonial cities. To compare the colonial cities of all over the world is ambitious objective of our project. The Dutch is well known as a developer of high-densed settlements with townhouses. One of major focuses of this paper is what and how the Dutch designed the townhouse in Curacao. The paper is composed by historical analysis of the process of establishment and development of Willemstad and considerations on block formation and typology of townhouses. Analyzing the block formation and form of the house plan,the paper suggests the similar type of townhouse in Netherland might have been introduced in the beginning of establishment of the city.
The object of this research is to investigate relationship between the institutional systematization of the architectural reconstruction and the change in townscape, exemplifying Narai Important Preservation District for Groups of Historic Buildings located in Nagano Prefecture as a case study. We compared important changes in the periods before and after specified as the conservation district. And then we confirmed that the systematization brought changes to the historic townscape. Essentially, the value of historic townscape resides in the district itself. The systematization might cause the danger to create "pseudo-historical townscape", and might lose local characters in local historic districts.
This study aims to clarify the mechanism of the appeal in shopping streets by the distinctive characteristics of the boundary design of the shop and the street, for example, the facade of the shop, signboards, overflow, the type of shop, setback distance, frontage width, pedestrian's line of flow, and the traffic form of the street. We performed physical space characteristic analysis and psychological evaluation analysis by the Semantic Differential method in Nishijin Area. The results are as follows: l.The facade is closely related to overflow, the type of shop, the flowline, the traffic form. 2.The space composition of the street is characterized by the facades. 3.In evaluation of the street, psychological evaluation of "prosperity" and "tastes" is not in complete agreement. 4.Various psychological evaluations are affected in the street by many shops with Open-facade.
The preservation of archaeological sites is one of the severe problems in the planning of historical environment with mass excavation of the sites following expansion of urbanized areas in recent years. This study aims to understand the historical context of a region through spatial analysis by constructing the geographical information system(GIS) for integrating geographical and archaeological information and the original analyzing methodology. As a case study, we could identify the characteristic points of the ruin location based on the spatial analysis application created in this system. Through the case study, this system enables us to identify the ancient social territories by the analysis on the visible relation between each of sites with the 3-dimensional geographical data.
In recent years, while Chinese economy has been developing, the old type of project management method is not suitable to Chinese construction industry. The improvement of the project management system is the most important problem for the Chinese construction industry. As many foreign firms execute projects in China, however, the difference in the management system, technological practice, and a lot of problems were caused during the procurement process. Thus the authors will discuss the problems of Chinese construction industry through the comparative study between China and Japan. This paper is a part of the study, including the current situation and problems to enable the understanding of the Chinese construction industry.
There are many studies on construction planning of high-rise work. But, they can't consider various division of building construction areas. And so it is difficult to apply their methods in practical projects, many of which don't have same ground plans. Then, there are few studies on construction planning of work using traditional methods. In this paper, the authors build a model of traditional work, and search the optimization of this schedule planning considering various divisions of areas.
This paper aims to clarify structure and characteristics of consensus building process in reconstruction projects of deteriorated condominium. To describe plural cases in a same frame, the conceptual model of process was produced which consists of four stages (preparation, examination, formalization, execution) and five procedures (organization, introduction of expertise, conception, coordination, confirmation of decision). Applying this model, 33 cases of reconstruction project were examined and activities to build consensus by unit owners were systematized to time series charts. From comparative analysis of these cases, some characteristics were observed: 1) activities concentrate on specific stage and procedure, especially conception in formalization stage; 2) practical agreement of each unit owner is not expressed until whole reconstruction plan is completely fixed; 3) reexamination of plan, selection of expertise, and confirmation of intention are essential point on consensus building process.
Recently, there are the issues how to design Japanese building construction system in order to discharge the accountability that declares rational estimation, professional responsibility and warranty to the stakeholders. This paper will try to analyze the norms for the correlationship of the contracts managing the architectural system in building construction projects. The norms are derived from the stakeholders' relationship under the organizational structure of the architectural system. The norms of the organizational structure for products are classified both relational contracts and complete contracts. Therefore, this paper tries to analyze the norms for the correlationship of the contracts managing the architectural system. Some contracts are classified the relational contracts, and other contracts are classified the complete contracts.
At town places other than a castle town, in the post town, construction of Gangi Arcade was started from the beginning of the 17th century (Ojiya), and it spread through the port town (Sakata, Niigata, and Aomori), the town (Hanawa and Tanabe) of a market, etc. after the beginning of the 18th century. Gangi arcade was built also at town places other than a castle town, because Gangi Arcade was used also as a place of goods dealing in the case of a fixed city in addition to the function as a passage.
This paper became clear following. 1.Like below it can sort the road to Khoyasan 1)By walking to mid Meiji era 2)By the railroad and walking to first Showa era 3)Only the railroad, the cable tramway and the like ever since 2.As for us, it can know the summary of change of path and the visitor by grasping the number of railroad passengers, rickshaw drivers and palanquin bearers. S.Hashimoto, Khoyaguti gathered the visitor from JR Wakayama line being open to traffic, made the passengers decrease similarly phaseless with stretching of the Nankai Khoya line.
