This study aims to evaluate evacuation safety using an evacuation behavior framework which deals several evacuation behavior models. In this paper, we implemented two crowd walking models, namely, the Social Force model and the RVO model. The Social Force model is a dynamical model which solves Newton's motion equation. On the other hand, the RVO model is an expanded model of velocity obstacles for collision avoidance. When we try to understand the characteristics of these models, the results are as follows. If the desired speed of the agents are over 3.5 m/s, the flow coefficient of the Social Force model declines because of increasing the frequency of arch actions. However the flow coefficient of the RVO model does not decline. As regards an application to the evacuation from a building, the flow of a room decline because of the crowded corridor.
The majorities of previously cultivated lands that have been abandoned are remarkably inconvenient places and constitute a weak point for the community as a whole. This is especially true in the valleys and areas that are in the shadow of mountains, as the production conditions are poor and easily influenced by damage from wildlife. The damage from natural disaster reduces the motivation of farmers to engage in farming, and this paper argues that this is one of the factors behind the generating in cultivated land which is abandoned, which in turn invites more wildlife damage as a part of a vicious cycle. It was clarified that the damage by natural disaster was one of the main drivers in the abandonment of cultivated land, and it was shown that an increase of as little as 3% in repair costs led farmers to abandoned cultivated land which led farmers to lose the desire and ability to continue farm production.
An investigation on the influence of the Building Standard Law (BSL) regarding the conversion from buildings built for other purpose into rental housings exclusively for elderly (RHEE) is carried out. a) Minimum requirements of the pre- and the post-converted useages are compared based on the BSL. It is found that conversions from hospitals into RHEE have the least, and conversions from offices or stores have the most legal difficulties. b) Based on hearing investigations, actual constructions conducted to comply the Law are analyzed. - In case the buildings' useages of pre- and post-conversion belong to a same Special Building Group, internal walls are usually reuseable. In case they belong to different Special Building Groups, large-scale reconstructions of the internal space are usually required. - Conversions into RHEE are difficult if the distance from the site edge to the main daylighting face of the building is not adequately long.
The aim of this study is to clarify the space organization and space utilization of Anlong Ta Uor village, Tonle Sap Lake, Cambodia. We extracted 100 raft houses by fieldwork and analyzed them. The raft house consists of four spaces, front veranda, living room, private rooms and backside veranda. We can classify these houses in five house types and conclude‘front veranda - main rooms - backside kitchen’is basic composition. We also clarify various function of veranda by checking things there and openness of living room by checking the existence of doors and windows. Finally by surveying inhabitants' activities, collaborative use of living rooms and verandas can be realized by connecting floating houses with each other.
(Objectives) 1) To examine the present conditions of after-school childcare in the cooperated “After-School Child Plan” program. 2) To determine the ideal model of a childcare program. 3) We examine by grasping the global image of the plan. (Methods) 1) We classified the present condition of childcare offered by 15 local government programs on the basis of our analysis of the data obtained through hearings, observations, and questionnaires. 2) We analyzed the results that were revealed through the classification. 3) We analyzed synthetically by the result of (2) and the first report. (Results) 1) Based on the analysis, we classified the cooperated programs into five types. 2) We concluded that among these five cooperated program models program type 6 was the most desirable. 3) The global image of the plan was shown by Fig.4.
In this paper, Competitive Facilities Location Problem is concerned. Initially Reilly-Huff Integration Model is proposed. In the model, new concepts: Maximum Realized Demand and a new parameter of cost other than distance are introduced. Competitive location problem to maximize each facility's realized demand is proposed. Then a method of solution based on heuristic method is presented for finding the optimal and equilibrium facility location. Finally, optimal and equilibrium location is simulated, compared and analyzed, and the characteristics of presented location model are investigated.
This thesis is a research on the design method of topography used in KangQI's Architectural Works. In the present study, 22 architectural works were picked up, and six kinds of design method of topography were derived from the analysis of the topography together with the arrangement method, the floor shape, the wall shape, and the roof geometry. Furthermore, it was shown there are two kinds of correspondence methods in KangQI's work, the different design approach and the space and the externals expression correspondence, based on the relationships between these design method and the topography.
The purpose of this paper is to show the relation between utilization of local resources and school's cooperation with community in the environmental education activities. The way of investigation was a questionnaire to elementary schools in Tochigi Prefecture. Results are as follows: (1) Relations between the theme, the place and local cooperation of environmental education activities were analyzed and activities were classified into five types; (2) The comparative analysis showed differences of types in each local characteristic; (3)One type of using facilities was found in urban areas, and three other types of using local natural resources were in rural areas; (4) Improvement of playgrounds and natural resources around schools, and construction of cooperative relationship between the school and community are both necessary for promoting environmental education activities.
