This paper studied on the planning process of room layout, housing needs and the supply condition of the Showa Forties and Fifties concrete-block houses which were constructed by the Hokkaido Housing Supply Public Corporation. All of the houses can be classified into the following two types according to the living room layout. Type 1: Living room oriented south/ north. Its advantage is independent utility space. Type 2: Living room oriented east/ west. Its advantages are the ample sunshine conditions, independent kitchen, and extensive access to traffic lines. The combination of the advantages of two types can be seen in the larger houses in later years.
By using decision tree analysis (CART), we assessed the situations that increase uneasy feeling of elderly people toward visitors in suburban housing estates. Results show that uneasy feeling increases when: 1. Visitors are seen through the interphone as opposed to face-to-face interaction, 2. Visitors stand more than 90cm from the interphone 3. No vehicle or vehicles other than business-related are seen through the interphone, 4. Visitors keep their hats or helmets on, 5. Door-to-door salesmen, religious groups and, to a lesser extent, unclassified visitors approach the building, and 6. Visitors are in their 30s, 40s, and more than 70.
The aim of this paper is to clarify the housing type of Silver-peer and the installation situation of the community room. In addition, The state of the use of the community room was analyzed. We executed, and analyzed three investigations. The result of the analysis is as follows. (1)As for Silver-peer, there are a lot of housings of the compound. (2)There were a lot of inside layers of the height of the building (the 3-5th floor), and were be arranged by 3-4 layers a lot of peer units. (3)A lot of the community rooms are arranged with Warden unit by the first floor. (4) The use of the community room is not so related to the space scale and the arrangement floor. The use of the community room is related to management and the project of Wardens and Life support advisers. (5)For the person who doesn't live in Silver-peer, there are a lot of people who want to make use of the community room. Actually, they are using the community room.
The purpose of this study is to show that the method of zoning an open shelf floor with a popular library area is more reasonable and effective at public libraries. According to this method an open shelf floor is divided into two zones at public libraries. One is an “active zone” which consists of a popular library area with a children's book area, a newspaper and magazines' area and an AV materials' area. The other is a “quiet zone” which consists of other adults' book area with a reference area. In this paper, the results are as follows: There are two ways to arrange adults' books in public libraries in Japan. One is to arrange adults' books in NDC numerical order is to arrange some books selected from adults' books arranged in the order. Especially, in the latter, many libraries select and arrange only books of <59 Domestic arts and sciences> in NDC, but, recently some of public libraries select and arrange books according to themes of our daily life and form a zone with either a magazine's area or a children's book area, or both of them. This fact shows that users have demands for increasing popular library books and for providing an active zone. Some themes of collections in a popular library were grouped by researching how to be arranging the practical books at bookstores. They consist of a daily life, a social life, hobbies and amusements, and so on.
This paper's aim is to grasp implications to situate play areas in nursery school and day nursery. After observational investigation on basic distribution of children thorough a day, the following points emerged: 1) Class activities are distributed in the open area mainly in the middle of the room; 2) Long term daily life routines tended to subjugate the short term ones as a distribution tendency; 3) Each age group showed different tendency in the distribution of free activities. As focusing on how children's activities expanded, the size changing behaviors were categorized with the changeability of area size and group size.
In this paper, the current state of facilities where the kindergarten and the child care place have been managed by the questionnaire survey in a nationwide scale as one body is understood. The management situation selected fi ve different facilities based on the result of this analysis in addition, the spot observation investigation was done, and an actual management situation of Integrated Facilities within Functions of Nursery School and Day Nursery was shown. It was able to be pointed out above that the feature of the problem and the all-in-one design facilities because of the united management of the kindergarten and the child care place was the one by "Child for a short time and the child's for a long time coexistence" and "Child for a short term and the child's for a long term coexistence" from two investigation results. Then, Chapter 3 and Chapter 4 paid attention to kindergartener's difference at the facilities stay time and length-of-stay, clarifi ed the development of the activity scene by the change of the number of kindergarteners during a day, and considered kindergartener's acaptive process.
