This study clarified the actual conditions of human exchange between each unit by visit hearing investigation to 2,226 persons (998 families) with extracted 3 housing estates that have "outside common space of the connecting-core type" build in 1970s, 1980s, 1990s public housing estates in Taipei city. Analysis items are "presence of a relative in housing estates", "presence of a friend in housing estates", "exchanges between relatives or friends", "exchange contents", and "exchange rate". We analyzed according to sex / age / occupation / dwelling area. The conclusions are as following: 1. An active exchange is done in an older housing estate. 2. As residents become old, exchange is more active. 3. The exchange in the vicinity community is active.
In this study, based on the statistical data and future estimates, the number of the elderly who are likely to use elderly housing with life support service (“elderly” hereinafter is used in this context) in 2025 was calculated, and the derivation method of basis for estimating the quantity of elderly housing needed to be constructed or improved was demonstrated as an essay. In addition, by specifying the minimum living expense in case of living in elderly housing and by comparing this figure to the data of income levels used as bases for determining premiums for long-term care insurance, the balance between the number of elderly housing in need for public financial support, such as housing benefit or construction aid, and the number of the same deemed possible to be developed in the market was examined. The trial calculations in this study were made with the cooperation of 7 local municipalities, most of which are in the Tokyo metropolitan area that is supposed to have high demand for elderly housing. The result showed that, as elderly people's situation is greatly different area to area, it is necessary to establish a standard on elderly housing construction and improvement on a municipality-by-municipality basis taking into account the local circumstance of each area.
Field survey and aerial photo analysis were used to clarify the characteristics of snow accumulation between the blocks of a newly built residential area in Takasu Town, Hokkaido. Factors affecting snow accumulation were analyzed, and the findings are summarized as follows. The pattern of snow accumulation around each house depends largely on the snow and wind conditions created by the house(s) and other buildings nearby. When houses with different roof shapes are built side by side, snow falling from the roofs cause complicated snow pile problems. Snow drifts in such residential blocks are the result of complicated wind flow that results from the presence of houses and other buildings. When planning the construction of a housing in a residential area in a snowy region, it is desirable to take into consideration not only the naturally falling snow but also the influence of snow accumulation on existing houses, including the accumulation in snow drifts and snow piles that will result from the planned house.
The purpose of this study is to show that the method of zoning an open shelf floor with a popular library area is more reasonable and effective at public libraries. According to this method an open shelf floor is divided into two zones at public libraries. One is an“active zone”which consists of a popular library area with a children's book area, a newspaper and magazines'area and an AV materials'area. The other is a“quiet zone”which consists of other adults'book area with a reference area. This research paper on the method of zoning an open shelf floor at public libraries shows that most children, especially infants and lower grade pupils, can leave their parents to use the children's book area, and after getting books of their preference, they read them beside their parents, and again they leave their parents to get another book. As a result, many children and their parents stay mainly at the children's book area, and many children and their parents can stay at the popular library area or the newspaper and magazines'area, too, if each area is ful of seats. Most parents who use books, on the other hand, use popular library books in the active zone, and approximately half of them use adults'books in the quiet zone in a short time. Most parents who use books tend to use not only books but also magazines.
We find the modal expressions, such as “Inevitability” and “Possibility”, in the documents of proposed plans. But it is difficult to discuss the validity on the proposed plan described by the modal expressions. Using the model theory on modal logic, we propose a method that we can judge the validity of the proposed plan, and construct the algorithm of this judgment method. We show examples of the judgment of planning validity by the algorithm.
The study is based on the idea which is “Space enclosure” that encloses persons three dimensionally. The main purpose of the study reveals spatial characters of tea rooms which are very small but have colorful compositions. Also “Sight-Depth” is used to calculate three dimensional spatial compositions mathematically. Following explanations are the procedure to analysis. 1. Making digital models by CAD 2. Setting up the measurement positions in tea rooms and then calculates three dimensional compositions. 3. Making Self-Organizing-Maps based on the data of second step. 4. Making spatial descriptions. 5. Building up phylogenetic tree based on the spatial descriptions and then analyzes the tree.
