In the colony, the character of the space is made with the element with various boundaries of the internal space of each dwelling, and external space. Those elements are not individual, patency and closing nature are made as an aggregate of an element, and it is thought that the character of the space is understood by change of a field of view.This research uses the evaluation technique which quantifies change of the field of view in the space of a colony by the solid angle ratio. The patency and closing nature in each space of a dwelling are considered, and it aims at solving the complex formation of Namsari.
This study deals with relatively large-size condominium units that are supplied in the Tokyo Metropolitan Area. It focuses on the planning of apartment buildings and their units. First, the necessity of large-size units in the social system of changing houses for urban people is discussed. Second, an overview is given on the situation of the recently supplied condominium units having areas over 100 square meters. The percentage of these is only 1.4% of the total number of the currently supplied units and this indicates that the planning of large-size units needs particular consideration. It was reported that the tendency of large-size units with more than 100 squre meter floor, area was to be located in apartment buildings. It was specified that these dwellings units are often situated at the fringe of buildings, namely, at the corners, at the top or on the ground level of apartments. Lastly, the characteristics of the large-size units were investigated. These were categorized according to unit plans and their statistical distribution was shown. Corner units that can open to three directions are found to be the most frequently used type in planning large-size condominiums.
The author defines Special Space as a space that influences a living room's domain, space uses or space held in common, selected from arbitrary housing spaces reflecting the life style of modern Japanese people. Previous reports have presented the distribution of Special Space in houses shown in Jutaku Tokushu published by Shin-Kenchiku sha and its characteristic analogous, which were investigated and searched. Furthermore, attempts were made to analyze the opinion trends discussed here and the design processes based on architects' comments on the houses. This study applied statistical treatment with multivariate analysis on Special Space data obtained during the above investigation. It aims to draw the relationship mutually acting on the analogous hiding in the depth and the dull tendency based on the Special Space data.
The facility use method is seen how changing from the beginning of using several years after. This is finding out the relation nature of the usage of a facility plan and a hospital, and it is meaningful when performing a facility plan. It carries out also by combining finding out the change of the environment which surrounds medical treatment and a hospital simultaneously. This paper estimates 2nd term portion which began to use and passed through about six years. This contains sections, such as a Visitor medical examination, Operation, Inspection, Radiation Section, Material supply. A formation of an acute term is one of the direct word which shows the tendency of the latest hospital.
The purpose of this paper is to clarify the complex use of a public art museum in a park and the relation between the mutual use of an art museum and a park, and sitting behaviors. We conduct the questionnaire surveys of visitors at 5 art museums. The results are as follows : About 50% of visitors of the art museums in the park use the park: How to use an art museum in a park is influenced by the mutual use: Sitting in an entrance hole is helpful for the synergistic effect of the mutual use of an art museum and a park.
The Seville Universal Exposition held in 1992 , The Lisbon International Exposition held in 1998 , and The Hannover International Exposition held in 2000 are the events aimed at reutilizing the facilities after the events. This study compare the difference of constraction method , through the possessor and the investment way, and clear the influence on the developed areas after the events. The aim is to help us consider the relationship between the Exposition and the developed areas.
After establishment of the law about product liability and some consumer protection, the importance of building accountability to a client has actualized. In this paper, we statistically analyze the relation between a client and a builder by the minutes. And we discuss the design process and gaps between client's request and builder's presentation in building projects. Results as follows ; It was confirmed that the contents of their representations changes toward "part" from "whole" with no return. The gaps between client's request and the builder's presentation are in the domain of "performance & function, equipments" and in the domain of "execution of work" in the implementation stage.
The present, we are left various problem and subjects when we go ahead with city planning of welfare.For example, there are many factors of stairs, slopes and so on. Their problems prevent user of a wheel chair from running comfortably in the city. Especially, on the sidewalk, This study states one of important problems, that is a direction of a slope. For a front wheel is free wheel, some user usually take with acts of revising line. We think wheel chair users are burdened with this action seriously. The purpose in this study.I make clear the relevance to the moving speed.the locus and difficulty by experiment with the wheelchair and that investigate judging from the state of the speed or the locus is possible or not.
When we walk along a street, we unconsciously appreciate the changes in surrounding physical features that occur one after another. In this study we developed a method of recording continuous changes in sensory impressions received from the environment. Using this method, we conducted a series of experiments dealing with the senses of "oppression" and "release" experienced while moving through an exterior space, and the validity of the method was discussed. In the experiment, fifteen subjects rated the sensory impressions along a route in a university campus, which has a variety of spaces. The result, a profile of changing sensory impressions, was examined by comparing changes in the ambient visual information of the surrounding scenes along the route. The average rating profile of subjects for the sense of "oppression" was fairly well explained by the solid angle of the surrounding surfaces of buildings and trees.
In the first part submitted prior to this part, factors of ideal model of house, which was common among traditionalist Akha of northern Thailand, were considered from analysis of organization of house space and household unit. In this part, following the discussion of first part, image of the house represented in myth will be studied to clarify the relation of traditionalist Akha and the house. Points at issue are as follows ; 1. Myth that traditionalists tell. 2. Image of origin of house represented in myth. 3. Mutual supplemental relation of human being and spiritual being. 4. Dynamics of myth. 5. Reciprocal relation of traditionalist and house.