This paper studies the effects of space composition at privatehouse-turned group homes on residents' aspects of living in context of the actual daily lives thereat, comparing residents' staying places at group homes with different space composition in respect with the relation between private rooms and common space, and between different types of multiple common spaces. We found the relation between the space composition and residents' aspects of living as follows. In group homes with “integrated” space composition where there is a series of, or integrated common space offered as a main staying place for residents in the daytime, the staff is easy to watch all residents and the sense of unity as a group is nurtured among residents, while the grouping of residents and the sense of privacy is not easy to achieve. In the case of “segmented” or “divided” space composition where multiple common spaces are used, residents can enjoy the greater variation of life and more secured individual lifestyles compared to the “integrated” space composition as the residents have some freedom of choice of staying places.
This studies the effects and Issues of “Cooking in a Unit Kitchen” in Special Nursing Homes for the Aged from the Study of 14 hours examination and analysis in Living Rooms and Behavior Tracking of cooking staffs. We could get following conclusions. 1. Living Room environment in Special Nursing Homes is really important for the Aged from the data of 1) residents mean sojourn time in a Living Room was more than 7 hours and 2) mean mealtime was about 2 and half hours in 14 hours a day. 2. Watch over the Aged and communicate with the Aged would be prospected when cooking staffs work in a unit kitchen, because 2 cooking staffs were working more than 10 hours a day in front of the Aged. 3. Due to “Cooking in a Unit Kitchen”, cooking sounds created a good family environment in a Special Nursing Home for the Aged.
The purpose of this study is to investigate the spatial cognition when people walking in urban environment though the spatial cognition experiment. The experimental result indicates that the visual changes used as cognitive criteria show variety and the cognitive results are different accordingly. There is also possible that people mistake the layout of objects during the cognition, when they ignore the relative visual changes between the target object and the occluding one. Furthermore, the visual information about the side of the buildings was proved to be effective when people judged their physical movement direction in the experiment.
The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of the form and width of the passage through an experiment to evaluate the impression. In the experiment, a pedestrian passed oncoming stranger on the simulated passage that changed the form and width by us. They evaluated the impression of the space on the questionnaire. Moreover, we placed a digital video camera to watch the avoidance behavior of them. The results found in the experiment were summarized as follows; a) the width of passage becomes wide, so that the avoidance distance becomes long and the evaluation of the space becomes well. b) when the width of passage expands more than 2100mm, the sense of relief that the pedestrian feels is not improved easily. c) if the width of passage is the same, the pedestrian prefer balcony access type to inside passage type.
The aim of this paper is to clarify characteristics of intersections in the center district of Tokyo in terms of spatial compositions with surroundings. Initially, the configurations of intersections are analyzed through the street patterns, nearby infrastructures such as rivers or elevated traffics, and its topography. Secondly, the building volumes are analyzed as a combination of building rows with features of the corner lots. Finally, 9 spatial types are clarified based on 3 characteristics: axis by street patterns and nearby infrastructures, centrality by buildings at the corner lots, and boundary by arrangement of buildings.
This study aims at analyzing user's evaluation for sickroom by using structural equation modeling with the questionnaire survey data. The field questionnaire survey was conducted on 323 patients and 430 nurses, and 3 factors as "Amenity", "Function", "Physical environment" were extracted by factor analysis of responses to the questionnaire. As a result of having been common to a patient and nurse. Measures to enhance the satisfaction in the sickroom were also examined. The structural equation model of factor affecting satisfaction was created from 3 extracted factors, and a covariance structural analysis yielded the following results, "Medical treatment environment" was influenced by "Amenity" and "Function". "Nursing environment" was influenced by "Function" and "Physical environment".
The purpose of this study is to clarify how spatial impressions change through vertical travel by stairs and its relation between spatial compositions. Photographs of impressive scenes taken by subjects during vertical travels were mapped on architectural drawings. Distributions of impressive scenes were analyzed together with elements that subjects indicated as impressive. Results showed that impressions of spatial experience were related difference in floor levels rather that the stairs themselves.
