The purpose of this study is to determine the architectural factors that affect the recall of escape routes under limited visibility. An evacuation experiment was carried out at the first basement of the Shinjuku Center Building. Each subject was led along an experimental route, and was then instructed to return along the same route. The subject's visibility was limited to a 60 degree angle of depression. After the experiment, the reasons for the subject's choice of route were investigated through a questionnaire and an interview. It became clear that the following three points affect the recall of escape routes: (1) The width of the paths, (2) The existence of an easily remembered key object or space, (3) The individuality or special features of the key object or space.
Stable stratification is often observed in many kinds of room airflow. One typical example is the flowfield in an glass-covered atrium with large ceiling height. Stable stratification suppresses the vertical flux of heat and momentum, and also decreases the turbulence intensity of the flowfield. This flowfield is sometimes becomes pseudo-laminar. In order to predict the laminarization correctly in the vicinity of the wall, many types of low-Reynolds-number k-ε models have been proposed since Jones-Launder. In most of the previous studies, these low-Reynolds-number k-ε models have been used successfully to predict flow with laminar region near the wall. However in predicting laminar flow apart from the wall caused by stable stratification, these existing low-Reynolds-number k-ε models do not work well since they only use the non-dimensionalized distance from the wall for the near wall treatment which does not arise from the exact low-Reynolds-number effect. Therefore, in this paper, a new low-Reynolds-number model is proposed and this model is tested in applying to flowfields which have laminar region not only in the vicinity of the wall but also apart from the wall. The agreement between the results given from the proposed model and the experiment is fairly good.
This study concerns with the evaluation of several models for calculating solar radiation on tilted surfaces in the following three steps. First, two models for estimating hourly global radiation based on daily global one is evaluated. Second, the eight direct/diffuse split models are compared. In the last step, radiation on tilted surfaces is computed from seven models. The data set used for the evaluation is measured in the course of one year in Tokyo, Japan and consists of hourly horizontal diffuse and total radiation and hourly global one on vertical surfaces facing each orientation.
In this study, we propose a district classification method on Tokyo 23 wards, for introducing a cogeneration system as a normal-and-security system for emergency (security), energy conserving and power peakcut effect. As the result of this study, 1) 64 representatives are classified by cluster analysis into 6 groups respectively, at first, in terms of essential power demands for security and essential power demands degree for security which means the ratio of essential power demands for security to maximum power demands for normal. And second, in terms of energy conserving and power peakcut effect. 2) Through a case study for some districts representing each clusters, energy conserving, power peakcut, and active ability in emergency are confirmed. 3) For Tokyo 23 wards, the most considerable districts for introducing a cogeneration system are located on Yamanote Line, especially on Tokyo station, Otemachi, Ikebukuro, Sinjuku, Shibuya and Hamamatucho area.
Basic sector classification Input / Output table were applied to analyze the construction, operation and renewal of office buildings to obtain the life cycle energy consumption and carbon dioxide emission. Total energy consumption is approximately 9 GJ per square meter of floor area by construction, 1.2 GJ per square meter per annum for operation and 0.037 GJ per square meter per annum for renewal. Total carbon dioxide emission is approximately 980 kg per square meter of floor area by construction, 90 kg per square meter per annum for operation and 3 kg per square meter per annum for renewal.
This study focuses on a comparison of the life cycle costs (LCC) of two types of utility services ; one is the urban services buried under roads in association with a high-rise conglomerate residential building (hereinafter defined as "horizontal services") ; and another is a joint shaft having the functions equivalent to those of urban services, and the piping and wiring accommodated in it (hereinafter defined as "vertical services"). The following two points resulted from the study: 1. The LCC of vertical services was approximately 40 percent less, hence the economic efficiency of the former outstripped the latter, with the exception that residents had to share an unfair, large contribution. 2. The study results indicated the necessity that vertical services be provided and maintained as public properties so that residents living in high-rise buildings be exempted from sharing the unfair contribution.
Most of the area sufferring from the extravagant population decrease in the center of Tokyo is designated as the commercial area under high Floor Area Restriction controls by the Building Standards Law and the City Planning Law. Here we chose GINZA as a typical example of this area. According to the research on the actual situation of the physical closeness of the residential environment in GINZA area, this study shows the nececssity to improve the environmental condition of houses such as sunshine, draft and daylighting.
Iiyama city, located at the north of Nagano Pref., is known among the snowy areas in Japan. The removal of snow costs a lot of labors and anxiety to the citizens. The authors suggested a few systems for melting snow on the roof, and examined the performance of those using test devices. The following results were obtained: (1) The snow melting system, utilizing solar energy or geothermal energy, fulfilled the purpose. It was evident from simulation analysis that the hybrid system, using the solar energy and thermal energy of auxiliary boiler, was applicable to the most severe situation. (2) The partial snow melting operation method was more efficient than the perfect melting towards the energy conservation and economical construction.
