There are numbers of alleys in the central area of Kyoto City. Alleys in Kyoto are built in its long history of urbanization from medieval times. Along alleys there are a lot of Machiyas remaining. Machiyas and alleys together are seen as elements of historical streetscape. Building activities on sites along narrow alleys are limited in several ways by the building standard law. Those restrictions are set because of the disadvantages of alleys in the viewpoint of urban disaster prevention, but it is also doubted it might be a cause of decrepitude of houses and housing vacancies along alleys. City of Kyoto recently announced new alley policy, which added the conservation of historical streetscape along alleys as a new policy objective. Historical streetscape depends a great deal on the existence of Machiyas. This paper analyses the relationship between the distributions of sites along alleys and that of Machiyas in the central area of Kyoto city. First, this paper shows the distribution of sites along alleys in the central four wards, Kamigyo-ku, Nakagyo-ku, Shimogyo-ku, and Higashiyama-ku. By ordinary, the number of miles of road is used to show the amount of alleys, but here the number of sites along alleys is chosen in order to compare the distribution of Machiyas. We use the information of the number of sites of which is indicated by the former investigation executed by Kyoto City in 2006. The alleys narrower than 1.8 meter width are eliminated by that investigation, so that we count up the number of sites along those alleys using the information of the location of those and the residential map. As a result of comparing the distribution of sites along alleys and Machiyas, it clarifies sites along alleys and Machiyas are closely overlapping, especially those of blind alleys and Machiyas. Sites along alleys and Machiyas both locate a lot especially in Nishijin area, which is the west part of Kamigyo-ku. Next, this paper examines the detailed overlapping location of sites along alleys and Machiyas on two specific areas. One is Ninna district, which is in the west of Nishijin area, and the other is Yurin district, which is in the south-east part of the urban center of Kyoto city, so-called Tanoji area. Through the analysis on Ninna district, it is pointed out that the sites along alleys, especially blind alleys, are clustered inside blocks and make up crowded wooden dwellings area. In Ninna district, almost half of the all sites in this area are the sites along alleys. By the examination of the relationship of the sites along alleys and Machiyas, it is clarified that Machiyas do not situate exclusively on the sites along alleys. It means, Machiyas and alleys both situated much in this district, but the both sides are not necessarily lap over. To make an observation on individual alleys in this district, it can be found that several Machiyas locate alongside alleys and make historical streetscape. The characteristic of distribution of alleys on Yurin district is that relatively short blind alleys extended into the city blocks are dominant. The percentage of Machiyas on the sites along alleys is considerably higher than the percentage on non-alleyside sites. It can be said that Machiyas located more on the sites along alleys than other sites in this district, contrary to the result of Ninna district. The conclusion is about as follows. Sites along alleys and Machiyas are closely overlapping in regard of the distribution of those in the central four wards. The concentration of Machiyas on the sites along alleys is not applicable in Ninna district, to the contrary in Yurin district.
Introduction: In Sweden there are ‘independent schools’, similar to charter schools in the US or academies in the UK, that are approved by the Schools Inspectorate and follow the same national curricula and syllabuses as municipal schools. The number of independent schools has been growing since the voucher system started in 1992 at compulsory schools, enabling parents and their children a free choice between public and private schools. The Swedish National Agency for Education said that around 17 per cent of compulsory schools were independent schools that attracted close to 14 per cent of the students in 2014. A small number of education providers run several schools and have been increasing the share while the vast majority of independent education providers of compulsory schools run just the one school. This study aims to find out what the advantages are of the operation of providers running several schools. The objectives of this study are to reveal the characteristics of operation by providers and the space composition of school facilities.
Methods: We made a list of large providers based on the report by Skolverket and homepages of providers and found out that there are 5 providers which run more than one compulsory school in Stockholm. We conducted a field investigation in 4 of these providers, Pysslingen, Kunskapsskolan, Vittra and Futuraskolan in 2015. We undertook interviews about the operation of the providers at the headquarters in Pysslingen, Kunskapsskolan and Vittra and with a principal in one of the schools in Futuraskolan. We visited 6 schools from the 4 providers and collected their case studies in order to analyse the space characteristics and also had interviews with their principals.
Operation by providers: We found out there were 2 types of providers through looking at their histories, educational policies, operation structures and visions for learning spaces. The first one was a provider which grew by acquiring existing schools, they don't dictate to their schools what to do so the characteristics of each school relied on themselves. The second one was providers which built their own schools from scratch, they have their own educational policies and methods such as personalized education, multiple teaching forms, global perspectives and creativity. The point that we want to emphasize is that they have ideas of the learning spaces linked to the education they offer. Pysslingen and Futuraskolan belong to the first type and Kunskapsskolan and Vittra to the second.
School case studies: The two schools we studied in Pysslingen and Futuraskolan have traditional school buildings. They try to create spaces for students by using small spaces within class rooms and table sets in corridors for individual or small group learning but they have not made big changes by way of removing walls or adding extra rooms etc. Pupils tend to study in the class rooms. In the schools we studied in Kunskapsskolan and Vittra, one is newly built school and the others were converted from a hospital and an office building. They have large work spaces with furniture which hold 4 or 5 classrooms which makes one unit. Students can choose their personal learning spaces depending on their individual desires or by assignment. The providers produce school facilities that are suitable for their students' education.
Conclusion: There are education providers which organise independent schools systematically. Some of them have visions of learning spaces linked to their desired education styles. This gives us some hints in order to follow and control the current situation in education like the high speed of technology, individualised learning and multiple teaching methods.
1. Objectives The objective of this research is to understand “daily living areas” of the elderly in a local city. By comparing the results of prior research in Kanazawa and then determining the actual state of all of official senior care service areas in the local city, we are able to clarify the quality of elderly residents' daily living areas and how special features figure in each area.