This study focuses on the clearance dimensions based on the non-contact spatial area or the body movement, which a person composes around his body by movement to complete his own purposes. The purpose is clarification of the dimensional characteristics on the basis of concrete measurements, and discussion is made from the point of view of architectural ergonomics. Specifically, the contents of the this report are the one to have experimentally measured the clearance dimensions which are composed around walkers' body and the width of indoor aisle with 4 patterns which were surrounded by the desks and the wall.
By using decision tree analysis authors related 50 targets of number of fixation and fixation duration on space elements with feelings of elderly concerning snatch occurrences. Results show that Individuals feel: (1) insecure on safe roads (68.8%) at night “shop windows/ no gaze>the others/ gaze less than 1.2secs>elevated roads/ more than 1.5secs” (2) secure on unsafe roads (39.3%) at daytime “standing signboards/ gaze no more than 1 time>total movements of fixation/ more than 153.3>roads/ gaze no more than 2 time>walk-up billings/ more than 0 time”
The purpose of this study is to investigate spatial order and symbolism under the faith of Tibetan Buddhism on dwellings of Tibetan living in Shangri-La prefecture of Yunnan in China. This paper is based on the field work that author performed on Pooh-lei village of Shangri-La prefecture of Yunnan in China. The dwellings of the Tibetan people that reside in Pooh-lei village are composed based on the conception of daily life and faith. There is a bipolar symbolic place given a deep significance to by daily life and faith of Tibetan Buddhism in a dwelling. Plural spatial concepts to be opposed are included in spatial recognition and behavior.
In order to reduce the damage caused by earthquakes, it is crucial to convince people that the investment in safer housing will eventually prove to be worthwhile. As the choice regarding housing safety is made based on people's earthquake risk perception, we conducted a field survey in Indonesia, Nepal, Pakistan in 2007, and Turkey, Philippines, Fiji, and Japan in 2008, to better understand the seismic risk perception of residents concerning housing safety and willingness to retrofit their houses, using a similar questionnaire. The survey targeted approximately 800 households in each country. We examined the comparison of the differences in people's earthquake risk perception. The excerpt of the findings shows that, in Indonesia, Nepal, Turkey and Japan, people rely more on engineers in disaster risk management and earthquake safety measures, while in Pakistan, people rely more on masons or governments, and people rely more on their family and friends in Fiji and Philippine. Another finding shows that in Indonesia and Pakistan, people are ready to pay more to protect their house property, while people are ready to pay more to protect their family in Nepal, Turkey and Japan. Thus, the result will help the stakeholders to develop disaster risk management policies and initiatives that would fit into people's risk perception, which is different from country to country, from community to community.
The following research aims to clarify expanding process of network in local community, and problems during its process in a fishing village. Authors have participated in Machizukuri activities in Kiki, and communicated with the local community. Through this process, network expansion was observed. In order to expand the network of local community, it is important that the local community is managed in three different phases “Seminal Phase”, “Diffusion Phase” and “Integration Phase” through the following two process (1)producing various activities which contribute to community, and (2)orchestration of these activities. In addition, it is important to nurture mutual relationship between various regional organizations for the commitment of residents. The relation that is in need is one like a “Big Family” that help each other not only for the economic profit, but for the community.
Political system, religious culture, and the natural environment of the Tibetan Plateau, bestow Tibetan cities with unique urban forms that differ from other cities in China and South Asia. This paper offers an insight into the original urban forms of Tibetan cities by a classification method using cluster analysis. First, the paper identifies an adaptable method to classify original Tibetan urban forms, while having regard for Tibet's unique urban development. Accordingly, this study presents a preliminary features of original Tibetan urban forms according to four unique variables. Second, the cities are classified into five groups and the characteristics of Tibetan urban forms are identified via four classification variables. An analysis of the characteristics of original urban forms shows that they reflect the specificity of Tibetan cities and the factors contributing to the formation of these cities. Furthermore, the expected problems facing the Tibetan cities are figured out according to the characteristics of each city group. Based on these findings, this study provides adaptable suggestions for the future planning of Tibetan cities.
This study clarifies characteristics and factors of streets planning in post-war reconstruction urban plan of World War II in local cities by comparing with early streets plan before WWII. As the results of researching 28 cities' plans, a factor of increasing total length of streets plan is to improve arteries intervals in urbanized areas of early plans and a factor of widening planned streets is to up-grade the width level of early ones. Though post-war reconstruction streets plan changed each city structure by changing place of wider arteries or adding boulevards newly, it fundamentally succeeded early plans' streets pattern and street courses which form city blocks and station squares.