The author designed an exercise lesson in which each student correspond with a personal computer to para-measure the conditions of given air-conditioning system. The computer can display the values of temperature, pressure etc. in accordance with his direction of the measuring point. So, he can find his answers of the questions by means of the measured values. This softwear is programed that if he doesn't understand the air-conditioning system, he can't indicate the desired measuring point. Here, the author will state the response of students who experienced these lessons, on the basis of the analysis of questionaircs and observations.
On the basis of research, the study is to typify plans, and to find the effective plans for manufacturing plant of reinforcing bar. The main results derived from analysis on these investigations as follows: (1) Plans of manufacturing plant of reinforcing bars are composed of four zones: those for keeping steel bars, installing machinery, placing reinforcing bars, and truck's transporting paths. (2) The various combinations of these four zones result in eight types of the plant plans. (3) We succeeded in clarifying the characteristic features and problems of the aforementioned eight types.
This thesis aims at estimating the program, capacity and size of necessary spaces of public facilities for the modern performing arts at the early stage of the facility planning. Concretely through the analysis of new 13 examples of public facilities for the performing arts we proposed the method of estimating not only the size of each necessary spaces but also the total floor area by piling up the needed functional spaces.
So-called "Miya-Daiku", translated into English as "shrine carpenters" here, are traditional carpenters who design and construct the shrines and temples in Japan. Miya-Daiku are often surveyed and researched from the historical point, but from the point of carpentry skills, we can find few studies so far. In this paper, we surveyed the skill elements and the training process of them for 13 shrine carpenters. By comparing these results with that of house carpenters, we could found out some characteristics of Miya-Daiku's skills such as ; 1) there are about 100 skill elements that shrine carpenters have to learn to be independents 2) skills to process the curved and the large wooden members are especially unique for shrine carpenters in addition to the sculpturing skills 3) in proportion to the amount of elements they have to learn, it takes about twice as long time as house carpenters to accomplish the training. And finally, according to these results, we got the training process model of shrine carpenters.
In the present paper, we studied the architectural space in the literary works of Souseki NATSUME who is expected as a representative writer of modern Japan. All wordings related to the urban and architecture were extracted from 12 of his works and the space of stage was specifically analyzed. We found that extremely various architectural wordings were appeared in his works, which indicates sort of "compound aspects" of cultural situation in Japan in that time. According to the distinction in the change of stage-space in his works written in different time, his works could be classified into four patterns. In his earlier works (until "Sanshirou", 1908) the change of stage-space was "active" and "extensive", whereas in his latter works (since "Sorekara", 1909) it was "uneasy" and "circulated".
This paper aims to fine out some rules to compose the folk dwelling of site planning and floor planning. Forming of standard type of Honmune-Zukuri follows four rules listed below. Rule 1 ; Selecting the direction of the ridge and the position of the approach. Rule 2 ; Locating the rooms on the floor plan. Rule 3 ; Characterizing the exterior space corresponding to the interior. Rule 4 ; Siting the other small buildings on the margin of the outside. Rule 1 prescribes the whole of the premises. Rule 2 regulates the floor planning. Rule 3 and 4 regulates the part of the premises.
This paper, following the previous paper No.1,2 and No.3, reports the estimating method of approximate "Standard volume" on main 19 kinds of inhabitants' bihavior. Explanatory variables of multiple regresion analysis are follows: (1) Number of shops in settlement, (2) Distance from central town, (3) Distance from central "Kyuson" district center, (4) Ratio of farms household, (5) Ratio of old ages members This estimating method have been satisfied by comparison with estimated "Standard volume" and volume on inhabitants' behavior of survey.
In Japan, there were some serious disasters in recent years. In 1991, Unzen-Fugendake erupted and more than 1,000 people were forced to take refuge from their houses. In 1993, Hokkaido-Nanseioki earthquake attacked the south-east area of Hokkaido and more than 3,557 houses were destroyed. In Japan, the government supplies the temporary housing to those who lost house from the natural disasters. The purpose of supplying temporary house mentioned in the disaster relief law (established in 1947) and prescribes the purpose of temporary housing that to rescue the poor who can not afford getting a shelter with their own funds. But actual condition of temporary housing is completely different. Government supplies temporary housing to all those who request temporary housing. The term of using temporary house tend to become longer. The regulation about temporary housing has not been already up to dated. Many problem concerning about temporary housing originates in outdated regulation. The temporary housing have to be ranked in the part of restoration process from natural disaster.