2. Research method The target city, Kaga, has seven official senior care service areas that we divided into eight districts for the purpose of this inquiry. To understand conditions affecting the elderly with respect to the living areas they frequent, we interviewed a sampling of elderly from all districts concerning their characteristics, home addresses, and destinations when they go out. Specifically, in each district, we selected around 15 supportor care-requiring seniors who use day services as well as around 15 relatively healthy elder people who participate in neighborhood preventive-care circles. We asked those selected about their home and where they go when they go out: supermarket, family clinic, hospital, beauty parlor, barber, bank, restaurants, day services, salons, etc. In total, we collected data from 323 people — 149 support- or care-requiring seniors and 174 healthier elder people.
3. Results and discussion As with the prior research results in Kanazawa, two layers of living areas were confirmed, but Kaga showed an expansion of living areas compared with Kanazawa. Accordingly, the distance traveled by support- or care-requiring seniors when they go out was longer. Although they had their own walking areas, they went out on foot relatively less often amid a noticeable dependence on vehicles as a means of transportation. A comparison of all eight districts within Kaga resulted in a bipolarization of districts — where the number of trips by seniors who walk only when they go out was either above or below the average number of such trips for all districts. For those seniors who walk more than average, it is possible that their walking routes complete their life. The primary factor influencing healthier elderly to go beyond the average distance when they go out was shopping facilities. For seniors who had come to require care services, easy access to secondary hospitals is important. The average living area frequented by the elderly had expanded to three districts for healthier seniors and to two districts for support- or care-requiring seniors. These districts happen to correspond with one to three junior high school districts. As the shopping facilities primarily sought by healthier elderly, and the secondary hospitals demanded by support- or care-requiring seniors, tend to concentrate in particular districts, we see the centralization of diverse daily living areas into multiple city cores.
In modern society, design problems are getting more and more complex and designers have to overcome them. Under this background, the aim of our study is to understand how designers exercise their creativity and establish a new methodology for creative designs. Especially we have focused on the concept of metaphor and its creativity in architectural design. In this paper, we deal with collaborative design in which many design subjects are involved and understand the functions of metaphors in the process of dialogue between them. To get a record of design process as an object of analysis, we conducted a design experiment in which two architectural students participated as designers. We used two methods for analysis of design process to know how their design is developed through metaphors in the dialogue between them.
Firstly, we tried to grasp how often design subjects have dialogue in the design process. We use the time of verbal act and the frequency of turn-taking as the indexes for the analysis of quantity of dialogue. The result is as shown below.
1) Metaphors activate a dialogic process developed by two design subjects. By using metaphors in a discussion with the other design subject, the time of verbal act of each design moves get shorter and the frequency of turn-taking increase. As a result, the design subjects can make a dialogue with each other more actively.
2) In the dialogic process through metaphors, not both but one of the design subjects in the team have an initiative to develop their design. Design subjects share many design languages of metaphors, but it doesn't mean that each subject develop his or her thinking equally actively but that one of the members in the team have a strong initiative and develop his or her ideas and then the other subjects understand what he or she is thinking about.
Secondly, we use the method of Linkography developed by G. Goldschmidt to clarify relations between design moves generated by two designers. Especially we applied network analysis to Linkograph based on graph theory. The result is as shown below.
3) By having discussions through metaphors, design subjects can share ideas and a strong consensus are built. Design subjects interpret a metaphorical language of designing based on their experience and understand its meanings clearly. As a result, they can share a central idea in a design process and build a strong consensus on the idea.
4) Design subjects can interpret a meaning of a metaphor in several ways and expand the conceptual domain of the design object. In general, we interpret a metaphor in several ways because interpretation of metaphors is based on an experience of interpreter. So there are cognitive discrepancies between design subjects and they can expand the conceptual domain in different directions building the strong empathy for their central ideas. By this cognitive mechanism, metaphors can support designer's creative thinking in collaborating design process.
We conducted a field survey on 316 cases of utilizing Privately Owned Public Spaces in New York City as antecedent cases for utilization of public spaces in Japan, and performed a comparative analysis with previous pictures captured in the preceding investigative study by Kayden in 2000 in order to superficially find out how POPSs are updated and managed. Taking into consideration the space characteristics of the created open spaces through discussion on the institutional background, we analyzed (1) the trend of updating in the whole city, (2) the components and updating systems of the updated spaces (3) the relationships of the updated cases with era, location, system, or scale. The object of this study is to obtain basic knowledge regarding what Japan should do to solve the problem of aging public open spaces that is getting severer.
Among the 316 cases, 313 cases existed as of the field study conducted in October, 2014.44% of them had been updated, confirming positive updating of such cases. The components of the updated spaces were itemized into 37 types, which were then categorized into 7 categories such as staying, construction, planting, environment/crime prevention, landscaping, signage, and facility. The categories of staying, construction, and planting, which largely depend on the quality of public spaces, account for 70% of the total, from which we could extract the problem of open spaces and the updating system as the solution for the problem.
Analysis on era: There are no updating cases among relatively new cases that were constructed after 1990s so that they are about 20 years old. The updating rate for cases for the constructions built in 1970s was about 50% or more, while cases constituted of plaza and Arcades under old open space regulations are likely updated. For cases constructed in late 1970s and early 1980s, the updating rate is about 40% or more. It can be said that the cases enter the updating phase after they reach about 30 years old.
Analysis on institution: The updating of cases under space regulation of staying type apparently exceeds the updating of cases under space regulation of staying type. Among POPSs created under new space regulation such as Urban Plaza and Residential Plaza, about 40% or more of them are operated continuously, and the highly potential open spaces are also updated without fail. For open spaces of in-house atrium type in Covered Pedestrian spaces, about 60% or more of the cases have been updated for installing signage and seats etc. to alleviate the difficulty of public recognition, and for reviewing of traffic lines.
Analysis on scales: Regarding space scales, many of the spaces are of small scales having 200 to 600 m2. However, the frequency of updating is greater especially for spaces of 600 to 1400 m2. The open spaces of large scale having 2000 m2 or greater are small in number but likely updated in large scale. Therefore, we could extracted the scale conditions preferable for updating.