The purpose of this study is to analyze spatial order of the dwelling houses of Newar people in Kathmandu valley in Nepal and the change. This paper compares the result of the fieldwork in Kirtipur with the result of obtaining in the Khohana cillage and the Bungmati village. The spatial composition that has been traditionally succeeded to the dwelling houses of Newar people is being almost kept now. Moreover, people's behavior in the dwelling houses has not changed basically. People's behavior based on the conception of pure and impure in a religious act have changed.
This paper verified sphere nature observed in community activities of citizens' activity group. It also explored the effect on community activities by municipal merger. Main results are as follows: 1. From the relationship between motive of establishment, opportunity of establishment, setting reason for the ranges of activities, and ranges of activities it was possible to grasp sphere nature by each aspect. 2. By difference of the basic attribution, specific motive of establishment, scope of ranges of activities, the effect of municipal merger tends to be different. 3. Also, it was possible to explore sphere constituted by the development from the inside of region.
This paper examines the distribution of planting composition patterns in and around residence in Kanto region of the Meiji period based on the analysis of copperplate engravings. Eight patterns such as “background trees”, “big tree with small shrine”, “hedge”, “square-shaped tree”, “planted space for viewing”, “cultivated space”, “planting trellis”, and “sago palm” are identified in the engravings repeatedly. Furthermore the distribution of the patterns suggests that northern or southern planting systems are adopted according to the area in Kanto region and the both systems are mixed in the middle of the region.
The reconstruction of local communities by using ICTs (Information and Communication Technologies) has been key issues in the field of local governance. The purpose of this research is to examine the causal effect of local online communities on participation in local activities and the cause of increasing local online communities reading and writing frequencies. The result showed that local online communities writing frequency directly increased the participation in local activities and reading frequency increased it by mediating interest for local communities. In addition, the result indicated that the interaction with local communities' residents was effective for using local online communities.
It became possible that an individual outdoor advertisement policy was developed in municipality which became a landscape administrative organization by the enactment of the Landscape Act and the revision of the Outdoor Advertisement Act in 2004. This research aims at clearing the actual state of outdoor advertisement administration by 35 municipalities of landscape administrative organization like this. 10 municipalities have already enacted outdoor advertisement ordinance. It is certain that municipalities will have outdoor advertisement ordinance in the future increase. Each municipality which have outdoor advertisement ordinance establish the zone classification concerned and standard with the regulation of outdoor advertisement individually. These aim at the careful policy fitted to the actual condition of the area. Meaning and effect can be admitted as the enactment of the Landscape Act and the revision of the Outdoor Advertisement Act.
In order to assess the health level of an urban ecosystem, this paper has brought forth a set of relatively integrated assessment indices from three typical respects of urban ecosystem - structural function, ability of sustainable utilization, and dynamic change, and then endowed weight to these indices by entropy weight method to establish an assessment model of fuzzy mathematics. Firstly, the situation of urban ecosystem health in Chongqing as a study case was comparatively assessed with those of other three cities-Beijing, Tianjin and Shanghai. Assessment results indicated that the four cities were situated at sub-healthy state; the integrated level of urban ecosystem health decreased in the following sequence: Shanghai, Beijing, Tianjin, Chongqing. Secondly, yearly dynamic change assessment of ecosystem health of Chongqing from 2001 to 2004 was also carried out. Results showed that condition of urban ecosystem health was developing from sub-healthy state to healthy state. Finally, the paper investigated the present conditions of ecosystem health levels of nine districts in Chongqing Metropolis and listed a decreasing sequence of the integrated level of ecosystem health as follows: Yubei, Nan'an, Yuzhong, Banan, Jiulongpo, Jiangbei, Shapingba, Dadukou, Beibei.
The purpose of this study is to verify whether locating community facilities intensively is really effective or not. Many planned residential areas have neighborhood centers where community facilities are located intensively so that the total travel distance of users is minimized. However, there is a doubt whether such centers can satisfy the facility location that accords with use frequencies of each user. To answer this question, this study developed a computer simulation system that forms two and three dimensional urban space with the most suitable location of facilities and houses that accords with use frequencies of each user.
