Up to now, most of care services for the elderly have being provided by formal care (ex. government) and in-formal care (ex. family, private business). But with the recognition of the importance for a full life in community, citizens begin to create, provide and use care services by themselves. This study aims to clarify the relationship between the elderly's social life in community and house open to community. For this objective, 14 elderly living in one region which has animated community work cooperated with clinic were surveyed by means of deep interview. The results of the analysis are as follows. 1) Non-formal care (ex. citizens) plays a important role to keep living in community. 2) Institution for the elderly hereafter will be supported by not only formal care but also non-formal and in-formal care.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the continuation and the cause factors of resident's spontaneous action at the rebuilt multiple dwelling houses. This study is considered the three viewpoints "change of place", "change of substance", "change of consciousness" distinguished the spontaneous action between physical and community. And this study can be summed up as follows. We should consider the several factors as to urge the resident's spontaneous action, "background of society and era", "spatial condition", "activity of autonomy", "method of renovation", "attribute of residents", "construction of residents".
This research aims at analyzing residents' evaluation for residential environment in and around rental apartment houses complexes built by OSAKA Prefectural Housing Corporation by using covariance structure analysis with the questionnaire survey data. After comparing the result of analyzing twelve items by using multi-regression analysis and covariance structure analysis, and the intermediate effect of physical environment on total evaluation, the viability of the model made from covariance structure analysis was tested. It is found out that the models by sex were not valid on evaluation for residential environment. Finally, the analysis of historical effect on residents' evaluation for residential environment by using mean-covariance structure analysis indicates that only mean factor of environment has been raised as time advances while mean value of other factors have been reduced.
This paper describes the use and adaptability of OC (Open Common) spaces, based on the analysis of actual situations of living activities. The results revealed the following: 1) A wide variety of activities were observed in OC spaces and OC spaces promoted the creation of habitation networks. 2) In addition to the inhabitants, OC space users included neighbors and an unspecified number of other people. Furthermore, habitation networks center on the activities of the inhabitants, although a wide range of variations existed depending on the situation. 3) OC spaces of the path/yard type had a role that enables the widest habitation network and could be flexibly adapted to situational changes. 4) OC spaces were adapting flexibly, and three types of OC space changes were observed (e.g. changes in the quality, dominate function, and physical area of the OC space).
This study clarifies the effects of downsizing of care units on individual care. To make it clear, the behavioral tracking surveys for staff and residents were carried out at an existing nursing home. The results are as follows: 1) The staff members go to other units less frequently, and stay longer at their own units. 2) The amount of physical care given to residents maintains, and that of communication increases. Staff members give care residents twice as long as before. 3) Staff members shared information at a meeting room where all of them attended, but now they do by communicating each other within their own units.
This study explored the possibility of incorporating universal design (UD) features into the F hospital reconstruction plan. A so-called UD review was performed on the reconstruction planning process ranging from the basic plan to the final reconstruction design. The result of this study showed that, due to the delay in starting the UD review, it was not possible to fully reflect the review on the final reconstruction design. The concept of UD is unique in that it emphasizes and incorporates various needs of the potential users. In addition, the UD review promotes the understanding of UD among building owners and architectural designers.
In our previous report, we analyzed children's various characteristic actions and the places where those actions are done in a nursery. The analysis was done through the method of extracting their staying and traveling activities from their continuous actions in a nursery. This paper aimed to explain the relationship between children and their nursery environment by detailed analysis of each child's particular staying and traveling activities. Firstly, each child's particular activity scenes were extracted based on 22 children's tracing survey. Secondly, we analyzed the environmental elements which affected those activities. In consequence, we have gained the following findings. 1) The relationship between children and their environment gradually develop from the early stage of the relationship only with objects and nursery teachers to that which includes the elements of other children and "places." 2) As children grow, they become to decide their places of their free will in balance with various environmental elements. 3) In a certain growing stage, environmental settings help children develop their self-reliant activities.
This investigation considered what physical environment would suit for workplace in public space. This research clarified that evaluations of users are good, when corner type arrangement is selected as workplace in outside investigation. However, we could not find the type of arrangement which users prefer in case of internal environment. Although variation of evaluation was found with the type of arrangement in case of internal environment, it also became clear that specific arrangement does not necessarily obtain synthetically high evaluation. Consequently, it is important to take in and to control variation of physical environment in case of outer environment in public space as workplace. On the other hand, it is necessarily to respond to demands of facilities in case of internal environment. By fulfilling these conditions, the possibility of the public space as workplace would spread.
