This paper describes that an improvement of house for the elderly people to continue to stay their home longer will reduce the burden of them and also of their caretakers physically and mentally. The improvements will bring the elderly residents more independence, self decision, and dignity in their everyday life. Even if the physical abilities of the elderly people have deteriorated, the improvements of house environment will promote the use of remaining other abilities for them to stay their home longer. House environment has an important role for the elderly people to continue to stay their home even after their physical functions have started deteriorating.
This study focuses on temporary housings in Chuetsu area, niigata, where was seriously damaged by 7.13 flood and Chuetsu earthquake in 2004, aiming to manage to survey and support the residential environment of the temporary housing in the same time. With managing open cafe in the temporary housing area and offering the know-how to improve the temporary housing, free interview inquiry is conducted and revealed as below. (1)The extension of temporary housing is influenced by initial figure and neighborhood. (2)The community of temporary housing is exclusive and is needed to open to public.
This paper aims to clarify spatial transformation of Japanese railroad tied residence district in the Andong city (KOREA)., which is the most famous city in Korea by the Confucianism and traditional housing. About 100 semi-detached houses had been built as railroad tied residences in the vicinity of railroad station. Japanese style railroad tied residence was introduced and modified by Korean occupants after Independent. In this paper, we discuss spatial pattern of Andong railroad tied residence and the transformation process of living space. Andong railroad tied residence area still maintains the original formation and appearance although over 60 years have passed since its foundation. However, transformation is going on began since railroad tied residence was handed to the new inhabitants from 1948 to 1970. As for exterior space, we found out 'GOSAT', which is semi private and semi public space for inhabitants in this district. And we found out 'HENGRANG' for residing element. It is also pointed out that 'Living room' and MADANG are created in the Railroad Tied Residences. The appearance of 'MADANG' and 'Living room' are caused by position change of entrance. In particular, transformations are seen at the position of toilet, kitchen and living room.
This paper aims to ask the future childcare institution plan. First of all, I want to try mapping of change of the childcare institution carried out in present progressive. Next, the significance of life-based childcare and life-space-izing (separation of meal-nap room) as Merkmal of improvement in the quality of the childcare in the approval nursery which is a main stream by the present is arranged. And last, the actual condition and consciousness of head of each nursery about life-based childcare and separation of meal-nap room in the approval nursery in Tokyo and the local city (Okayama-city and Fukuyama-city) is clarified by the questionnaire.
This study analyzed the behavior of the residents in the group living for the aged with dementia that include the general action and the individual action. According to the analysis, the elderly's dementia grades were low, and ADL grade were higher, they tended to spend the day time by doing the individual actions. The second appearance behavior was found that depended on specific character of the person. Next, the authors analyzed the correlation between behavior of resident and visible surroundings. According to the analysis, the action was more correlative with the visible surroundings than the conversation. Especially, the action was tightly correlative with visible surroundings, and the conversation was tightly correlative with the conversation's pattern and the visible space. Comparing with the 3 type of group livings, A's group living had a strong correlation between the behavior of the tenants and visible surroundings, and well balanced of each category of visible surroundings. A's group living feature was a good example to care of the dementia and improve the aged with dementia's dwelling environment quality.
This study analyzed the formative process of placement and spatial composition of sanatorium for Hansen's disease. The results are as follows: 1) The first public sanatoriums, which were planned with a homey atmosphere and religion to give consolation to the residents, were established in 1909 to place wandering patients of the disease. But, because of the increased roughness among the residents after one year, cells were added to the constitution for severe punishment and cultivation of morality. 2) The sanatoriums were walled in to prevent expansion of diseases and escape of residents. 3) With the increase of residents, self-governing associations were established to keep the order in the sanatoriums. To increase the capacity, dormitories were posted linearly and office annexes were built as contact points. 4) As the consolation with a homey atmospher and religion resulted in failure, various facilities for recreation and entertainment were built vigorously.
