This study examined the worker's satisfaction of non-uniform lighting environments in the office room. An evaluation experiment was carried out in an experimental room with the other person placed at next desk. The level of illuminance on the working plane and illuminance distribution between the desks were assumed to be variables, and the satisfaction of the lighting environment for various kinds of work were evaluated. As a result, the subjects' evaluations on the non-uniform lighting were observed to separate to two groups. One group preferred continuous illumination between the desks, and the other group preferred discontinuous illumination between the desks. Next, the further experiment was done with no other person placed at next desk. The results showed the interpersonal factor also affected the preference of non-uniform lighting environment.
Window systems such as air flow window, push-pull window and high performance general window make it possible to maintain space thermal comfort without individual air conditioning equipment for perimeter zone. The purpose of this paper is to establish an evaluation method of window side radiant environment for determination of proper window system. A simulation method of space radiant environment was shown and "operative temperature increase on window side" was defined as an index of window side radiant environment. Comfort range of this index was proposed by using PMV. From a simulation analysis for a glass-covered office building, basic characteristics of three types of window system became clear.
In this paper, numerical analysis of heat and moisture behavior of the underground space by coupled heat and moisture transfer equations is performed using the annual experimental data. The numerical results are compared with the experimental results. As the results, the numerical results agree well with the experimental results in terms with room air temperature and humidity of the underground space and its surrounding ground. Therefore the analytical method is valid for thermal design and moisture proof design of underground spaces.
The purpose of this paper is to clarify the influence of the clothing fits exerts on the effective radiation area and the configuration factor of the human body. Examined clothes were the stand color shirt with the long sleeve and the pants. The effective radiation area and the configuration factors for 3 young male subjects at standing posture were measured by the photographic method. As a result, the effective radiation area factor was found to be 0.79 for an unclothed, 0.85 for the clothes No.0 with not ease, 0.90 for the clothes No.3 with usual ease and 0.93 for the clothes No.6 with double ease.
The purpose of this study is to understand the performance of floor heating system using solar energy (i.e. with collector and storage tank as a heat source) by simulation method. The main points are focused on the using of solar energy, the indoor thermal environment and the energy saving performance of the system. The floor heating model was developed and its validity was proved. And then, the simulation of the whole system during all the winter one year was carried out, through comparing with a common floor heating system and a heat pump heat source, the proposed system was proved being energy saving with good indoor thermal environment.
This paper concerns the aerodynamic performances of parallel and opposed-blade dampers for regulating air volumes of duct systems. Previous papers show that an opposed-blade damper is appreciated more favorably than a parallel-blade damper in view of less possibility of uneven flow aft of blades and the controllability of pressure drops for duct systems. We have already examined them in detail by using the laminar flow analysis by FEM and flow visualization experiments. This paper studies on the aerodynamic performances of dampers based on turbulent flow analysis and compares with our previous results.
Airborne molecules in indoor air or cleanroom air have been recognized as the important problems. In this study, the emission characteristics of volatile organic compounds from PVC floorings were evaluated by the small environmental chamber on the condition of different temperatures. From a point of view that the emission flux |gm^<-2>h^<-1>| is controlled by the desorption on the building material surface and the internal diffusion within the building material, the relationship between these two mechanisms and the temperature was described as the outgassing properties. The initial emission rate and the decreasing rate constant can be considered for predicting the emission profile.
Activated carbon is usually used when removing acid gases such as NCh and SCh from atmosphere by air cleaning apparatus. Activated carbons have the property of desorbing NO when removing NO_2. Addition of various alkalis to activated carbon was tried to solve the problem. KOH was the most effective of all alkalis tested. The removal efficiency of KOH-added activated carbon against NO_2 was superior to that of an untreated activated carbon. Furthermore, a prediction method for breakthrough curves by numerical simulations was studied. The simulated breakthrough curves agreed well with the experimental results in both of constant condition and outdoor condition.
For the economical operations of the floor heating system that constructed of latent/sensible heat storage materials with using off-peak electricity, the authors analyzed the prediction control system of the required thermal energy by load prediction using neural network including possibility presumption model. Next the authors confirmed neural network including possibility presumption model. The following results are clarified. (1) The authors could constructed one Neural network including possibility presumption model that could predict load of whole winter season. (2) The authors could predict same maximum heating temperature of storage materials that predicted already reported.