We found that New York City have made excellent policy prescription for POPS and there is a need of updating system. We highly appreciated their persistent approach in which even small POPSs difficult to be used as staying spaces for people are also utilized for installation of public arts or planters etc. to make contribution to the community even if only slightly. We will carry on our study on these spaces including 57 cases currently under construction.
The decreasing population, declining birthrate and “greying” of society in Japan are very serious problems. There have been rapid changes in the environment around us in recent years, including an increase in the number of senior citizens and persons (children) with disabilities, a drop in GDP due to the decline in the working population, increasingly diverse lifestyles, and the creation of the “information society.” Based on societal circumstances in which attitudes toward mutual assistance and mutually complementary relationships have changed, the principle of normalization — enabling each individual to live a normal life to the greatest extent possible — is thought to be of crucial importance. For this reason, the creation of environments and spaces based on the principle of normalization will be more and more necessary for systematic urban design in the future. Moreover, the decline of central urban districts has been recognized as a problem, and there has also been a significant decline in the shopping streets that were once filled with vitality. The creation of shopping street environments that can be used in safety and comfort by as many people as possible — ranging in age from children to senior citizens and including persons with disabilities, families with small children and so on — to live independent lives will be more and more important from now on. It will also be important to determine the current state of shopping streets and the issues that must be resolved, and to use the results to effect modifications and improvements. This study examined four types of shopping street (neighborhood shopping streets, regional shopping streets, wide-area shopping streets and ultra-wide area shopping streets) in the Kanto region. The shopping streets were the same as in the previous report. The purpose of the study was to gather basic knowledge regarding the barriers in existing shopping streets (various problems and issues that prevent people from feeling safe and secure, or that inconvenience them and make them feel a lack of user-friendliness) over the passage of time, based on the relationship of people, activities and spaces. The previous report examined the current status of both buildings (indoor space) and the shopping street (outdoor space), and the issues relating to these spaces, from the standpoint of the operators. It also examined and reported on measures that could be implemented in the future at shopping streets based on the approach of creating environments to enable normalization in shopping streets. Based on the results of user attitudes and operator attitudes as reported in the previous study, this study compared the attitudes of users and operators to determine and report on the characteristics of the buildings (stores) making up the shopping street and the barriers that are present. The current state of the building and issues are considered from the standpoint of building access, based on the results of user attitudes as identified in the previous report. In addition, the current state of the buildings making up the shopping street and issues relating to these buildings, as seen from the attitudes of users and operators, were determined in order to study measures to create an environment for normalization at the shopping street in the future.
In suburb housing estate which has been developed during the high growth of economy period, expectation to close-residential relationship between the parents and child households shows an expanse. Such areas are mostly located in where traffic is inconvenient and have many problems such as building deterioration and increasing of advanced age household and unoccupied house. Therefore close-residential relationship advances to the institutionalization as one method of the young household invitation to suburbs area. In recent years support and promotion movement by local governments can also be seen. Because of longevity of the elderly person, two-income couple, and changes of family members, the differences appear in close-residential relationship between past and present. Based on a past study about how close-residential relationship plays a constant role by reducing the risk of daily life for the elderly households and child care support for raising child households, this study focus on substance grasp of close-residential relationship such as how they started to live in such relation and how the relation effect. The object is suburb housing estate located in Asahi-Ku, Yokohama-City which has developed from 1968. The questionary survey was carried out on the purpose of grasping the residence actual situation and residence intention. The map of the area was enclosed with the survey for checking where their family in near live or where they go out in daily life. To those who are in close-residential relationship, requested the hearing survey about how they and their close-residential household moved in and details of going-out activity. Adding the distance and geographical condition to data how daily going-out activity related with close-residential households can help understand specific situation of life in more comprehensive area and extract the problem. The following information was revealed about the (1)The present conditions for close-residential relationship The need of close-residential relationship in raising child households is potentially high. About 60% replies that they want to do live together or live close to parents household. It can be tell that the close-residential needs exists sequentially in future (2)Process of close-residential relationship The most reason is carried out by each other’s support need. It is often showed that the dwelling unit which parents household secured extra was replaced by as a house of child household. For the raising child household in lack of spare, it can be considered as substantial economical support from the parents household. (3)Characteristic of close-residential relationship: physical distance The distance between the households is concentrated in the walk distance zone within the range of 200m for less than 20 minutes, and the case within the range of 50m such as the same building and the next building is frequent also. However there is a case which moved to the next building after lived in the same building. (4)Characteristic of close-residential relationship: distance in living Visiting each other's house to support when needed has showed in going-out activity. It tends to deviate in particular from the child household to the parents household. Without supporting purpose going out with each other can be barely seen, and it refers that close-residential relationship is not related with going-out activity (5)A purpose and burden of close-residential relationship Close-residential relationship became a convincing support provider as both to child householder and parents householder. However, the possibility to rather burden when both households have no spare physically or in time but needed support was pointed out.
To realize a “green building”, the commissioning process of designing is vital. Projects adopted in the sustainable building pilot
program were investigated by interviewing designers, engineers and consultants. Commissioning works such as various goal settings,
responding to the index standards and certification systems, utilization of computational simulation and measurement technique
could be seen during the design process. Designers and engineers are expanding their expertise to assess environmental aspects,
while collaborating with consultants to create sophisticated simulations and measurements in their design. However, in several
projects, international standard such as performance goal-settings and analysis in early design phases were unaccomplished.