With regard to the fact that abandoning of farmland is inevitable due to diminishing work force in Japan, this paper aims to investigate ways to manage cultural landscape by regional shrinkage of cultivated area. The difficulty of farmland concentration by farmland relocation is clarified through survey questionnaires and interviews. Because the citrus orchard involves long-term management, it is found that its discontinuity is what discourages inheritance of agricultural platform to the next generation. This paper concludes with the potential solution to this problem by introducing an example of mutual complement between incoming and elderly farmers, which is a way to manage cultural landscape by sustainable inheritance of agricultural platform, and discusses the possibility of downscaling-design.
Revitalization of downtown shopping areas to attract people for strolling, shopping, or dinning there has become one of the important tasks of the downtown planning. As the first step of studies, the authors, assuming the distribution of multiple “neighborhood”, clusters of distinctive and fashionable shops developed along both main shopping arcades and human-scale streets behind them, will promote visitors' strolling activities in the downtown, analyzed a present formation of the neighborhood in the downtown Kumamoto. For the study, the authors, setting 2484 observation points along the all streets in the study area at 10m pitch, counted the number of floor-use units by type of use for all floors of all buildings that locate within 30m buffer circle of each observation point, and then classified each point applying the primary component analysis and the cluster analysis to those floor-use data, as well as several additional data that represent building size and location feature. Assuming a case that five or more contiguous observation points are classified as the same character represents formation of a distinctive neighborhood, the authors identified 80 neighborhoods, and, then, pointed out both advantages and disadvantages of present neighborhood structure in promoting visitors strolling activities. The case study for Kumamoto showed the applicability of proposed procedure for the similar planning task.
The purpose of this research is to clarify the influence of city highway removal on its roadside area. Recently, many big cities have been conducting urban regeneration projects through city highway removal. One of the cases is Cheonggyecheon Restoration Project in 2003 in Seoul, Korea. City highway removal not only has a great influence on the change of the near by area, but it also influences the C.B.D formation and location of city's facilities on the larger scale. In addition, the redevelopment project achieved significant improvement. It is found that the stimulating factors are decrease in number of merchant and dwelling amenity improvement.
This paper discusses the characteristics of the urban tissue of faubourg Saint-Antoine area in Paris, by focusing on the morphological features of streets and parcels in relation to those formations. First, analyzing old maps and archives, the transition of urbanization is classified into three stages. Second, the formation of streets is clarified by analyzing the chronological order of the streets construction. Then, by considering both of streets and building construction together, 8 types of parcels formation patterns appear, which have different morphological features. Finally, by examining the distribution of each pattern, the characteristics of urban tissue of faubourg Saint-Antoine area appear, which shows the complexity of this area.
When one owner of the wooden building reconstructs to the fireproof building, the expectation of the profit of the owner is theoretically obtained, and the possibility condition of reconstruction is shown. Furthermore, it is shown that the profit expectation of owner who does not reconstruct is positive. It is shown that the possibility of reconstruction to fireproof urban district increases if the owners of the free ride are taxed, and the owner of reconstruction building is supported.
This paper aims to clarify the effect of living environments improvement system based on citizen proposals focusing on Yokohama-city Machi-bushin project that Yokohama-City made a grant five millions yen per proposal at the maximum to the proposal groups to improve their living environments. As a result, this system made it possible to dig up valuable and flexible proposals which came from each community needs, and to produce the collaborative occasions with all concerned to realize their proposals. But almost proposals hardly possible because of consensus building and so on were not selected even though the proposals may have contributed to the community development. It is necessary to support continuously to realize their proposals and to give guidance to district planning.
The purpose of this thesis is that we grasp the inhabitants consciousness and the characteristic of the community action, and clarify the relevance of inhabitants characteristics and the methods for administrating neighborhood. We analyze the inhabitants consciousness and the characteristic of the community action in two districts from the questionary survey, and from hearing investigation about the methods for administrating neighborhood of both districts. As a result, we find that the methods for administrating neighborhood are reflected by the inhabitants consciousness and the characteristic of the community action came from sense of values or the lifestyle. In other words, community conference does not always strengthen community actions.
To create good urban form, correlation of various factors is significant. Cities and projects have executed coordination systems such as municipal urban design team, town management, design review and so on. This paper focuses on urban design center as an organization to contribute spatial design, to provide platform to local communities, to have its own place open to public and to be run by experts. The case is Urban Design Center Kashiwa-no-ha, which has been managed since 2006 by local government, communities, universities and developer to work for a suburb being developed around a commuting station in Tokyo Metropolitan Area.