This paper describes two methods to estimate the energy consumption for different uses in dwelling. The first method uses the elaborated model that is conforming questionnaire data and existing statistics data. The second method uses the simple model base on only existing statistics data. These two models were made from measurement data of electricity and gas use and survey interview to measured monitors. We measured and surveyed annual energy use pattern of some apartment house and detached house located in the Metropolitan area and Kumamoto city. The annual energy consumption is estimated by the multiple regression analysis method with the housing attribute and weather as variables. The precision of estimate of the elaborated model is 0.76 by multiple correlation coefficient value, and that of simple model is 0.71. The latter value is better than predictive value obtained 0.53 by simple average analysis. These models are of help to estimate the regional energy use of household.
We have studied on anti-corrosion for piping of building services by the vacuum membrane deairation system experimentally and prevented the reddish brown water in the hot and cold water supply pipes. The main contents that are clarified by these experiments are as follows. The corrosion rate of mild steel in deairated tap water with the dissolved oxygen concentration (DO) 0.5〜0.8mg/l decreased 1/3 less on average, 1/6 less on maximum as compared with in tap water. We have prevented the reddish brown water of hot water galvanized steel piping system and tap water lined steel piping system by lowering the DO to 0.5〜0.8mg/l. The pH of deairated tap water increased about 0.3〜0.4mg/l on deairated effect of deairation. The residual free chlorine, however, is high rate of soluble in water. Therefore, it doesn't matter from the viewpoint of sanitary index of the water quality. Generally, galvanic current of gun metal/mild steel decreased in comparison with in tap water, but didn't decrease so remarkably as lowering of corrosion rate of mild steel.
The authors performed the field measurement to evaluate the evaporation ratio after precipitation at the concrete slab and the painted wall of the building for six months. And they proposed the simplified method to predict the evaporation ratio of the artificial surfaces after precipitation based on the measurement data. Following conclusions were reached 1.Thermal effect of the evaporation at the vertical wall after precipitation was negligibly small compared with that at the horizontal concrete slab. 2.Transitional variation of the evaporation ratio at the horizontal concrete slab after the precipitation was expressed as: re=r_<e,t=0>exp (-at). 3. The parameter a could be expressed as the Junction of the initial evaporation ratio re_<e,t=0> and the averaged differential of humidity.
This paper is based on synthetic investigations conducted at five offices. The correlations between the averages of measured physical level distributions and the averages of the occupants' sensation responses were analyzed. As a result, positive correlations with the thermal environment, the indoor noise and the area of the space were observed. However, with regard to the indoor air quality, it was found that the occupants' sensation responses were separated by whether or not smoking was permitted in the building. In addition, indoor humidity and the newness of the office also affected the indoor air quality. It was also observed that an occupants' sensitivity to indoor noise in the winter was higher than that it is in the summer. It was confirmed that PMV was an effective thermal index at offices.
The residual magnetism in steel-frame structures causes environmental troubles such as the discoloration of CRT displays. Any steel-frame building, irrespective of its location, may have a high level of residual magnetism. Such residue is mainly caused as the result of lifting magnets used for handling in manufacturing factories and stud welding operated at building construction sites. The paper demonstrates that residual magnetism in a steel bar caused by a lifting magnet is modeled by the connection of four bar magnets and residual magnetism in a deck plate caused by stud welding is modeled by a concentric circular field.
The objective of this study is elucidation of the spatial composition of the coastal villages caught it from light as an environment element. As a result, the space with each village was composed that a regulation was received from the environment peculiar to the coastal zone. A regulation from wind is strongly caught, and in village space, light is restricted. Therefore, I do not secure only sunshine to a house, and at the same time the sunshine to an adjacent house also compensated for existence of a light garden.
The purpose of this paper is to clarify spatial composition of the Naxi house. In conclusion, (1) Although the plans are similar between the western people's house of Naxi and the eastern one, the principles of spatial composition are different. (2) In western people's house, the main room is divided into two spatial sections, which are male space and female one by diagonal axes of the "higher fireplace". And these principles of spatial composition are similar to Qiang's and Muya Tibetan's. (3) In eastern people's house, the principles of spatial composition are mixed with the one of the different culture.