The aim of this work is to provide data for improving the planning of office buildings maintenance. We got the maintenance record of a large-scale office building that lasts about 11 years since building completion. The record includes the data of 10,937 faults or defects. Using this record data..the features of the occurrence and the term to repair of faults or defects are grasped. The record data include the information about the outsourcing of repair work. This paper also presents the results of the analysis concerning to the outsourcing ratio that will relate to the planning of number of maintenance staffs.
Employment of people with disabilities is a social duty by the business proprietor, or its duty may be removed by making payments to cover the levies. This study demonstrates that if the proprietor attempts to satisfy the statutory employment quota by permanent wheelchair users that requires level 4 improvement, net present value (NPV) of facility improvement investment depends on personnel allocation patterns (concentrated or dispersed). Hence, the performance of barrier-free and universal design depends upon a personnel allocation that may turn into a barrier to the employment of people with disabilities.
In order to utilize the existing facilities continuously, it is necessary to be strongly aware of the concept on cost performance which is a balance between the demand for facility usage and facility maintenance cost. Therefore, this paper pays close attention to the usage rate and facilities/rental rooms maintenance cost. By using the PPM analysis method and plotting the solutions of facility utilization level and administration features on 4 quadrant matrix, the portfolio of entire survey target is grasped and an attempt to propose a strategic decision making plan is made accordingly. As a result, the quantification of actual condition of administration in public facilities became possible.
The investigation about Segawa residence by 14Cdating suggests that this house had constructed in the beginning of 18th century. Still more, another investigation about historical materials suggests that this house was town house with wood roofing, so it had changed to farmer's house in 19th century . This paper aims to points out that the point of view about transformation and 14Cdating are useful about study of town house in suburb of Kyoto through Edo period.
As for the relation between the rafter placement and the bracket complex, Rokushigake architecture, which is the combination of the outer surface of each block and the outer surface of the two rafters, is well known. However, there are quite a few non-Rokushigake Japanese shrines and temples designated as national treasure or important cultural properties. This paper will analyze the dimensional relation between the rafter placement and 3-on-1 bracket complex among the non-Rokushigake architecture. Consequently, it became clear that the outer surface of three-block bracket arms or its center are matched systematically with the inner surface of the rafter above and its center or the outer surface from the six-rafters placement to three-rafters placement.
The principal tower of Nagoya Castle was repaired on a large scale from 1752 to 1755. We collected as many of the drawings and specifications of this repair as possible. This paper makes it clear whether those historicalmaterials are original or copies of later period and how those copies weremade. As the first step in our analysis, based on the most important drawings and specifications, we explain how the workers in the domain of Owari surveyed the damage to the principal tower in the constructionwork and the careful repair plans they made.
The architectural differences between Northern and Middle-Southern Vietnam are based on the method for the roof pitch planning. The Northern method is based on the horizon, vertical line and the dimensional unit, the roof line is designed by the horizontal dimension and the height. The Middle-Southern method is not based on the horizon, vertical lines, the plan designed by concrete dimensions, and the roof line fixes one hypotenuse unit as 2 height units. The points are namely the difference of the main design tools, the square tool and the equilateral triangle tool, those can be considered as a gap of the traditional architectural technique and culture between two regions.
The Doric Temple of Messene at ancient Messene, Peloponnesos, was located in the southwest part of the Agora. It was excavated by the Society of Messenian Archaeological Studies from to 2003 until 2006. The authors participated in its field research and measured the site and blocks to make the drawings. The temple has been all ruined with remains of staircase of several steps on the west front and decades of architectural blocks. This short paper is to analyze the temple plan on its peristyle or its exterior colonnades based on the detailed study of the shape and dimensions of the block. Consequently, the present study brought the result that the temple had six columns in fronts and twelve on the sides. The lower column diameter was 0.808 m and the intercolumniation was 1.922 m. The staircase on the west did not belong to the main body of the temple but formed a somewhat Roman-type podium with nine steps, although it was basically used for the citizens to rise up to the temple easily. The architectural style of Doric temple had been already perfected in the Classical period. Thus, this temple is architecturally interesting from the viewpoint of transitional style of Doric order.