This paper focuses on the terminal care environment in the facilities with small care unit bearing in mind of the way of providing care, behavior of the residents as well as their families. The interviews in ten facilities, simulation studies and the twenty case surveys on the terminal stage are carried out and the conclusions are the followings. 1) Individual care environment must be provided for the terminal care in long-term care facilities. The appropriate balance between the number of staff and the number of residents per unit should be carefully planned to provide individual care. 2) The residents tend to stay in the living space of the care unit even in the terminal stage. Therefore the space connection between unit living and private rooms is still important in the terminal stage. 3) Private rooms encourage families to be involved in the terminal care with the home-like environment.
The paper aims at clarifying how new concept of "Personal Nursing Base (PNB)"influences nursing activities in acute hospital wards in Japan. The PNB is defined as nursing base closely located to patients' beds either in the form of fixed setting or on wheels, stemming from dissemination of computerized medical and patients' record system in a hospital. The followings are the results of the surveys carried out in four hospital wards; 1) The length of direct nursing time is around 50% of total nursing duties and it has not become longer by computerization. 2) The current PC on a wheel system does not work efficiently at this moment. 3) Nurses stay longer in close to patients in PNB wards despite of the fact that direct patient care time does not increase. 4) Walking distance of nurses becomes shorter in wards which have fixed setting type of PNB.
In this paper the characteristics of the relationship between exterior spatial composition and the facade design in contemporary Japanese commercial buildings are typologically clarified. Firstly their facade design patterns by their opening and material features with volume articulation are analyzed. Secondly their exterior spatial compositions by volumes accompanied with articulated outside are analyzed. Thirdly the relationship between the facade design pattern and the exterior spatial composition is analyzed, and several typological features, characterized as 'surface expression by screen-like material', 'exposing interior space through the glass wall', 'street-like open space through the window facade', 'layers of glass volume and wall volume', 'shape expression with various materials' are found. In the conclusion, it is pointed out that the compositional form of the contemporary Japanese commercial buildings can be defined by the interactive articulation of exterior volumes with the difference of patterns on the facade.
The escape of wheelchair users and other large-sized persons from buildings at fire has not been considered enough. In this study, we made two experiments to grasp the characteristics of crowd escape flow including wheelchair and other large-sized persons. Then we intended to grasp the relative decreasing ratio of a flow coefficient to the able-bodied people. Through these experiments, we recognized as follows: 1.We could grasp the relative decreasing ratio of group including non-ablebodied people. The larger person's size is indicated more ratio. 2.We proposed a calculating formula using ergonomic factors; personal occupation area, speed and wheelchair users ratio.
Conversation spaces of sign language signers were analysed according to the four following aspects: 1. Analysis of signers conversation' outset. Two conditions for starting a conversation between two signers have been found, that is to say, eye contact or being in a range of possibilities in which signers can touch each other. 2. Anlysis of the distance and angle between two standing signers. The most suitable distance for conversation is about 200cm, and the most suitable postion is facing each other. 3. Analysis of the distance and angle between two sitting signers on a table. When signers are adjacent to each other, the conversation becomes difficult, and they tend to incline their backs. 4. Readability is greatly controlled by eyesight and eye agreement.
The aim of this paper is to clarify characteristics of station squares in the center district of Tokyo in terms of spatial compositions with surrounding environments. Initially, the configulations of station squares are analyzed including opening part such as arterial road or railroad track. Secondly, the building volumes which face the square are analyzed in terms of the comparative scale of the station building, and thirdly, configurations of distant buildings are analyzed. Finally 4 directions and 7 fundamental models are clarified through the above-mentioned characteristics, which represent one aspect of the urban agglomeration of the contemporary Japanese city.
The purpose of the research is definition about the view which is traditional with the grasping of the change of the land use in Ogimachi being based. As the way, it connected more than one sheet of character figures of the middle of Meiji and then it grasped land use in the Meiji period in Ogi-machi while consulting amount of literature and it grasped a traditional view. That it was possible to grasp is as the following. Because of the severe climate, spatial order was concluded by the unique water system in Ogi-machi as the rational life can be led. A method of the analysis which became in the clarifying in this paper can be utilized for the efforts that is decided a scene management plan of the rural farm village landscape in the future.