The objective of this study is to consider the principles of space formation of Jaipur City that is known as so-called a grid (chessboard) city. Jaipur City designed by Jai Singh II (1688-1743) is thought to have been constructed based on the Hindu idea of town, about which many scholars are still discussing. The cityscape has been very uniquely regulated by using the prototype of urban house called haveli (courtyard house) and bazaar building system along the main street. But the population increase is so rapid that living quarter is drastically changing. This paper firstly clarifies the differences between the forms of dwellings we can identify by the City Map (1925-28) made by Survey of India and those we identified based on the field survey in 1996 and discusses the transformation for these about 70 years. The major structure of the city was already constructed in the middle of 18c. Vertical extensions in order to absorb the population are seen all over the city and the society is mobilized especially by the influx of scheduled caste. This paper discusses the trend of transformation of the city block by focusing on the changes of house form.
In this paper, we aim to make a reference for planning of the lobby and foyer in multi-purpose hall, theatre and concert hall. To study our theme, we investigate the use of the lobby and foyer during not running time. We send questionnaires to house keepers in 477 halls. In this questionnaire, we ask them how to use their lobby and foyer during not running time. In the result, the lobby and foyer is used for programs which are planned by their own, and rented for various purpose. They answered various problems on such a use and the idea in the future.
In this paper, we study the theatres and halls which were scrapped. We researched the trend and reason of constructing and scrapping halls. After that, we analyzed the relation among the reason of scrapping halls and their specification and construction time. We also investigated the plans after throwing away those halls and revealed the changes of theatres and halls to make a reference for planning and administration of such an institution. At the result, we'll reveal that how many theatres and halls were built, scrapped and that how long their each span of life was.
We took a "city hotel" as investment in a project, and used NPV of two relating interests, which are Owner and Manager, as indexes of evaluation. We then maximized the indexes by bi-objective optimization applying GA in order to get "the Ratio of Room to Common space" which satisfies each interest's profitability to a high degree. As a result, "the Ratio of Room to Common space" took various values in relation of game of two relating interests, and there is a trade-off relationship shown as distribution of population considered to be the "Pareto Optimal Set".
To empower local communities and to change the scheme of the administration, establishing Groundwork Trust in each local area is an urgent matter. We think that Japanese Groundwork could be classified into 3 types, and each type has a lack of sectorial balance according to Japanese contemporary conditions. We investigated some organizations supported by the Japan Ground work Association to identify key points of establishing. These are summarized as follows: 1) penetrating into local communities to make sure of financial basis and effective projects; 2) maintaining sustainable relations with the local authorities; 3) building partnership balanced among the public, private and community.
Spatial characteristics of waterway and small river at rural settlements in hilly and mountainous agricultural area were clarified from the viewpoints of locations of rural settlements through the analyses of maps and field surveys. The discussion was emphasized on the following points: 1. Morphological relation between rural settlements and water 2. Precise spatial characteristics of the water edges The followings were concluded. These spatial characteristics could be comprehended through those both points. And these varied according to the four types of locations of rural settlements that were led by degree of urbanization and forms of settlements.
This study aims to try proposing a method for rural spatial maintenance plan. Some locative characters of the farm fields where all maintenance activities are stopped, were shown, which are connected with the shape, area, inclination of land, adjoing housing land, adjoing waste land, adjoing roadway, the location of owner' s house. Some correlation between attributive characters, such as the indices of area of farm fields, number of person being always in the village and number of person joining maintenance activities, and the indices of frequencies of weed-cutting, garden planting, cultivation, were indicated.
This research employs the distance between deferential land use districts (DDLU) at the coastal zone in a metropolitan area. The condition of DDLU and its basic character is manifested by numerical value. The DDLU were obtained and mapped on 100m × 100m grids of the geographic information system (GIS). The results show that the DDLU in the newer reclaimed areas near the coast is much higher than the older inland district. Suggestions for improvements included control of the DDLU with hierarchy.
This paper aims to clarify characteristics of building trend of houses in Arable Land Improvement Project Areas in Urbanization Promotion Areas (ALIPA/UPA) of Aichi Prefecture those which are originally implemented for farm land developments. Comparative analysis has been done between ALIPA and Land Readjustment Project Areas (LRPA). Main findings are as follows; (1) More than 20% of houses are newly developed in ALIPA from 1989 to 1997. (2) Lower prices of houses and smaller housing lots are main characteristics of houses built in ALIPA. (3) Any positive answers of families in ALIPA cannot be seen in qustions about housing and its environment. (4) To improve living environment in ALIPA, differences of houses between ALIPA and LRPA should be considered at the same time.