This study deals with the architectural method of Josep Maria Jujol, one of the most important architect in Catalonia, at the beginning of the 20th-century. With this purpose, this paper treats his original drawings in all periods of his life in order to investigate the essence of his creative attitude and architectural method. The intention of this paper is to expound Jujol's architectural thought by examining his original drawings directly and to make clear that his drawings were not only base of his architectural design but also base of all attitude of whole his creative life.
The purpose of this study, based on the series of Le Corbusier's Production 14, is to clarify the meaning of the human figure in Le Corbusier's work. Through his work of strong correlation between paintings and architecture, Le Corbusier's realizes a symbolic human figure for the Modern Age. This human figure consists of three aspects for Le Corbusier's : his early paintings of Purism, the expression of bodies in folklore, and his self-consciousness as an individual traveling in the Orient. The most important point, however, is that his work exists in a transcendental mechanics reflected in his early paintings, which show the construction of still lives. It shoud be noted that the transcendental human body as a separated individual re-finds a link of circle, a solidarity in the Modern Age, in the square of the Open Hand in Chandigarh which is a remarkable development of the representation of the “hand” in his paintings.
This paper is one of the researches to characterize and identify the architectural theory of Rudolph Schindler. This paper is intended to derive the character of Schindler's ‘Recognition of Age’ through investigating the contents, types and their transformation of his architectural theoretical writings according to their referred themes. Analysis deals with 9 writings and derives followings points. Schindler's assertions on the ‘Recognition of Age’ can be categorized in three phases. In first phase, Schindler discussed most of contents regarding ‘Recognition of Age.’ In second phase, Schindler mainly discussed the diversity between civilization and culture. As for civilization, Schindler regarded it as equal to machine age, functionalism, and international style. And he acclaimed culture as his architectural goal. In final phase, Schindler kept his assertions of second phase. Schindler also asserted the importance of region, history, and individuality of architecture through criticizing the main stream of the modern architecture. This assertion can be regarded as one of the criticism of modern architecture in the modern age.
This paper would consider the relationship between the neighborhood association (CHOU) and the way of land dealings in modern Kyoto. It has been proposed that CHOU intervened in the buying and selling of land, which was happened their territory KOKEN-CHI of the early modern age. However, it is not clear how the practice has changed during the modern age. Comparing the bylaws which CHOU made both at the early modern age and the modern age, modern bylaws was more stipulated in the trade procedure than the early moderns'. Hence, the process ruled by CHOU was remained as custom. This feature resulted from the new system for lands which the Meiji government made. CHOU provided detailed procedure to resist the new system and continued intervention in land dealings.
This study aims to analyze and clarify the urban and architectural spatial elements of the slums as depicted in the Kenyan urban literature by a renowned Kenyan writer, Meja Mwangi, where the slum areas in Nairobi play the role of stage. We first extracted all the urban and architectural terms from the texts and divided them into ten major categories for analysis. This we did in order to obtain the general urban and architectural space context of the slums. Next, we extracted the various stages used by the author to expound the plot of a story and grouped them into eight different categories for analysis. This we did by counting the total number of words that we used to denote the length of time the author dwelt on that stage to explain a scene. Lastly we re-extracted the urban and architectural terms as they appeared on the stage categories obtained above. From the observations on stage analysis, we were able to identify the major spatial spheres of the slums and their composition. Our study showed that lifestyle in slums is very simple and temporary. Next, we established that streets, bar and restaurants and the homes are the major spatial spheres in the slums. These are cheap, simple and temporary in form and are composed in coexistence within a rowdy atmosphere. This lifestyle is similar the traditional African lifestyle in the villages prior to colonial rule, showing that lifestyle in the slums could be an extension of the rural lifestyle into the city. Understanding this is will be helpful in making future decisions to solve this problem.