Recently a resort town keeps declining from the variety and tourist's sense of values. And it increased vacant shops and vacant accommodations. The purpose of this study is to clarify the function and result for Community Spot and effective management technique of Community Spot in a resort town through the experiment of Community Spot management. Firstry, we understood influence that Community Spot exerted from advanced example. Secondly, we managed Community Spot in Yubara hot-spring street and inspected administration method. And finally, we clarified effective management technique of Community Spot in a resort town.
This study aims to clarify actual conditions of growth process and problems of the decline of suburban roadside retail areas from case studies for 3 old roadsides in Nagano Prefecture. Research areas have been formed from around the middle of 1970s and 67% of forming stores in areas have been renewed 1 or 2 times. In old roadsides under decline tendency large retail stores had been left to new retail areas because lands with better conditions, which are large lots of rectangular type in grid pattern of roads, have been developed newly. As the problems of old roadsides there are 1) increase of dosed stores, 2) corruptibility of public morals by changing from commercial stores to another uses, 3) increase of white signboards of dosed stores, and 4) corruption of town scape by worse rebuilding of individual stores.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the relation between the urban space form and the dwelling territory in DAYUAN HOUSE area of FUJIADIAN. It is found that the urban space form have a great influence upon the dwelling territory. It is also found there are two kinds of dwelling territory: Physical Dwelling territory and Living Dwelling territory.
How much will disaster supplies be available, useful, and helpful to refugees just after a disastrous event? This paper examines distribution of storages for the disaster supplies in Kawasaki City, and the total amount of six necessities of refuge life (blankets, alpha rice, hard tacks, toilet paper, milk powder, and temporary toilets) with regards to regional population to clarify the basic question. Secondly, it estimates the amount of shortage of each material to satisfy the regional requirements around the designated municipal open spaces. Finally, it proposes optimal distribution of the storages so that it shortens the average of distance between the open spaces and the storages.
Urbanization has declined the local community, which has organized mutual relationship in suburban areas. But in those areas, indigenous identity of the local community, such as festival, has incubated the foundation for regional management. Now in Chichibu, Chichibu night festival has a position of regional identity and it seems to have affected regional management. This study aims to clarify the influences of regional identity for local community. And I clarified four influences festival has affected regional management, 1)Participation of outsider 2)Assembling and raising of younger 3)Incubation of relationship in areas festival is managed in 4)Possibility of transfer's participation. These influences have possibility that they would lead area to good circumstance regional management goes on in by mutual relationship. In future, we should remind these influences of festival and carry on regional management with festival.
This study aims to set up a simulation model of rescue activity for the weak in disaster during post-earthquake, and to clarify basic knowledge of efficient rescue activity with case studies of application of local disaster mitigation. Firstly, detailed fire risk of research area is shown. Secondly, questionnaire survey is carried out toward voluntary welfare worker, local disaster management organization, and citizen. Thirdly Multi-Agent model is organized by using the results of questionnaire. Case studies showed that it is necessary not only to increase the number of rescue members, but also to give them information of the weak people, to decide assignation of rescue and to consider the fire risk, in order to improve the rescue activity. It is also shown that voluntary activity of citizen is as successful as other cases.
This study aims at understanding the effect of land use zoning regulation on surface radiative temperature. Actually, we overlaid thermal image observed from sky (helicopter) with land use regulation zoning data (GIS vector data), and made radiative temperature histogram for each land use regulation zone. Major findings in this study are as follows. 1) In the area that designated as "Industrial Zone", radiative temperature is higher than any other area for all day. 2) In the area that designated as "Business Zone" and "Commercial Zone, radiative temperature is higher than "Residential Zone" in the night, because of much paved surface.
Starting with the Japanese pop culture, the number of people who are interested in Japan has been increasing. The charm of the cities in Japan should not lie in only the famous sightseeing spots but also the urban lifestyles, such as those in fashion districts. This research shows that from Taiwanese women's viewpoints, the living scenary in the fashion districts in Tokyo have much influence on travelers' images to and sightseeing activities in those districts. It also proposes that by clarifying the realities of those districts, from which such lifestyles are created, from now on the fashion districts should keep the quality and safety of the residential areas, and create their own unique characters with a flavor of urban living.