This study pursues tradition of dwellings and dwelling life of Dai Lue people and its change. This paper is based on research carried out in Man Cha Village in Mang Hang in the Dai people's autonomous state in Xishuangbanna. The subject of this paper is to pay attention to the postural habits and places to put household articles kept in their dwellings and how these things are placed, and pursue examples of an order of living space created by sensuous response of the Dai Lue people. In dwellings of Dai Lue people, people are living in contrasting postures, i.e. a posture where they sit on the floor and a posture where they sit on a low chair. It is related to space concepts designating a place of a higher rank and a place of a lower rank and how to recognize a space symbolized by men and women. The inherited body motion where their bodies are placed in a low position means the method of placing household articles. Such postural habits and the method of keeping household articles have been changed in recent years. The change started to be seen especially from women's behaviors, in family lifestyles and dining and cooking lifestyles.
Since the liberalization of Russian Federation, many housing problems are addressed and the housing policy was changed The main idea of the changed housing policy is "From public housing to Private housing". The new housing policy is consisted of two follow main programs. First of them is transferring housing ownership from government or government's enterprises to municipalities. Finally, costs of housing maintenance will be completely covered by tenants until 2008 in step by step. Second one is the housing privatization from municipality's public housing to tenants and organizing tenants associations for maintaining their housing by themselves. In this paper author pointed out problems of the changed housing programs. The big problems are addressed on the housing programs of Russian Federation as follows, l) The two housing programs, housing rent rates program with household's income and the limit rent program are designed in mismach each other. 2) The privatization program has to be done with organizing tenants asoociations.
This paper has done a chronological study according to the folk houses investigation of Tsukuba City. The purpose of this study is to clarify the date of every classification and the regional characteristics in Ibaraki Prefecture. As a result, the following facts were cleared; 1) In classification I-a, the building type is similar to the original form of whole Ibaraki Prefecture. 2) In classification I-b, regional characteristics belong to the wide area such as south and west parts of Ibaraki. 3) In Classification Il-a, the building type begins to show the independent regional characteristics of the western part.
This report will discuss about the maintenance of Tomizawa Premises. In order to clarify the maintenance activities, I use the date of Tomizawa's dairy for 50 years. In the former report, I analyzed the activities of different kinds of regular craftmen, and the history of building activities that had happened for 50 years such as construction of the main gate, extension and remodeling of the house, and the complete reroof. In this report, I will analyze the daily activities that had repeated constantly. I pointed out the trends of the maintenance, that is, the activities had repeated according with the season and the annual event of the primises.
In 9th January 1903, Morihiro Ichihara was inaugurated into the forth mayor of Yokohama. Half a year later, he addressed on an urban policy of Yokohama. In August 1903, Yokohama City Improvement Council was established. The city reform of Yokohama by Ban Miyake was planned in February 1910, and it consisted of urban zoning (commercial zones, industrial zones and residential zones), a traditional buildings and a scenic zones to be preserved. The plans for a city of Yokohama based on the civil societies in the Europe and America. On the other hand, the city reform of Tokyo was essentially for its role as "imperial capital" of the modem Japan.
This paper is intended as a study of the buildings of the Bank of Japan in the Meiji era. The subject is the following two points . The first is to consider how the Bank of Japan changed the organization of an architecture design and the architects. The second is to analyze how the architects (Kingo Tastuno , Uheiji Nagano and Shinichiro Okada) participated in a planning and design of the Otaru Branch of the Bank of Japan. It was found that the various buildings of the Bank of Japan were related to the transition of organizing an architecture design. Moreover, it is concluded that the Otaru Branch is one of the important architecture. The main reason is that three prominent architects made a plan, and this building cost was third in the Bank of Japan.
This study aims both at reproducing the original plan of Madame du Deffand's apartment based on her inventory after death and at defining the feminine specificity of 18th century French women's habitations. Using this method based on the inventory after death developed by the Ecole d'Annales in France, we describe the functional characteristics of each room, mainly in terms of size and design. Analyzing the restitution's results in perspective with the knowledge of fine art and furniture, we shed further light on the social and cultural life of 18th century French women.
The purpose of this paper is to consider the structure of experience of landscape referring to phenomenology, especially Merleau-Ponty's theories. We are concerned with the oblique scene of the house of Casfle Howard that is one of the best English landscape gardens in the 18th century. This oblique scene makes three impressions on us. In this paper, we will deal with two impressions of three that are seeing the house as body and finding the distance to the house far and near. Human body feels things and feels oneself by things. Such ambiguous feeling leads to reversibility between body and things. Consequently seeing thing as body emerges, and reversibility that Merleau-Ponty called 'chair' is experienced with feelings of distance and proximity.
In this paper, the universal definition of Mado is tried to be fixed regardless of any climatic differences. Universal definition cannot be fixed in the way of functionalism nor formalism, but it should be in the course of existentialism and ontology. The problem is the meanings which human beings living with Mado in reality experience phenomenally. Japanese short poems (Haiku) depicting experienced Mado are studied in comparison with some reviewers on Mado. In conclusion, regardless of practical differences by reviewers, the definition of Mado should be fixed in the topos. Mado is the very human topos experienced as the boundary of inside and outside.
In Shizuoka prefecture, the tea industry prospered particularly in Kitaban-cho, Shizuoka city, and a distinctive townscape where tea merchants gathered was created. No historic building survive in Kitaban-cho today, but before World Warn There were many Westernstyle offices and large warehouses in that area. The distinctive feature of this townscape was that it differed from the traditional Japanese arrangement characterized by machiya-style houses. Our investigation has revealed that the townscape of Kitaban-cho was created in the late Meiji era and that most of the buildings were offices used by foreign trading companies. Factors behind the formation of this townscape included the development of new machinery, increases in the volume of exports and industrial modernization.