This paper examines the formation process of a spa town in modern, at the case study of the Beppu spa, Oita. This spa resort was only a one small-scale colony in Edo period, but grew up to be the greatest one in modern. Furthermore, many large-scale Ryokan enterprised. These were managemented by the men of renown since Edo period or before, and new businessmen of modern. These two types of large-scale Pyokan have the feature also in the location and the construction form of the Ryokan, respectively.
This paper examines the formation process of a spa town in modern, at the case study of the Beppu spa, Oita. This spa resort grew up to be the greatest one in modern. In this paper, consider this remarkable change, with the location of hot springs developments and the location tendency of the hotel (Ryokan) town area. In the Meiji period, most hot springs located in a line on the "Yumyaku". And the main area of this spa town developed on the "Yumyaku". The hotel (Ryokari) town area were formed around the main public baths (Sotoyu) through the Meiji period, but at the Taisho period, the new large hotel town was formed at the seaside area. This movement suggests the change of the character of this spa town.
This paper shows that the history of the Meiji Palace's building project should be interprited as a history of developping a traditional Japanese-style design into a modern Japanese-style design adaptable to the western style ceremonial space that had the higher-raised ceiling and the western-ornamented walling. To show the traditional formality of the Palace, the Kyoto Palace's designs (the coved and coffered ceiling and the hinged shutters) were often quoted in the project. Finally these traditional designs were only applied to the private audience room, and in the other grandiose ceremonial space, these traditional designs were adapted taking care to its western interior.
Osaka University of Commerce, founded by the City of Osaka in 1928, is the unique municipal university in Japan, in the old system of higher education, since the 7^<th> Mayor, Hajime Seki mentioned the university's mission as "a university for the city". Just at the same time, Seki was working on the enactment of the "Osaka Comprehensive Plan", which conceived a park system and land readjustment in southern part of the city, where the campus was going to be located. Seki is one of the most important ideologue for modern city planning in Japan, and he pointed up the importance of "utility green" ("nutzgrunflachen"), quoted from the European practice. This paper analyzes the location of the campus, and clarifies the relationship between the campus planning and the city planning of Osaka by tracing Seki's thought.
This study intends to revaluate the 16th century Netherlands towns map "van Deventer" as the initial material for the formal analysis of the Dutch medival town and its environmental design. It could be pointed out that the map not only holds the precision of the geographical measurement quality regarding the site layout of the water town but also represents the distinctive spatial feature of the artificailly organized environment of the lower part of Netherlands in those days.
The purpose of this study is to analyze the changing process of the theory on architectural color by Le Corbusier from his writings. The following is an analysis of the color theory by Le Corbusier; 1) It was found that the meaning of white had changed from the first term from being the absolute value, to become a relative value in the latter term. 2) He considered the material itself as color in the latter term. 3) The concept that the colors on earth were composed with four basic colors was consistent. In conclusion, we pointed out that such a changing process had a direct relation with his notion of environment.
The purpose of this paper is to clarify the feature of plane composition of the concave form facade motif of J. B. Fischer von Erlach through gradual plane composition analysis. The following aspects were demonstrated through the analysis. 1) Fischer's concave motif consists of two compositions; the composition in which it is extended as the wing' s part of concave form surrounds a pond and an open space, and the composition which shaves off the flat surface of wall with the concave form. 2)In the former, the composition was planned on a large scale as Schloss Schfinbrunn of the 1st proposal(1688) and the castle of Friedrich I' s amusement (Lustschloss)(1704). However it did not realize. 3)In the latter, the composition which puts a rectangle on both sides of main concave type and shifts the both-sides rectangle forward and backward, was attempted in Belvedere Liechtenstein (1687) and the Trinty Church in Salzburg (1694). The composition was repeatedly used in the preparation sketch of "Historical Architecture" (1705), and the cover picture of "Historical Architecture"(1721).
The purpose of this paper is to study by the hierarchical structure method with golden section for architectural elevations by Kenzo Tange. In case of many of his works of Kenzo Tange, people will find golden section on them. He requests his staffs to make models from the early stage of the design, and check the design and proportion quite repeatedly. Model makings are at the beginning in 1:500 scale, next in 1:200 scale, then in 1:50 scale , in 1:10 scale etc.. At each stages the. Frameworks of each scales are decided by him and by his old staffs. Therefore even if observers feel there is no les traces regulateurs or no modulor in the'design process in front of Kenzo Tange, golden section is gradually decided through the feed back process.
The Japan Weekly Mail carried the wells in Yokohama with foreign matter in article published on Februry 1, 1879. Many cases of cholera occurred in 1879. In 11th August 1879, Kanagawa Governor Yasushi Nomura formed the Local Health Board of countermeasure for a cholera epidemic. The Board made a house-to-house sanitation survey of Yokohama into four sections. For the purpose of the survey of lavatories and wells sanitary conditions. The foreign doctor told that the local government should have formed the public health codes, then promulgated the watertight lavatory codes. In 1886, triggered by survey reports, Kanagawa Governor made the rule of house construction and heap up lands codes.
Firstly the paper has no problem in the review of references. Secondly the paper had no similarity with the thesis by Mr. Tanaka, which had the insufficient review of references especially in the chapter two. Lastly the paper is an original research.