YUASA Town was selected as the Important Preservation Areas for Groups of Historic Buildings in 2006. After that, the restoration is executed with steady steps every year. However, the restoration and the use of traditional buildings in YUASA Town were not started suddenly, the process had been carried out step by step by volunteer residents and builders before the preservation process has been applied. This paper aims to search the role of builders who joined in "YUASANO-MACHINAMI-KENKYU-KAI" whose activity is revitalizing the traditional buildings as Machizukuri property to be suitable with the current resident's life. We analyzed the actual conditions of the restoration about the traditional buildings done for Machizukuri, and examined the role of builders who took part in the process. The results are as follows; 1)Many builders who joined in Machizukuri, are individual or small firm managers. 2) The activity of Machizukuri which was carried out since the early stage where the rule and guidline were unsettled, has stimulated the builder's participation and interest. 3) Each builder involved in the restoration of traditional buildings in different ages with different process and adjusted their role according to changed social needs. 4) As full time working on this kind of restoration is financially difficult, the builders have been maintaining their management by conducting other business.
This study clarifies the creative lifestyle embraced by new incoming people, particularly addressing self-building and creative functions in the Osaka Karahori area. The following are our major findings. 1) Main motives of self-building are not only low cost but also the pleasure of self-creation and creation of an original space. 2) Creative functions tend to include several combinations. A person who self-builds exhibits more creative functions than a person who does not. 3) Self-building and creative functions especially encourage personal exchange. Furthermore, they include values of selfrealization and self-expression.
In recent years the number of skyscrapers is increasing. Though they are convenient and popular, they mar the beauty of townscape. In this study, we conducted two experiments. In experiment 1, impressions and oppressed feelings by a skyscraper at 7 different points from the skyscraper are evaluated by three different ways. Subjects evaluated a skyscraper on site, by 2D photos, and by 3D photos. These values are compared, and the effectiveness of 3D photos was statistically confirmed. In experiment 2, evaluation of a skyscraper was conducted using 3D photos. From the results the features of impressions and oppressed feelings by a skyscraper were clarified. It was cleared that desirability and comfort feelings were the worst at the point about 200m from the skyscraper. And it was cleared that oppressed feelings decreases in proportion to the binary logarithm of the distance from the skyscraper.
Since 2000's in U.S.A. architects and planners have started to establish organizations or places open to public in order to have greater connection with the society and to contribute to the local community. The places are facilitated with public spaces such as gallery, library and workspace, while the organizations run programs such as seminars, tours, meetings and exhibitions. American Institute of Architects has managed the Centers for Architecture in the Chapters respectively. This paper focuses on the Centers of New York and Philadelphia Chapters and analyzes their organization and activity to reveal the mechanism of public engagement and professional collaboration.
The purpose of this study is to analyze the utilization of reused houses according to “Sekiguchi family diary” in Namamugi Village, Musashi Province. In this case, reconstruction of old buildings, which were mainly used for their daughters and employees, were as often construction new buildings. The former site of houses were almost within 4km and the timbers were carried by ships. These transactions were conducted by the relatives in the local community. Reconstruction have advantages in a term from demolition to set up the frameworks, and carpenters who mediated old buildings had recived the contract for works.
The purpose of this paper is to clarify the characteristic of the formation process of the company housing of the headquarters and main factory of GUNZE Raw Silk Mfg. Co., Ltd.: Several years after the foundation of the company, a row house partitioned into nine was built as first company housing. As the president of the company was Christian, his religions beliefs were incorporated into the management of the enterprise and were reflected in the kind of housing. Company housing was made as needed in proximity to each factory. When the company grew into a large enterprise, the company houses were built in 4 areas and divided to reflect the hierarchy. After the war, the old factory was turned into housing for employees. The company continued to supply housing that was in walking distance from factory.
Our surveys have revealed that 1,224 churches are located in three dioceses in the northern region of Vietnam and that 298 churches of them are timber-framed churches. These timber-framed churches are constructed with Vietnamese traditional methods. In this paper, based on the information obtained from our surveys, we divided the structures of the timber-framed churches into frameworks composed of columns/beams and roof trusses, and then classified each of them individually. By paying attention to the beam laid on the central columns, the framework was divided largely into two categories and further classified into six smaller categories according to the beams laid on the outer columns. The roof truss was divided into five categories based on the shape and composition of members used. From the correlation between the two factors, in the end we categorized them into five structural types, and summarized the characteristics and transition of the structures of the timber-framed churches.