This research studied Chinese city development projects operation process, protection system towards Changsha historical environment as well as the present re-development projects situation in these historical locations. We found out that there is City Development Approval System in China, and in the operation process of development projects, there are three main stages which are project planning stage, eviction and transfer stage, and construction stage. After 1990s, due to the pluralism of development subjects and reformation of Land Development System, to those projects whose main developing forces being private developer, its operation process stages have been developed from the existed three stages to detailed five stages: project planning stage, land acquisition stage, eviction and transfer stage, construction stage and administration stage. Before 2000, policies and regulations related to historical environment protection in Changsha only existed in a big range on State and Provincial level. Since 2000, focus has been put into protection planning on Municipal level, thus, policies and regulations are more detailed in protection requirement, elements and methods etc according to specific area. Meanwhile, because problems like compensation aroused, supporting system from aspects of law and technique should. be perfected, and it is necessary that local government set up united planning and administration system to city re-development projects.
In the Japanese construction sector where the bidding system has been recently reformed, the data of the tender results in areas of public construction works and/or consultancy services are now being made open, enabling objective analysis of such data from various viewpoints. In this research, such open data of a nation-wide coverage in the last two years or so has been collected comprehensively for academic analysis by some statistical methods. Also, public investments are seen to be decreasing sharply and the jurisdictional control to bid-rigging practices is being strengthened. The analysis of these data clarifies the tendency that severe competition among the bidders taking place and bidders resorting to price-dumping practices, which is becoming remarkable among the concerned part of the industry. The authors objectively describe the competitive situation in tenders and the characteristics of related corporate behaviors, as observed through this data analysis.
For many years the construction industry in China, combined with the poor project management skills of the enterprises, resulted in low-quality work and the late completion of projects. Although great efforts have been achieved, such as maintenance of law, applying total quality management (TQC) and ISO9000s, a number of quality management problems still remain unsolved. In this paper the authors made a survey of several construction projects; aim at analyzing the typical procurement of Chinese construction project, and make clear the responsibility allotment relation of the client, the architect, the supervisor, the construction manager, the general contractor and the sub-contractors.
In Japan, the size of the dwelling unit still varies between regions. This study tries to analyze the variance of dwelling unit size from the view of satisfaction rating between regions, using Housing Demand Survey. After dividing 47 prefectures into nine areas mainly through unit size, comparative studies were made. The occupant satisfaction rating to unit size is higher in the South Sea Area, which is inexplicable from differences of dwelling density. Through multivariate analysis of ten satisfaction rating elements, these elements were divided into two groups; unit size and housing performance. While rating to both two groups tends to be high in South Sea Area, rating to size is high in Big City Area, and rating to performance low in Heavy Snow Area for owner-occupied dwellings. In Heavy Snow Area, dwellings tend to be inherited among generations. In South Sea Area, dwellings are rather non-inherited, so that the satisfaction rating tends to be higher, thus expansion of floor spaces seems to be controlled under mild climates.
Movement distance of folk house at removing and reconstruction is 8.6km in the whole country. It is 5.3km when it excludes marine transportation. The average of years from a building of folk houses to removing and reconstruction is 79. The mutual relations of "Times", "reason", "distance", "period" in folk house removing and reconstruction, are as follows. As for "reason", a change by "times" is big, as for "distance" is accepted by some "reason". As a result, some relations were seen in "times" and "distance". However, the strong correlation was not accepted between other factors for "period".
The goal of this research is to explain the personnel structure of architects who were involved in constructions of modern temples. This research examines the specialties and the employment system of the architects engaged in the reconstruction of Hasedera Honbou in 1925. (Honbou functions as the main office and lecture hall in a set of temple buildings.) The research shows that Nara Prefecture officially hired conservation architects specializing in restoration of ancient shrines and temples in the reconstruction process.
This study tries to reveal certain characteristics of the collections and the trade catalogues of ornaments as well as their interactions in the first half of the nineteenth century in France. Analysis of their differences shows that the collections are intended to be instructive materials for artists while the trade catalogues show the commercial features for their clients. The comparison of the styles of ornaments between the two publications reveals the indifference of the manufacturers with regard to the historical roots of styles. We will finally see that the ideas for the reform of the industrial art shown in the collections are partially embodied in the trade catalogues.