1.Purpose Because of the historical background, living environment and variety of occupation, Mongolian nomadic people's living style has been changed to settlement. Mongolian nomadic people's living style has been changed, for example, changed from no-?madism to semi-agricultural and semi-pastoral, the villager which people live together were built up. The research purpose of this paper is to clarify ?the change of recent occupation, living and lifestyle, ?the change and utilization of layout. 2.Method From 5th August to 14th August, 2012, we conducted interviews and investigations about measurement of site and house with regard to the12th houses of beeren baren hoxuu chagan os gachaa in region of horchin of Inner Mongolia. 3. Conclusions 1) In this region with stockbreeding's developing, agriculture is also becoming important products. The fixed residence is gachaa which is semi-agriculture and anti-stockbreeding. Engaged in agriculture and stockbreeding for one year, it is an important income. 2) Horses and camels in five pastoralists are reduced, recently the people raise sheep, goats and cows in stockbreeding. Corn growing is not only people's mainly food, but also become proceeds when the left corns were sold. The people feed the livestock on Stem and left of corn. 3) In region of Alxa and Xlin gol, we can see the change of spreading in the east and west on One, Two, Three-chamber. In region of horchin the limit of the site is exist, the houses are expanded to the south and north, the extension on the north side. 4) The house can be classified into 5 types — one chamber, two-chamber on one line, three-chamber on one line, three-chamber on two lines and several-chamber on two lines. Before the land distribution, payment in kind was basic, and the least area for a living in socialistic group system. At this time, the layout of a house has changed from one-chamber into two-chamber (D、G), then into three-chamber (Ju、B、G). After the firth land distribution, because of economic development of China and cash income of each household, the layout of a house was expanding, living room (Hm、T) was enlarged onto the north of the three-chamber on one line. The type of the baixing has changed one line into two lines. After the second land distribution, the layout of a house became complicated from the introduction of modern lifestyle was changed into several-chamber (Ju、B、G、T、Jo、Ho、U、Hm、A、Dn、Wu). 5) The type of the residence is relation to plane. One-chamber is bumbugenger. Two-chamber on one line is jimnger. Three-chamber on one line is jimnger duutyanger bantanger. Three-chamber on two lines which is baixing by brick is duutyanger bantanger. Several-chamber on two lines are almost the brick baixing. 6) According to change of layout, an action in the room also changed. All activities are in the one-chamber. In the case of two-chamber, go to bed, wait on customers, eat, and religious ritual are finished in one room, cook, wash, and receive are finished in the other room. The type of the baixing was expanded in the north side for cooking space. In the case of several-room on two lines, each room is also for the exclusive use. 7) Stockbreeding was changed into semi-agriculture and anti-stockbreeding. Although the fixed residence are progressing for a long time, traditional spatial form of Ger was still left. Concretely, room's entrance are facing south and southeast, the west side is the most important.
The urban population of developing countries is increasing rapidly. A result disturbing trend is the proliferation of informal housing development in most cities. Similarly, Kabul as one of those fast-growing cities has witnessed rapid urbanization with the many inevitable challenges including, the manifestation of informal settlements. Again, the limited capacity of the government to meet the high demand for building plots has led to growth of the informal settlements. This paper attempts to analyze the characteristics and conditions of phenomena of informal settlements in Kabul city, in order to assist in formulating and designing the most appropriate planning and policy strategies for their improvement. The paper found that the Informal settlements are mainly characterized by informal land tenure, inadequate access to basic urban services, substandard housing, and structures. Again, most of the residents in the surveyed areas were owner-occupiers rather than tenants as the land had been bought from local landholders or powerful individuals who had grabbed the undeveloped land and sold it at a very low price. Contrary to popular perception, residents comprised not only poor but also middle and higher income earners in the city.
This study, as a study of the Azabu-Juban shopping street, which was carried out street space development by business for the purpose of street space development, obtain basic knowledges by analysis of spatial transition of store placement and of fluctuation of land prices of the time series. In Chapter2-5, we organize previous studies, carried out the positioning of this study In Chapter6, we show that there is an increasing trend from year to food store has performed a street space development in the study area on the basis of the commercial statistical survey data. In addition, we plotted food stores of each time series on a map, and we reveal that food stores integrate in the area were carried out street space development. In Chapter7, by using rate of change of land assessments that eliminates the macro-economic change (the rate of change in the following post CI), we analyze time-series changes due to "street space development", "subway opened" , "around large-scale development". As a result, fluctuation rate after CI of this study area has been transformed into the area to rise than the Tokyo metropolitan area rate of change, because it shows the trend of upward than the Tokyo metropolitan area average commercial land price rate of change after the street space development. Further, although even average variation rate shows increasing direction, the variation rate after CI indicates that varies greatly increasing direction than the average variation rate after each business. Because variations in the average variation rate is the time to show a substantially linear increase, the difference in the magnitude of this variation can be considered a variation caused by the contents of each business. If compared, including up to the rate of increase, fluctuation rate after CI by street space development is the largest. In addition, as the premise of this rate of change, the influence of "street space development" is considered even larger , because the premise of this rate of change included influence of street space development, and influence of the development of transport infrastructure by the subway. Generally land assessments improved by the development of transportation infrastructure. From this study, the large effect remains temporary variations. Then the degree of decline shows the results that the rate of increase remain at the level of the average variation rate. In Chapter7－2, Along with the street space development, in a time series we showed the ratio of the number 12 and the other route value , In order to confirm the changes of structure of land assessments in the study area from 1984 to 2014. As a result, the street space development, give the changes of structure of land assessments of the region. Furthermore, the street space development shows result of increase of land assessments and maintenance of the status quo of land assessments. In Chapter7－3, by multiple regression analysis due to the cross section data for each age, We analyze whether or not to contribute to land assessments by the street space development. The results, Contribution to land assessments by street space development is smaller than the item of real estate. However, over the each age, but contribution to the land assessments by street space development is small, has revealed that the explanatory power there.