The purpose of this paper is to clarify buildings which were moved from cities in Japanese colonial Taiwan as parts of the Taiwan pavilion for the Fifth National Industrial Exhibition in 1903 in Osaka, Japan. This paper notes two of these buildings. Tokukei-do, originally a family's mausoleum in Tainan, was required for the site of shrine of Prince Kitashirakawa. The stage for dancing called Bugaku-do originally existed in the courtyard of the government office of the Qing Dynasty in Taipei, which was converted into Taiwan Governor's Office. These buildings which were moved from Taiwan appeared as a result of changes in appearance in cities in the early days of Japan's rule in Taiwan.
Giuseppe Poggi was a Florentine architect who directed city planning in mid-nineteenth century Florence, after it became the Capital of the Kingdom of Italy in 1865. During this period, while executing flood prevention projects, constructing piazzas, residence areas and creating paesaggio, he sought to create a modern city of Florence that was appropriate to its role as capital. Since his projects were profoundly influenced by the Italian political situation, the projects represent not only the ideal figure of Florence but also the ideal figure of Italy during that period. In this research, Poggi's role and the limitations imposed on the jurisdiction of his decision-making will be clarified in order to analyze his projects precisely and to understand urban modernization in Florence.
The Hong Kong Catholic Church introduced laity involvement in building project management for worship places in the 1970s. Following the liturgical reforms established by the Second Vatican Council in the early 1960s, the Diocesan Liturgical Commission in the late 1970s commenced initial measures to involve the laity. However, their influence remained limited until the early 1990s. Then, the Diocesan Building and Development Commission (1995) promoted an increase of professional laity from the building industry through the highly organized commission. It provided laity with substantial policy and decision-making influence, resulting in the establishment of a standardized project management method.
The purpose of this paper is to consider the architectural relations and interactions between and within regions all over the world from the 19th to the 20th century by analyzing the transmigration and interactions of RIBA architects. The methods are as follows 1. To look over the official RIBA member lists and pick up all the members who worked outside Britain from 1834 to 1939 2. To clarify their temporal world distribution and the background of the transmigrants 3. To regard RIBA architects as a cluster and consider their trend
This paper aims to grasp the “markets” in postwar Tokyo in diachronic perspective. The previous studies have tended to deal “markets” as extraordinary spaces only in immediate postwar years. But this paper will try to deal them as ordinary spaces by clarification of the basis of their existence. Especially, I found the censuses about the “markets” which have not been known so much, and consider the similar commercial spaces in previous or next era such as stalls, retail markets, tenant buildings. This paper will reconsider the significances of “markets” through these works and the consideration of my former paper.
The relationships between planning and performance of road construction in Okayama city are discussed from a viewpoint of the leading systems of city planning. In City Planning with the Act in 1919, the Local Committee of City Planning had the right of permission of the planning. However, the planners of the road construction were the technocrats belonging to the Okayama City Bureau and Okayama Prefecture. And the fundamental issues were decided in the City Assembly without National subsidy. Roads around the city area were constructed independently with the City Planning. The purpose of the City Planning in Okayama city that become “Industrial City” was not performed conclusively.
The purpose of this paper is to consider the permanent exhibitions in public museums of history and explain the transition of their exhibitions. We selected 58 museums among public museums of history opened during the postwar period, and analyzed their original permanent exhibitions. The results are as follows. It was found that the permanent exhibitions were classified 7 types (field exhibition, general history exhibition. subject exhibition, and their combinations). Permanent exhibitions of history museums turned from field exhibition into general history exhibition in the latter half in 1970's. The subject exhibition appeared in 1980's and they have spread.
The authors conducted a study aiming at applying Augmented Reality technology in the field of architecture. There are some problems in the method of marker tracking when it is applied in the field of architecture. The authors groped the solutions which don't depend only on the method of marker tracking. The solution for indoor uses a 3-axis orientation sensor and marker tracking. The solution for outdoor uses a 3-axis orientation sensor and RTK-GPS. In this paper, how the system was implemented and evaluated is described in detail.