The purpose of this study is to. examine the distribution of the Tsumairi and the Hirairi through the analysis of thatched house in Shiga prefecture. The result are as follows: (1) Tsumairi is distributed especially in northern area. (2) The north-south axis of roof and the south door are related to Tsumairi style. (3) Tsumairi is highly related to the weather conditions, especially snow which is much influenced from Lake Biwa. (4) The difference of the roof maintenance management between the northern area and the southern area is found. (5) The correlation with the custom in the heavy snow area and the distribution of Tsumairi area is identified.
This study is a series of studies aiming at planned area setting in sustainable city and regional planning by symbiosis with environment, and the front paper, "FORMATIVE PROCESS OF COMPLEX AREA IN COASTAL FISHING VILLAGES BY ENVIRONMENTAL RECOGNITION-Planned area settinng based on environmental recognition by local inhabitants-" is followed. In this paper, "transformative factor and its internal structure" are clarified by grasping as dynamic the "formative process" of the complex area obtained from the front paper. A multivariate analysis is performed based on the various data by the environmental recognition obtained from the questionnaire, and local inhabitant's individual cognitive characteristic is grasped by classification of sample data. Moreover, by analyzing the transformative factor realized from the mutual relationship between the classification considers the system of a serialize structural change.
The purpose of this paper is how to arrange workshop according to a local planning situation. We used "how depending on which an operation progresses" as the local characteristic. We classified it into four, "community suggested type", "administration suggested type", "suspended type", and "compatible type". Consequently, the followings are understood. (1) The process of thinking is important for "community suggested type". (2) The process of planning is important for "administration suggested type". (3) The process of education is important for "suspended type". (4) The process of thinking is important for "compatible type".
The number of regionally linked organizations around prefectural borders has been increasing all over Japan. This study is the analysis of the systems and activities among these organizations, which are linked regionally around prefectural borders. The analysis is based on questionnaires and interviews given to these organizations. The followings are the findings of the study. 1) These activities of the organizations cover a variety of prefectural border areas. 2) These activities emphasize on the activities among local residents. 3) These activities are influenced and changed by the administrative office system and regional feature of prefectural border areas.
Since the second half of the 90s, many local residents have disputed against large retailers that operate late night. To avoid unnecessary conflicts, the consultation between the residents and such retailers is required. This study aims to clarify the view of the residents and the retailers through the consultation processes. It analyses the relationships between attributes of the residents and their consciousness of its opening, utility, and correspondence of the retailer.
The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the method of restoring a town as pictures based on memory. From the point of connecting the history of a town, the method of making the images using CG is effective as follows. The first is that the process of remembrance serves as the opportunity for residents to find out a self root. It is great support throughout their life. The second is that residents can make recollections clear by using CG. But it does not lead to remembering newly. The third is that the made pictures affect people who are not participating in work. On other people who look at them for the first time, it is recorded as new memory and shared.
This study aims to clarify the living environment in which residents prefer in their old age in relation to the characteristics of neighboring services that they want, by classifying residential district into the central part and the circumferential part. This study is based on the results of a questionnaire survey of the residents of Iwata and Ube city. Following on our previous study, we also assumed that residents prefer to live in "the central district area or suburbs" in their old age. The neighboring services are restricted within walking distance, and composed of 14 items. We combined these variables and analyzed their relation using a "Tree-Based Model." We found the resemblance and difference of determinant neighboring services, according to the respondents' preference of living environment and residential district.
This study aims to find out the distribution of private temporary houses (PTHs) and its transformation since Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake occurred, to explore possibility for establishing PTH as one of housing reconstruction programme by analyzing its characteristics and building process. We found that the number of PTHs in 2000 has decreased approximately 60 percent since 1997. There are 70 percent of PTHs retained in the areas where not covered the urban redevelopment programme and land readjustment programme. 34.9% of disappeared PTHs have just demolished and its lot of the land has been vacant. 34.6% of them have transformed to newly built permanent houses. Since 1997, 3859 PTHs have been built, which is 9% of all collapsed and burnt houses in Kobe. This is not a small number in the framework of the housing reconstruction. We points out reconstruction programme should have included support for PTHs and rebuilding houses united some neighbourhood lots.