Post-War Reconstruction Urban Planning Project is unprecedented all over the world at the viewpoint of the scale and its planning technology and has given much impact to post-war urbanizing process in each city. But the detail and characteristics of its process at especially high economic growth period have been hardly clarified so far. Accordingly, the scope of this study is to clarify those characteristics from comparative investigation of 17 cities enforcing large-scale Post-War Reconstruction Project (PWRP) and to consider the relation between urbanized processes at high economic growth period and the first designation by area division system. This study is composed of six chapters and includes the analysis of urbanized processes at high economic growth period using multi variable analysis (3rd chapter), the analysis of urban planning characteristics after area division and the consideration of relation with the former urbanized processes (4th chapter), and case studies for typical cities (5th chapter). Consequently, this study clarified the followings: 1. While all target cities has similar condition as large-scale enforcement of PWRP, urbanized processes at high economic growth period are various and are divided into five groups. As for locational characteristics of land use zones extension, municipality consolidation and geographical condition are main factors for its area designation. 2. The first designation processes by area division system also are various and are divided into five groups. As for locational characteristics of land use zoning extension, influences of municipality consolidation and geographical condition became stronger because the first designation of urbanized promotion area was enforced in the outside of the former period. Additionally, from inclusion of industrial areas, relation with densely inhabited districts (DIDs), and locations of land readjustment, urbanized process characteristics changed from those at high economic growth period. 3. While new city planning law was established in 1968, old law has no system extending land use zones in line with population increase periodically. This system ‘population frame’ was established in new law. Therefore area scale of land use zones at high economic growth period was various in each city, but after area division, area scale differences of newly designated urbanized promotion area decreased. Population frame system had much impact to area scale of the first designation. 4. Regarding on the relation between urbanized processes at high economic growth period and the first designation by area division, the transition ways are divided into four groups and seven patterns from the extending scale of land use zones and land readjustment. In addition, from those transition patterns, we can consider planning problems of each city. Especially in cities where land readjustment projects were less progressed from 1945 to 1975 consistently, sprawl areas widely might have been formed from outers of PWRP to the first designation area of urbanized promotion area. But in spite of the cities where land readjustment projects had been enforced continually with PWRP, all land use zones at 1975 and all DID (1970) weren’t covered by land readjustment. As for urbanized processes, the extension of land use zones with infrastructure improvement in parallel is common problem in Japanese cities.
The purpose of this study is to indicate a new methodology of public facility management by comparing between the total amount of the capacity and the users' activity which is conducted at different time periods and then grasping the excess or deficiency condition of each capacity at the peak time when activity occurs. In the previous paper we could reveal the characteristics of each chamber required for each activity and lead to a consideration of the relationship with the capacity by grasping qualitative aspects of the activities of citizens in public facilities. In this paper we tried to analyze each facility in terms of the capacity without considering their functional types and chamber names. Furthermore, based on the analysis of the activity and capacity, we could find the excess or deficiency of specific capacity that we could not know in the conventional management methods by focusing on the peak hours when activity occurs. However 100% utilization rate is not realistic from operational point of view and further we must consider reorganization of the amount of the facilities in response to the changes of future needs.
Under the housing shortages of post-war Japan, housing co-ops began to be established in order to enable laborers to independently provision residential housing for themselves. The Tokyo Housing Co-op was established with a labor union in the construction industry as the parent body, and it aimed to provision housing to people living or working in the Tokyo suburbs. The aim of this research was to observe the process by which the living environment was formed in Kobushi-danchi, which was provisioned by the Tokyo Housing Co-op in 1966. The research analyzed the process by which common spaces were formed from the viewpoint of resident organizations based on a documentary investigation as well as interviews with residents. The results of this study are summarized below.
The management of Kobushi-danchi included the establishment and maintenance of common land and facilities as well as financing these activities. This management was undertaken by the residents' association, which led to the creation of common spaces. Before it became incorporated, the residents' association created common space by establishing a holistic management structure in conjunction with the Tokorozawa Co-op, which was also created by the residents.
The management of the residents' association was undertaken by committees comprising volunteer residents. These committees were responsible for creating common spaces that aimed to resolve various issues that arose as part of residents' daily lives. It should be noted that committees typically did not exist for a long period of time; rather, they had specific objectives of limited scope, and they disbanded after a relatively short period of time.
Common spaces established as part of committee activities included an unauthorized childcare center that later grew into a highly communal facility as well as a municipal childcare center that was established by donating a piece of common land as an enticement. Among the common spaces owned and managed by the residents' association, there were also facilities that contributed to preventing disasters and crime for neighboring residents. It should be noted that the unauthorized childcare center has since closed down, reflecting the declining birth rate and aging population.
At Kobushi-danchi, the Tokyo Housing Co-op developed a common land that was much larger in area than other typical housing projects and helped to create resident organizations that then became responsible for the maintenance of the common land. These provisions of residential housing were based on an independent housing construction movement by laborers, and all residents belonged to the same social class. We can say that this is a factor that contributed to the formation of common space based on the management undertaken independently by the residents.