This study attempts to comprehend the streetscape thorough its visual image and analyze its spatial distribution. Images of the approach to urban dwellings from the street are examined as prototypical images of the streetscape. As the use of computer graphics is considered to be an effective means of analysis, this study uses two computer graphic functions: visual imaging of the streetscape and quantitative analysis of street form. The graphic model entitled "Component Element Graphics (C.E.G.)", whose concept is described herein, is proposed. The SD method is implemented by using both the photograph and C.E.G., and the results are compared to examine the function of visual imaging. Further, by calculating the pixel arrangement of C.E.G., its effectiveness is examined by quantitatively analyzing the image distribution of the streetscape.
A subjective survey was performed on a 200m high chimney construction project in order to analyse worker fatigue. Workers were given a questionaire and levels of cathecjolamin in urine was sampled, heart rate after work was measured and environmental factors were examined. Fatigue was observed in relation to the height of the work, the work load and other associated factors. This paper presents the symptoms of worker fatigue and shows that the chimney construction system appears to have an effect on the group organization of workers, the learning effect and the reduction of work-load.
This paper aims to identify the method of town planning in the Japanese castle town in the age of civil wars, about A. D. 1600. The conclusions are as follows, 1. The town plannings in the age of civil wars had been carried out owing to the precise drawings by the geometrical method. 2. The principal planning methods for the town plannings were the right angled triangle by Pyhthagoras's number (3:4:5), the magic square and the compass direction. 3. Shrines were used as the critical point in the town planning.
Since 'munafuda's (dedication boards) are usually written at the time of putting up the ridge-beam of holy buildings. 'joto tatematsuru' (we dedicate this building in deep reverence) might be the most appropriate description. In actuality, however, this description constitutes only few percentage. According to these munafudas, these percentages show that the peak of the constructions was under way March and Spring, and August and September. But since the dates were written at the time of dedicating the building, we must assume that the construction works were already under way in spring, or further back in winter and summer, sometime during the off-season on the farm; that is, after the harvest and before the rice-planting time. In this conection, 'Daisho-tekagami' mentions, "January, July, October, November, and December are auspicious months for building a pole of the sate" ; meaning that the three months in winter except January and July correspond to the slack season on the farm when more helping hands are available.
Todaiji Daibutsuden as rebuilt in 1195 was a new architectural style, known as Daibutsuyo. It is characterized by gigantic wooden pillars as reach to the underside of the roof, by crossbeams tenoned into the pillars, and by deep, overhanging eaves supported by tiers of bracket arms with increasing outward projection. This paper reexamines the historical materials on the rebuilding of Todaiji, as a result, restores the whole frame of Daibutsuden and the structure of the main members with the models (scale : 1/50).
"Housing Reform Exibition" was the exhibition held by Ofuna Denentoshi (Ofuna Suburbs) Co., Ltd. in the year 11 of Taisyo Era. In this same year. "Heiwa Kinen Tokyo Exhibition (Peace Memorial Tokyo Exhibition) /Bunka-mura was held in Tokyo, and two model house exhibitions of the Sakuragaoka Housing Reform Exhibitions were also held in Osaka. The issue of this report is to explain clearly the characteristics of the housing plans selected as the best in that exhibition, and to consider the relation between the best plans and the housing reform movement of those days. The details of the four remained constructions designed by Ofuna Denentosh (Ofuna Suburbs) Co., Ltd. will be reviewed. And make it clear that the residents of that new houses felt the change form the use of "Tatami" to "Chairs" in their main dining room, which was the focal point of the housing reform movement of that age, took place too for them.
This study is about import of the archi tectural technique and existence of the form during Koryo and Choseon dynasty, through investigation of the eight (Chu-shim-po style) and four (Ta-po style) wooden architectures of Koryo as well as the trend of Chinese archilecture and also the cultural exchange between China and Korea. This study led to the following results: 1. In case of Chu-shim-po style, the traditional form of united Shilla was changed. using Soiseo-attached-Hiziki, thrust-through-Hiziki and based-capital by influence of the technique and style from Pel-sung and Nan-sung. And by influence of Ta-po style, it was changed, using straight capital and post of roof structure. 2. In case of Ta-po style, the combination of Soiseo-attached-Hiziki was introduced by import of the new technique and form from Yuan, while Odaruki was not used much.
As for the Composite capital, the Academy especially discussed the ranking of the Corinthian order and the Composite order in the system of five orders, and the proportion of the heights of the lower three layers under the abacus. For the question of hierarchy, the Academy thought that the two orders had the same proportion but had the different details such as olive leaves for the Corinthian order and acanthus leaves for the Composite order. For the proportion of the three layers, the Academy accepted the same proportion as tha capital of the Arch of Titus in Rome and as the Corinthian capital. So, for the Academy, the two orders were different in character, but identical in proportion.