This paper aims to clarify characteristics of an old law: Housing Land Development Law, which was brought into force in 1964 and abolished in 1968, through data analyses related to permissions and inspections for housing land developments based on the old law in northeast area of Tokyo Metropolis. In Saitama, Ibaraki and Chiba Prefectures, 1,475 projects and housing lands 5,531ha in area were totally permitted based on the old law. After abolition of the law, new system of development permissions based on present City Planning Law replaced old system after division of areas into Urbanization Promotion Areas and Urbanization Coordination Areas mostly done in 1970 and 1973 in study areas. Rushing into application for permissions in order to develop subdivisions more freely under less regulations of the old law, can be seen particularly in Chiba and Ibaraki before the division of areas. On the other hand, there are less projects rushing into applications in Saitama.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the significance of working group in the process of civil groups' independence of government help at community development seen at Odawara city, Kanagawa prefecture. Firstly, we understood the outline of transfer process from Policy Research. Institute of Odawara (PRIO) to citizen's community developing groups. Secondly, we clarified the process and reason the researchers to be independence from PRIO. Thirdly, we clarified the process and reason of other citizens to join the new community development groups. At last we clarified the significance and issues of PRIO from the view of independence.
The present state of the total floor area of the public building stock was investigated in this paper. It was found that the total floor area of the public buildings is about 700 million square meter and the majority of which belong to the local governments. The public buildings can be classified into apartment house, school and others, and it was found that the three classifications are balanced with the number of ridges and the total floor area. The most of the public buildings were constructed less than 30 years, and the buildings constructed over 30 years ago are under rebuilding now. The local feature can be seen from the uses and construction years. The public building stock must be utilized effectively in the future.
Dissolving the dwelling shortage problem after the World War II, we must had needed to have our houses industrialised. We would explain the reason why the Conventional wooden houses were being brought to the fore. To begin with, I tried to systematize the housing policies in Japan concerning the Conventional wooden houses. The provability is as follows; 1. The civilian organization appealed to the government. 2. The exsistance of the organ which could have these housing policies put into practice.
This is a study on the housing demand in local town center (LTC) through the analysis on the trends of housing supply in the small and medium-sized cities of Aichi prefecture. In this study, followings are cleared; (1) there are two type cities in Aichi prefecture, as that some cities have any possibility of housing supply in LTD and others haven't, (2) the former are lively through their industries or closely combining with Nagoya city, but the latter aren't. (3) the former would be able to make a housing supply plan in LTC by private sector development, but the latter would need to using public powers if they want to make it.
This study aims to clarify the details of uniform townscape in Kyoto city under the Tokugawa regime. This paper deals with relation between townscape and the roofing clay tile regulation of Kyoto. As the result of that, official notices notified by Tokugawa shogunate and machibugyosho (magistrate of Kyoto) permit in the use of roofing clay tile in 1720. But the actual occurrence is that roofing clay tile has come into wide use in the 18〜19^<th> century. After that, tile roofed townscape uniformed. On the other hand, Udatsu (high walls on the both side of gable roof) has decreased.
The Shinto Shrine main buildings with the "Kado" exsist in Oita and Miyazaki Prefecture at the early modern ages. "Kado" is the side of about 1.2m face and 1m side gable roof style and more beautiful than the main building. It is considered to relate to the Kitano-Tenmangu Shinto Shrine main building in Kyoto. It was used to stock flower plates and bottles, aka tub of water, a desk and a plate for flowers etc.. This thesis indicated that these goods are used to "Geango" (confinning in the worship hall in summer season around 100 days) as "Akadana" and the symbol of the prime noumenon.
On the transition process of the ceremonial places for the Fujiwara family in Heian period, the following points were clarified: 1. Fujiwara-no-Tadazane(忠実) lived in much residences. 2. Higashisanjo-den(東三條殿) was used as a ceremonial place. Then, the character strengthened than the age of Fujiwara-no-Morozane(師実). 3. The move to Higashisanjouden(東三條殿) by Tadazane(忠実) was carried out in order to show the existence of the Fujiwara families formal residences.
The housing union based on 'the housing union law' had established 130 unions and built 1,399 houses in Hokkaido. 169 houses in 16 neighboring area of them settled in the neighborhood. Many of them had connection in the same occupation. We can classify the neighboring housing type as '1-union/1-occupation', '1-union/multiple-occupations' and 'multiple-unions/multiple-occupations'. These partners participated both of the area and the idea, and some of the dwellings tended to be equaled. The tree-planting and the community cultivated by the partners have contributed to form these districts environment, though almost all the residences have perished in recent years.
It studied the main subject about the historic value of the construction material that was used at the Yokosuka ironworks. Centered on the brick, the cement and the timber as the object of the study. As a result, it was proved that there was a policy that often uses the construction material that is made in Japan. Then, that the French technical expert collected construction material in Japanese each place for this purpose and to have been taking on the investigation study were confirmed. Moreover, it was conscious that it manufactured in the country at the brick from the construction first. As for the timber, the collection and the investigation having to do with science that dealt with the whole country were done. Also, as for the cement, it connected with the manufacturing beginning in Japan. Then, the result was reflected in the display one of the Viennese international exposition. Therefore, it is possible to say that the Yokosuka ironworks played an important role in case of introduction of the western architecture to Japan.