About 80 percent of elderly households have no income except the pension. According to statistics, these households require an additional 60,000 yen to live each month. For this reason, they suffer the risk of using up their savings while they are alive. Therefore, we consider that it might be effective for elderly households to have another source of income. On the other hand, more than 80% elderly households own real estate assets. Promoting real estate assets utilization is considered effective as a method for improving the household budget of elderly households, because elderly people tend to consider that they want to inherit the assets to child households. Already, it has been found that it is difficult to promote real estate assets utilization of elderly households in metropolis. If the elderly rent his or her real estate assets in metropolis, the rent tend to be too high for young households. But, this problem might not occur in suburban areas because land prices in suburban areas tend to be lower than that of commutable areas. Also, there are many workers who live in rented houses in commutable ranges of suburban areas. Thus, there is no need to establish new work places and employment opp.ortunities to find tenants. The purpose of this study is to clarify the possibility that tenants are found and income of rent takes the economic benefit to the elderly households living in suburban areas if they make use of their real estate assets. So, we presumed the rent function from the data of rental housing located in the suburban areas and estimated the rent level of housing stocks with average specs elderly households are living in. As a result, in half of the suburban areas of large cities, the elderly household's real estate assets were estimated to be more than 100,000 yen per month. In suburban areas of small cities, their real estate assets are expected to produce more than 50,000 yen per month of rental income. Then, we compared these results and the rent level that households living in rented house in commutable areas are paying. As a result, in almost all of the suburban area, the number of households living in rented houses who are expected to improve their household budgets by moving to elderly household's residences was more than the number of elderly households living in suburban areas. But, if tenants contract residences which require refurbishment, they have to continue to borrow these housing stocks for about 12 to 21 years in order to obtain the benefit. Finally, we compared the levels of rent income that elderly households gain at the time of utilizing their real estate assets and the levels of living expenses that elderly households pay when they relocate. As a result, in almost all of the suburban areas, there are dwellings which improve their household budgets when they relocate. From the above analysis, there is enough possibility that lenders are found. Furthermore, utilizing real estate assets is likely to bring economic benefits to the elderly households. On the other hand, according to statistics, the number of dwellings that elderly people can borrow tend to be less than that of elderly households in suburban areas. In addition, since these dwellings tend to be narrow, elderly households have to consider how to handle their furniture in the time of relocation. These are cited as obstacles to promoting real estate assets utilization.
Since office buildings vary in location, size, facility, rent and so on, it is difficult to illustrate their market with the average of such indices; segmentation according to those building specifications (specs) is needed. As an example of segmentation, some real estate-related companies grade office buildings according to their specs. Although their standards differ from each other, a few companies use the height and age of buildings. Conversely, attributes such as location, gross floor area, base floor area and building age are commonly used even though their values still differ for each company. Moreover, the number of grades differs from company to company, with there being two to four grades. These standards of grades have monotonicity, with wider floor area, newer buildings, etc. being better. In foreign countries, real estate-related companies also grade office buildings and make market reports on the basis of the grade. For example, Building Owners Management Association, which is an organization of office building owners in the United States, sets three grades of buildings, as A, B and C, in descending order and defines the overall characteristics of each grade. This grade differs from that of Japan in that rent is considered to be one of the building specs. Standards of the office building grade evaluation are subjective, sensory, and differ from company to company in that one company might deem a building to be A grade and the other might deem the same building to be B grade. With the above discussion as the backdrop, we propose a quantitative grading method for office buildings. This method optimizes the thresholds of each spec of office buildings so as to maximize the variance ratio of contracted rents of targeted office buildings for each grade. We formulate this problem as parametric mixed integer programming and validate the method with the data of office buildings located in 23 Tokyo wards in 2013 and 2014. In the experiments, we tested 11 combinations of building specs. The results of the experiments support the following conclusions. Compared with the existing typical office building grades published by some companies, the proposed method can grade office buildings that exhibit an increased variance ratio of rent. The best combination of building spaces derived by the proposed method comprises the following specifications: a location that is within the main five wards, building age, total floor area, base floor area and ceiling height. These specs differ slightly from those of the existing standards. The existing standards tend to classify buildings that have rents close to the average of different grades; overlaps of rents between different grades are often seen. Conversely, the proposed method sets the grade to classify buildings that have high rents in different grades. Since the term of the data used for this experiment is only 2 years, we need longer-term data to validate the stability of the derived building specs. In addition, since we limited the combination of attributes to 11 due to the constraint of computational time, we should examine the combination of attributes exhaustively.
Chapter 1. In this research, storehouses of domains in the Otsu rice market are studied, which do not have any architectural remains and not draw much attention in the architectural history, and the purpose is to clarify the principle of spatial structures and key points of building structures. I pointed out that the rice exchange house that controlled rice transactions occupied an important position in the Otsu rice market. Chapter 2. It shows past studies and procedures of the study. The six storehouses were examined, for which their conditions in the domain administration can be known from the drawing. Chapter 3. It shows the formation, positional relation between a rice exchange house and a storehouse, and facts of building arrangement for each storehouse. In Otsu town, the storehouses were established with the rice exchange house at the center. They can be classified according to the location. The type II formed a streetscape with shophouses. The one side of the site faced the street while the other side faced the Lake. On the other hand, Hikone-gura(type I) was located on the back of the shophouse, and its site was sticking out toward the Lake like peninsular. Regardless of the type, the storehouses in the later stage of domain administration could be divided into three sections: the residence of officers, the storage like storehouses and the place for unloading. And the front gate and the stepped pier called Gangi (or landing pier) are connected with the passage (or garden). When looking at building arrangement of the type II, regardless of the size of the site, a residence, storehouse and shrine were located closer to the rice exchange house. The wing of the storehouse was facing to the street. The front side of the shrine was facing to the passage. At the storehouse front or unloading place, there was a place with a fence called Haeba, and the three sections as described above also had fences on the border. On the other hand, building arrangement of Hikone-gura(type I) was different from the type II. The wing of the storehouse was not facing to the street while the front side of the shrine was facing to the street. Chapter 4. The meaning of common/different points in spatial structures clarified in Chapter 3 was studied. First, I thought that the three sections were formed according to conditions of transportation of goods in any storehouses. Second, building arrangement of the type II could be established based on spatial recognition with placing the rice exchange house at the higher level. As the result, the location of the main residence was determined, but rational utilization of the land was achieved by placing the storehouses next to the residence. With regard to Hikone-gura(type I) located on the back of the shophouse, its front gate was open at the corner of the site near the rice exchange house, and the main residence was located on the center of the site. Third, when looking from the storehouse, it was considered that the defense line was established by a fence of Haeba or partition on the border. Furthermore, all storehouses commonly had double defense lines on the lakeside. Fourth, the reason for building arrangement of Hikone-gura(type I) that differs from the type II could be due to special conditions of its location. Fifth, the shrine was arranged with the storehouse in mind. Chapter 5. In conclusion, the Otsu storehouse was formed based on the principle of spatial structures with transportation of goods, and lakeside defense was focused in the building structure.