Upon a hypothesis that space or land use should carry the variable capacity to generate children's play spaces, the measurement of this capacity was attempted employing data from state-of-the-art surveys of play environments in five school districts situated in major cities. Playable spaces generated all play spaces and the total amount of play spaces in each district was mostly from the primary school and parks. Four groups of spaces were differentiated according to this capacity, of which the first one including primary schools and parks was with the highest capacity. With this capacity, planning effectiveness should also be assessed.
In the USA, the institution of historic districts was exploited in the 1930s to protect extraordinarily important historic and architectural values. In the 1960s, more usual environment began to he designated, and historic districts became so widespread. This study analyses the historic districts from four aspects, namely, zoning, historic preservation, aesthetic control, and design review. Sometimes the institution has been adopted even though it is not clearly constitutional and has changed the interpretation of the law. On the other times, the law requires civic participation, clear standards and so on, and has made the institution improved.
The institution of historic districts is the main tool of preservation planning in the USA. Its current legal issues can be summarized as the following four points: 1) demolition by neglect, 2) establishment of legal standards for design review, 3) freedom of speech for architects and owners, and 4) reasonable relations with other fields. Through democratic procedures emphasizing the openness of public meetings and the selection of commissioners, more sophisticated methods can be exploited.
This paper relates to a series of studies followed by "STUDY ON GROUP HOME FOR MENTALLY RETARDED PERSONS" which has been reported. This paper is basically intended to analyze and consider how a residential form, a plane formation, and a layout consisting of a living room, dining room and kitchen (LDK) are interrelated with evaluation of a residential environment for the group home residents in light of their lives, leisure hours and activities in the shared space, especially in the LDK space of the group home in order to characterize the group home located at the two different areas in Tokyo. As the result, the characteristics and issues concerning the group home have been highlighted in terms of the contents for the lives, leisure hours and activities of the residents in the residential environment and shared space.
City Planning Law was applied to Sapporo in 1923, and city planning streets, scenic zone and parks were decided in succession from 1936 to 1943. Planning theory and characteristics of city planning parks were the following. 1) The principle of the planning parks, boulevard system and scenic zone was to realize the theory of park system and green belt. 2) The layout of city planning parks was closely related to boulevard system, scenic zone and a typical green belt was uniquely planned in Sapporo. 3) The main purpose of parks was to utilize for outdoor recreation, sports and allotment.
This paper presents a pilot study to evaluate the effectiveness of risk strategies for procurement in construction projects. Basically, authors used the Fault Tree Analysis to assess the probability of risk occurrence, and to identify the importance of risk factors which contributes to risk occurrence. Facilitating the dual structure between Fault Tree Analysis and Reliability Graph Analysis, the comparison for the effectiveness of risk strategies will be evaluated. This study also aims to build a decision support system that is constructed by visual processes of risk analysis for risk management. In a case study, the risk change in every project phase for each stakeholder is assessed to realize the life-cycle of the project risks over project life by the concept of multiple dimensions.
This paper is related to a series of studies following a previous paper. This paper is aimed at clarifying the tendentious characteristics that were found within a cooperative town and its neighboring public housing complex, which were for sale. These characteristics were determined as a result of studying the actual situation of leisure activities, as well as the spatial distribution of facilities and the situation of shared space, all based on a questionnaire submitted to the residents. The situation of shared space, the actual available situation of shared facilities, and the actual situation for the leisure activities of each resident were tailored and analyzed in order to understand the actual situation and tendencies of a cooperative town through a comparison between these two example. Through this study their roles and the inherent issues contributing to the forming of a cooperative town style community were considered. As a result, the tendencies and characteristics involved in forming a cooperative town style community in developing residential environments has been clarified.
Dogu-Hinagata (Japanese Traditional Furniture Reference Book) -the concept of architecture describe 317 kinds of furniture in 40 books. These furniture can be categorized into 14 functional groups like martial things, pleasure things, stationery, cooker and tableware, goods for tea and others. Through the analysis of items of contents, we recognized that there are patterns of constitutive items of representative furniture among these books. 12 items are originally written from old time and after that 32 items which involves 12 old items are dealt as the basic items of representative furniture for buke houses, and 24 items are basic to tea houses.