Karo Obi, this name has been well known as the architect who got the first prize in the design competition of the Kanagawa Prefectural Government Hall held in 1926. So far, the Kanagawa Prefectural Government Hall has been regarded as the first Imperial Crown Style (TEIKAN-YOSHIKI) building. Owing to his father's advice, he modified the tower of this building from Buddhism five-storied pagoda. This thesis shows the summary of Obi's whole life with background situation to create this eclecticism design and the relation between Imperial Crown Style public buildings and great architect Toshikata Sano.
By this study, We paid our attention to an intention of the public presentation in the Marine Biological Station Aquarium attached to Tohoku Imperial University. The aquarium was the building that the arch which continued stood out. The inside consisted of it from a hall, an aquarium and a museum. We can consider that these designs were done for an exhibition. The aquarium was popular and, in addition to the spread of education, was useful for local promotion. Shinkishi HATAI and Tsuyoshi OGURA were related to the design of an aquarium. The design was influenced of an pavilion of Tokyo peace exhibition and an aquarium of Amsterdam.
The "KIN PEI BAI" is known as one of the four most valuable books in Chinese classical literature and is said to be written in the middle of Banreki years of the Ming period. In this paper the order maintained by a wealthy feudal family is examined in relation to the room arrangement, considering the relationship between the ceremony of marriage, one of the ritual initiations, and women's territory. Consequently next five points become clear: 1) The territory of women is divided according to their status in a house, such as a wife, a mistress and a maid. 2) A woman's room is divided by fences and walls, and is also isolated from a society. 3) Special furniture is installed in a salon and a woman's room, when they are changed to a place of a ceremony. 4) As for pictures in folding screens, a public room is mainly arranged with "Sansuiga", and others are also arranged with "Kachouga". 5) Women's territory in a house is "like a Utopia" for a man.
Design process, design souece and building history of the Rucellai palace were poorly documented. While 1980s' intense socio-cultural studies of the Rucellai family failed to elucidate the relation between Giovanni Rucellai and Alberti, H. Saalman successfully proposed mediative role of the Medici family between the architect and the Rucellais. As for the probable design source for pilaster system realized in the palace, this study points out le mura di S. Stefano, Roman ruin near Anguillara Sabazia, and the rear facade of Roman theatre in Orange. Numerical proportion used in the facade seems to inherit rationalization of architectural design from the works of Brunelleschi.
The French Academie Royale d'Architecture discussed on the ideal size of interior cornices in 1710. The analysis from the Minutes and the Reports reveals that the ideal view distance was from 8 to 18 pied (feet) and that these scales correspond exactly to the interior scales of the Parisian hotel residences in the 17^<th> and 18^<th> century. And contrary to Vitruvius who took the ratio of two optic angles, the Academie made use of the optic angle of cornice.
This paper aims at an investigation of the design method of Richard Neutra with focal attention to early prefabricated housing works in the late 1920s and 1930s. This study investigates that how Neutra was trying to establish his design method and what significance he found in it. As a result of this study, this paper revealed that he emphasized importance of how to build rather than what to build. Japanese traditional standardization played much significant role in the course of forming Neutra's architectural thought and design method during this time. Moreover this study clarified Neutra thought that his design method as standardization and modular coordination was suited to modern architecture, and the method was derived from not only technology but also social aspects.
The purpose of this study is to consider a road adjustment of regional city before the second world war. A case study of this paper is Kurashiki city, and the method of this paper is to use an assembly record. First, roads were adjusted in Kurashiki city according to the old common law. But that system was different from a modern city planning. Second, the road planning regulation was instituted in the 9th year of Taisyo. Successively many regulations of road was instituted. As a result, many roads were adjusted. The road adjustment planning was instituted in the 3th year of Showa. This road adjustment planning project did not almost undertaken, but affected the legally designated urban plan.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the characteristics of urban development of Busan in Korea from the 1870s to the 1910s. This study is focused on the developmental process from the 15th century after the Japanese settled in the city. The city had been developed through the harbor construction and reclamation works by the Japanese since 1902. It is clear that after opening this port in Korea in 1876, the eastern part of Yongdu mountain where the Japanese settlement was located became the business district and the western part became the industrial one. Furthermore, it could be found that the characteristics of the districts in Busan have been changed after Korea was annexed by Japan in 1910.