An artist Thomas Daniell converted the garden at Sezincote into that of Indian style on the authority of "The Oriental Scenery" in which many Indian landscape paintings were drawn in the style of Claud. There was a garden (named the "Indian garden") which was attached to the House in the style of Mughal. In front of the House, there was the pastoral scenery. And in the valley, there was a water garden (named the "thorny") which was the holy precinct for Hindu gods. Further, in the "thorny", some forms of Indian Architecture were simplified. They was the ideal scenery which was famed for classical literature and had drawn by Claude.
This study deals with the architectural method of Josep Maria Jujol, one of the most important architect in Catalonia, at the begining of the 20th-century, by the analysis of the changing of the architectural thought of the 20th century in Catalonia. With this purpose, this paper consists of two parts chiefly; the first part is exhausive collection of Jujol's discourses, the second part is rearranging of chronological order of all the articles dealing with Jujol mainly that written after his death. The intention of this paper is, therefore, to expound Jujol's architectural thought both inside and outside and to provide the begining of the serial study of Jujol.
This paper deals with modern architectural movement through works of architect Juan O'Gorman (1905-1982) and aims to reveal the present significance of concerns and architectural responses that mark his career. The crossing boundaries between political and aesthetic fragments make him one of the most complex figures in the history of Modern architecture in post-Revolutionary Mexico. One of those reasons is that he was the self-critical student of the Academy which looks at the historical changes to architectural totality. In the 1930s, O'Gorman viewed architecture as a functional response to human needs. If his works are compared with Juan Legarreta's works, who was his colleague, his own vacillation represents an immense struggle to produce a variety of relationship of Mexican social frameworks. This prescription proved to apply in the context of Mexico's that was haunted by temporal situation and the agenda of the affirmation posited of modern architectural movement.
The purpose of this research paper is to discuss the characteristics of the aspects of Giacomo Della Porta's fountains (1572-1583). However, by analyzing the results of the aspects of fountains of other 16th Century artisans as recorded in payments to them, this research has made clear the features of Della Porta's own fountain, complete with its basin, stairway, and baluster.
This paper is to make it clear the development of Road and Land of the English Settlement of Shanghai in Modern ages. So that We paid attention on the village's constituent as Foot path and creek which existed in Shanghai before it developed as Foreign Settlement, and the roles they played in City Development during 1845-66. On development of road, we found Foot Paths and Creeks on the「Map of Shanghai of 1849」, but until 1866, all of those were built as roads, and the net of those were absorbed as the grid-shaped street of English Settlement. And we found the way of the formation of the grid-shaped street of shanghai. About Land Development, Before Streets built, Foreign Merchants rent lands which located along the Foot Paths or creeks. And because of Sprawl land development, The English Committee built the official streets after the land development by Foreign developers. From the fact of road and land development, English Settlement was thought developed based on the old Shanghai's village constituent.
Sudeok-sa's main hall is one of the few specimens of Koryo Dynasty wooden architecture preserved in Korea, and was repaired by Japanese conservation architects from 1937 to 1940. The feature of this repair work was proved as follows: (1) This hall was recognized its high value as a historical building, so architectural historical research accompanied a complete dismantling. (2) The Japanese conservation architects used traditional materials and techniques in Korea. (3) The building was aimed to be back to its original state. In general, the case of Sudeok-sa referred to the ideas and guidelines of Japanese conservation works.
In this paper, authors defined the establishment of architectural education through activities of the editor committee on text books in A.I.J. and activities refining middle level education in the Ministry of Education. The 1920's was year of turning from classical craft to engineering, as the appearance of reinforced concrete. Results from the research are as followers: There were some changes, one the necessities of re-organizing the curriculum t to refine the general education, the other teacher's quality shifted from bachelors to them qualified by examinations. The change of architectural education intended by the committee was the transformation from craft to engineering referring to the upper level school. And the contents of text books were authorized by the academic body, A.I.J., not made by personal concept.