This study aims to clarify the building regulations in agricultural district of Yamashiro province through the Edo period. In Yamashiro province, official notice in dec. 1767 by Kyoto machibugyosho obligated farmers in thedistance to present the application forms for building up to Kyoto daikannsyo or Jito. In south Yamashiro province, there are some documents record the process of noticing this official notice in dec. 1767. This paper takes up them so that clarify the elements of this official notice.
The purpose of this paper is to consider the relation between architectural composition of onari halls and the order of onari ceremonies in early Edo era, by menas of a casestudy of Tokugawa Iemitsu's and Hidetada's onaris to Shimazu establishment in 1630. The onari halls in Shimazu establishment consisted of Hiroma, Onari shoin, Tea house and two gates called Onari gate and Tea garden gate, and the whole architectural composition was commonly observed in other onari halls of early Edo era. But lemitsu and Hidetada passed through the tea garden gate to enter and leave the establishment and thus didn't use the onari gate, because the order of the ceremony began with tea ceremony. Since the whole architectural composition was planned on the assumption that Shogun or Ogosyo would pass through the onari gate, this result leads to the conclusion that the architectural composition had not fitted the order of the ceremony.
The purpose of this study is to see the relationship between the design of Shoka which means merchant houses and the townscape of Mori-machi in the early Showa period (1926-1945). As a result, more than half of lots were formed large enough to provide space for several " Shoka". And each "Shoka" build on these lots had a large frontage which was normally divided into several shops. These merchant houses had a low storied facade at a front gate, and their roofs had hipped roof shape and had double hung windows in upper floor facades.
The fountains' beauty is very important in Versailles gardens, but many efforts were necessary to realize it. Among a lot of essays, the Marly Machine pleased best Louis XIV. The researchers disagree about this machine's attribution, generally, it is believed that Renkin Sualem, expert engineer, was its author. This paper's issue is to survey this polemic since the eighteenth century and to manifest the present writer's opinion. As a result, the problem is in De Ville's knowledge about the hydraulics. Considered that he was industrial bourgeois and educated by the Jesuit, his participation in the technical conception wouldn't be denied.
This study investigates introductory process and its context of a systematic design method based on geometry in Dutch architecture around the fin de siele. By taking account of influence from English Arts and Crafts Movement and of relationship with mystic thought, and by giving consideration to doings of Genootschap Architectura et Amitica founded in 1855, below mentioned points are become dear. It was organizational principle of forms, developed in the course of English Arts and Crafts Movement by such person as W. Crane, of a foundation to put forward above mentioned new design method in Dutch architecture. Attention for the organizational principle of forms was linked up with the ideas of Theosophy as the thought for social reform, by J. L. M. Lauweriks. As the result Lauweriks advocated a geometrical-systematic design method as a universal principle of creation in the arts including architecture, Lauweriks's interpretation was brought to public through the lectures organized by and in the periodical published by Genootschap Architectura et Amitica and was to be shared widely with other architects.
March in 1954, Hiroshi OHE architect was requested to supervising of "Japanese pavilion for the fourth cenetenial of Sao Pauro" from Sutemi HORIGUCHI architect. H. OHE has been recognised S. HORIGUCHI as his teacher, and this pavilion was designed by him. In September, H. OHE came back to Japan. By this work, they were awaked in responses on the spot, either they were given rise to controversies. H. OHE ascertain a meaning of this work, about relation between ideal strictness on Modern architecture and tradition on Japanese architecture. In after Second War, when we must grope for the way of Japanese future, we should be found a innerdy namism of H. OHE's ideal-formation as architect through in this work.
In this paper, forming part of a comprehensive study on Hans Sedlmayr's theory of occidental church architecture in its historical development from its origins to Gothic, the views and ideas of this art historian as regards the "Justinian architecture" are discussed in an analytical reading of his study: "Das erste Mittelalterliche Architektursystem". The "overlapping baldachin" of this architecture that he postulates as its essential element is considered to be one of the most distinctive characters of the Medieval architecture.' since it contributes to the conservation of the antique columns and their integration into another more comprehensive order, i.e. hierarchy, which sanctions a new non-classical architectural principle.
In the fishing season of the migratory fish, Yami's behavior and the order of space in the dwellings change. In this report we discuss about the order of center and boundary in the dwellings by focussing on the domavak, which can be regarded as the center place in the main house (vahay). The householder is usually identified himself with the center place (domavak). But in the fishing season he changes the position, then the domavak represents as the boundary place. We can understand that the meaning of center place is kept up through the transition.