This article examined enlargement construction of the Yoshizawa's main house in 1913 from the building and the building document both sides. It's the following points to become clear. The entrance hall part built in the front of the main house at the time in the middle of the Meiji era is connected. It was revealed that the main house body portion was enlarged in 1913 from the building document and the inscription of the ridge-end tile. The main house was modified from wood-roofing to tile-roofing in 1913. This is a precious example indicating the tile-roofing having spread here from this time. Eikichi Kaneyasu estimated the central room enlargement construction of 1913 at first in July, 1912. And Eikichi showed the estimate with changing it again in November, 1912, but the estimate to change of December was shown by Hamakichi Nishiwaki. Eikichi Kaneyasu cannot carry out construction and can I judge that Nishiwaki succeeds a contract of Eikichi and carried it out. By the enlargement construction of 1913, there were at least three times of estimates by changing it. A roof was changed from thatching the roof with shingles to the tile-roofing by the first change of November, 1912. The expansion of the scale and the second-floor plan were added by the second change of December, 1912. The third change of March, 1913 changed the eaves. As a result, the building area of the central room increased 3.7 times as much as the estimate at first. This enlargement is a precious example indicating the tile-roofing having spread here from this time. Moreover, the maker who supplied the tile to the enlargement construction of the main house was Shiono Takezo of Zingamine.
The former Tsugumichi Saigou's house is designated as an important cultural property of Japan, also removed from Meguro-ku, Tokyo and rebuilt to the Meiji-Mura, Aichi; however the building date of the house is not conventionally identified. Since a new document, which indicates the building time of the house, has been found, this article aims to examine the validity of the document and discuss the building time and the background of improvement of the house. In the early modern times, the site was occupied as a suburban residence by the local lord Nakagawa of Bungo-takada, and Tsugumichi purchased it for 1, 300 yen, around 1874. This was considered that he prepared the house for his older brother Takamori moving up to Tokyo after resigning his post; however, he committed suicide in 1877 after the Satsuma Rebellion. According to the found document, the Yomiuri Shimbun, November, 9, 1890, it is identified that Joto-shiki (the roof-raising ceremony) of the former Tsugumichi Saigou's house was held in the early November, 1890. The house was honored to accept the royal visit in May, 1889, and right before that the Japanese hall was built. In addition, around 1888, the garden of the house was landscaped; flowers of each seasons were planted including plum trees and cherry trees. Later, in 1962, the Meiji-Mura received the transfer of the building, and the removing and rebuilding construction to Aichi was carried out in 1964. In addition, in the Meiji era, it was required to respect the dignity of the emperor more than the harmony of the top and bottom for the royal visit. Therefore, new constructions and landscaping gardens were carried out in many hosting houses.
In this paper, I outline the birth and development of department store architecture in modern Japan and the interrelation of profitability and architectural plans by examining the case of the Mitsukoshi flagship store at Nihonbashi. This paper covers the following five periods of development: (1) 1914: Completion of the Main Building's Construction Efforts were taken to construct spaces such as entryways and stairwells to instill a sense of splendor and novelty in visitors. Expressing the establishment of the business style of the department store was regarded as the primary matter of importance, and little thought was given to profitability. A dry-goods business model was still followed, and suitable architectural plans were made for this model. (2) 1921: Completion of Restructuring and Expansion Work An intentional expansion of the sales area was undertaken in response to perceived demand. An awareness of profitability began to be reflected in architectural plans. Specialization of clerical work was also observed. The service model of the dry-goods model was still being followed, but now a rationalization of the store's management system led to a change in the service model, and this change was also reflected in the architectural plans. (3) 1927: Completion of Restoration Work for the Whole Building There was a small increase in the percentage of pure sales space. This was the result of the consideration of other methods of profit maximization besides increased sales space, such as attracting customers through enhancing guest facilities and an increase in customer turnover rate through changes in line flow, floor organization, and clearance practices, which was accompanied by the discontinuation of footwear due to a decrease in demand following the Great Kanto Earthquake. The changes reflected the popularization and expansion of department stores and, ironically, suggested that the earthquake provided an opportunity to plan a full-scale shedding of the dry-goods model. (4) 1935: Completion of Restructuring and Expansion Work Pure sales area proportion was decreased for the restoration of stairwells and to enhance customer facilities. This proactive reevaluation of construction plans for stairwells, introduction of a large-scale event hall, and use of basement selling space had not been present in the previous phase. These actions were attempts to attract customers, which in turn reflected the popularization of department stores. (5) 1956: Completion of Restructuring and Expansion Work This period saw no significant alteration in the architectural plans for the floor area, but there were fine adjustments and enhancements such as the extension of the façade along Nihon-odori by filling out the block, refinement of characterization through orientation, adjustment of line flow, increase of sales space, and refinement of vertical organization considering customer access.
The discontinuation of footwear after the earthquake, the minimization and subsequent restoration of the splendid staircases, and the expansion of utilized space were all direct and significant sources of the changes in architectural plans. However, one can infer from a comparison of floor plans and the distribution of floor space that each architectural plan or act of restructuring and expansion was also designed to actualize changes in sales methods that coincided with changes in floor organization and in the store's customer base. The raison d'être for the department store's architecture and the managers' greatest demand to designers was to improve sales. Because of this, each architectural plan was an optimized solution not just to realize the maximization of the profitable area but also to achieve an increase in customers through the consideration of changes in the customer base.