The aim of this paper is to clarify the model of spatial practical use of parking lots from the example of multipurpose of parking lots in the central area of local cities. Initially the spatial composition of parking lots are classified into 3 patterns from their scale and shape and surrounding environments, and from these patterns the characteristic of 10 streets are shown. Secondly the methods of multipurpose are classified into 3 types from period and sphere of use. Finally 4 models of spatial practical use are clarified through the spatial patterns and use types. These models are shown in the streets, and by comparing each models with street, the actual situation of spatial practical use of parking lots is shown.
In this article, we analyze the occupancy length and vacancy length of tenants located in 52 rental office buildings in main five wards of Tokyo by using survival analysis. Since the rental office market tends to change periodically, we model the phenomenon of the periodic change of 2-dimentional time-series data of tenant and vacancy rate by the ellipse approximation method. Average occupancy length is about 13 years. Attributes contributing to the increase of the occupancy length are building age and image of the rental room and etc. Average vacancy length is about 88 days. Attributes contributing to the decrease of vacancy length are good rental room image, high land price per floor-space ratio and the market condition such that its state is recovery or boom state, and etc.
The purpose of this study is to analyze the relation between the life history contains building, rebuilding and extension of Minka as well as change of family members, and change or follow the names of rooms or houses. According to “Sekiguchi family diary”, the main building added a retirement and mud walled warehouse as time went by. The lifetime of each building was quite long. Reuse of old materials and houses was often. Building by new materials was done only when the head of family had wedding or inheritance. As for the names of rooms, a main room with ‘toko’ was called ‘okunoma’ consistently even through the rebuilding or inheritance. For the daily living room, the new name ‘chanoma’ was adopted instead of ‘hiroma’ by the chance of rebuilding in Meiji era.
The purpose of this study is to analyze the architectural characteristic of WangjiaDayuan Gaojiaya for Heyuan aggregate in Shanxi China, by researching the house in Heyuan which compose situation and the distribution among them. For this study, according to deliberate three viewpoints of Heyuan's type, Jinluo's composition and use subject (residents) about each Heyuan, it could be defined a centripetal characteristic exist in situation as a whole. Furthermore specifically it could be developed that three Jin's Siheyuan of master and the family used as living space which has a hall was arranged in the center of the situation, another three Jin's Siheyuan of master and the family used as attached living space which has no hall was arranged next to them, then one Jin's Sanheyuan which security guard, employee lived was separated from Siheyuan by way and set at the edge of the situation.
There are few studies about Chinese dwelling houses in historical ages because there are small research materials for it. However, there are many descriptions of dwelling houses in the records of disaster and extraordinary phenomena. Such descriptions are very simple but the total number of these descriptions is large. So I picked up such descriptions from Song-shi 宋史 and counted each term which may mean dwelling houses. As results, I got many terms and analyzed main 7 terms. Lushe 廬舎 means popular buildings, Min-she 民舎 means popular buildings of non-government people, Min-lu 民廬 means buildings which made by light materials, Min-ju 民居 means dwelling houses, Tian-lu 田廬 means buildings with fields, Jie 家 means someone's house, Wu 屋 means buildings and roofs.
This study aims to analyze the urban design of Budapest around 1900 induced by the construction of Erzsébet Bridge, which was planned in 1891 to connect two old areas of the city separated by the Danube. When its location was discussed, there was a dispute over whether the Belváros Parish Church on the Pest side should be demolished or not. The bridge was constructed on the axis of a street which passed close to the church. As a consequence of the choice of the location, the street from the bridge on the Buda side, the opposite side of the river, led to the steep cliff of the Gellért Hill. After the construction of the bridge began, plans to emphasize monumentality of the surrounding areas were proposed on the both side of the river. On the Buda side, a large statue of St. Gellért became the focal point of the street from the bridge. On the Pest side, the moving of the parish church using a technique introduced from the United States was proposed. The moving was not only regarded as economical means of urban planning but also as an opportunity to attract international attention.
The intention of this paper is to make a thematic explication of William Morris's theory of creation through inquiring into his concept of “handicraft”. In 1880s Morris played an active part as a socialist as well as a craftsman. From an ethical point of view, he insisted that methods of handicraft would bring double pleasure of lovely surroundings and happy work to workmen. Chapter 2 illustrates the characteristics of Morris's statements in 1880s. In Chapter 3, the meaning of production by methods of handicraft is analyzed. In Chapter 4, the relation of methods of handicraft and lovely surroundings is analyzed.
The protection and conservation of twentieth century architectural heritage is a world wide concern. There is vast amount of existing twentieth century architectural heritage; moreover they are important layer of the city's history. So there should be more efficient way of conservation_not only protecting the elitist heritage but also various heritages of twentieth century architectural heritage. In the master plan of Helsinki city, there are many places that are protected. They consist various architectural heritage; from the individual architecture to whole suburban areas. So this article analyses masterplans issued in 1992 and 2002 by Helsinki City Planning Bureau and reveals how the twentieth century architectural heritages are treated in the masterplans.