The number of Tsunami Evacuation Buildings is increasing after the Great East Japan Earthquake. However, a fact-finding for Tsunami Evacuation Buildings doesn't continue by Japanese government. Moreover, the guideline for Tsunami Evacuation Buildings was updated focus on structural requirements or positional requirements. For this reason, An actual decision of constructions of Tsunami Evacuation Buildings is left to the municipality's discretion. In this situation, constructions of Tsunami Evacuation Buildings have been improved without due thought or consideration for evacuation action because it's in the first stage that designate institution satisfied structural requirements for Tsunami Evacuation Building. So in this study, to elucidate concepts of Tsunami Evacuation Building planning that is going to effectively utilize, we focus on newly built Tsunami Evacuation Building and analyze the relation between spatial composition and function as evacuation facilities from there. For survey method, we used E-mail as questionnaire survey for 643 municipalities along the shore. And then, we contact them again for get information of building plan especially inside a building (like a floor plan or a cross section plan etc.) if they have newly built Tsunami Evacuation Buildings. The result of this study is as follow: 1. Confirmed 9,103 Tsunami Evacuation Buildings from municipalities along the shore. 2. Grasped tendencies of construction of Tsunami Evacuation Buildings by comparison with past surveys. 3. Confirmed 77 newly built Tsunami Evacuation Buildings and grasped distributions, attributions and necessary conditions for constructions of newly built Tsunami Evacuation Buildings. 4. Grasped patterns of spatial composition of inside a building from the formation of the architecture and volumes of staircase. 5. Grasped functions as evacuation facilities in the newly built Tsunami Evacuation Building. 6. Newly built Tsunami Evacuation Buildings may be divided into 2 types by organizing the relation between spatial compositions and function as evacuation facilities. Consequently, to grasp characteristics of newly built Tsunami Evacuation Buildings will help building new constructions.
This study was conducted to consider the factors related to change in Noh stage style using <<johakyu go dan>> (johakyu five parts), which was established by Zeami (1363-1443) as “The grammar of Noh.” To this end, we examined the relations between Noh stage (jo zone, ha zone, and kyu zone) and musical accompaniment and dancing by employing three-dimensional computer graphics (3DCG) and statistical methods. Research was conducted with emphasis on the relation between the following two points as a method to clarify the factors of change in Noh stage after Zeami’s time. 1) Zeami changed ancient Chinese three-part <johakyu> to the five-part style of <<johakyu go dan>>, incorporated it into Noh scripts with dancing, chanting, and musical accompaniment, and formulated the basic principle: “The grammar of Noh.” 2) Areas for <johakyu> exist on a Noh stage, each of which has a conventional direction method. It is designed to enhance stage effects to a great degree. The following findings were obtained: 1. We tried to extract <johakyu> from data of small hand drums, shouts, and dancing. The results led us to observe the following characteristics of <johakyu>: “The part of jo is light, and the expression is slightly rough, ” “Ha delicately folds ups and down, adds a little relaxation, and keeps a moderate speed, ” and “Kyu is very fast and tense, and the tempo becomes faster.” Furthermore, in the part called “kuse” in which the most characteristic acting is performed in a Noh drama, the characteristics of <<johakyu go dan>> were noticed clearly. 2. Results of statistical analysis revealed correlation existed between each zone and each area of <johakyu> of Noh stage and dancing and musical accompaniment (small hand drums and shouts) of <<johakyu go dan>>. Therefore, we found that <<johakyu go dan>> might be involved in change in Noh stage style. Noh was mainly a Shinto ritual until the Heian period (794-1185). It had been developed and initiated by shrines and temples. After the Kamakura period (1185-1333), public entertainment such as Kanjin (temple solicitation)-Noh performance rose suddenly and reached its prime during the Muromachi period (1336-1573). Coupled with that, shoguns and court nobles came to play the role of Noh supporters instead of shrines and temples. <<Johakyu go dan>> was effective to attract shoguns and nobles with performance as seen in Fushikaden written by Zeami. It is considered that the construction of stage space was necessary to practice <<johakyu go dan>> effectively.
Recently, there are many serious problems in welfare environment for the aged and the handicapped including women, infants, children and foreigners. These problems are also serious in architectural field. However, it is not easy to think that university students who are majoring in architecture consider these problems seriously. Furthermore, programs of university have changed for ten years. We have conducted questionnaire surveys to the first and the third grade of the university students majoring in architectural field in Kansai University from 2006 to 2015. In this study, we clarified the change in “consciousness”, “action” and “knowledge” of the students to the aged and the handicapped for ten years. The results are as follows. (1) From 2006 to 2015, in the consciousness, there was no significant change in both the first and the third grade students. However, in the action, the students have come to act, considering the aged and the handicapped in both grades. The knowledge of the third grade students about welfare for the aged and the handicapped has increased. In addition, the factors influenced by social background in ten years were incidents, accidents, disasters, economy, social problems and daily scenarios of the students' life. (2) With regard to the consciousness, however the students considered that the welfare problems for the aged and the handicapped were serious, they gave priority to themselves because of the Japan’s economic slump and poverty of the students. Therefore, the university should introduce the appropriate welfare-related part-time jobs to the students to deepen the students' understanding of the welfare problems through interacting with the aged and the handicapped, and support students' economic environment. (3) Concerning the action, the students have come to have good manner and to take the welfare action into account. The university should support the welfare activities and the campaigns which enhance students' action so that the students can work on them positively. (4) Regarding the knowledge, because the number of the university classes on the welfare for the aged and the handicapped has increased and has changed since 2007, the knowledge of the third grade students has risen. Moreover, the number of the students who acquire knowledge of the welfare problems from “magazines, books”, “television and radio” has decreased. However, the knowledge of them has risen year by year. Therefore, there is a possibility that students' knowledge can be raised by introducing the appropriate books and television programs to the students in order to give the chance to get information. (5) There is a possibility that the action and the knowledge of the third grade students becomes higher as they think that the university is making an effort to the welfare for the aged and the handicapped well. Therefore, the university should promote the barrier-free campus, buy and sell the products that the handicapped made, and invite the aged and the handicapped as a lecturer. (6) The welfare experience asked in this questionnaire didn't influence on the students' consciousness, action and knowledge well. The university should make opportunities to visit welfare facilities for the students in order that they can interact with the aged and the handicapped, and should try and examine constantly to connect the students' experience and their consciousness, action and knowledge.