The purpose of this study is to develop a simulation model which is designed to handle both individual evacuation and rescuing behavior with mixed ability. The model is intended to be used for evaluating the fire safety of buildings by means of predicting human response to a local change of the surrounding environment. An object-oriented modeling technique is used to implement the model. This paper gives an outline and discussion of the performance of the model. It is comfirmed through simulation results that the model is capable of simulating principle human behaviors in case of emergency.
The floor impact sound is evaluated by using both FEM floor vibration analysis and BEM sound field analysis. For FEM floor vibration analysis, frequency response functions against exciting force are computed by modal analytical procedures such as eigenvalue, modal damping and frequency response analysis. And then by giving the results of the floor vibration analysis for boundary conditions of a floor surface on BEM analysis, frequency response functions of sound pressure against exciting force are computed. Numerical examples are presented to discuss the accuracy of the analysis by comparing with experimental results of a full-scale model.
In these studies we propose a monoblock floor construction throughout the room with continuous high rigidity floor panels and an independent wall construction method, in which walls are made vibrationally separated from the main body, in order to improve the floor impact sound insulation of wooden buildings, thus examining its effectiveness. The summary of the results is; (1)The monoblock high rigidity floor panel made the transmission of shearing force of panel throughout the room possible at the time of floor impact; and great increase of impulsive impedance was realized by constructing floor panels and beams in monoblock. (2)With the independent wall construction method of the downstairs room, by separating walls from the main body of beams and pillars, the vibration transmission loss from the second floor to the walls of the downstairs room was obtained, whose improvement effectiveness was 10 dB or more throughout whole frequency band in comparison with the wall of high rigidity construction.
Psychological experiments on color evaluation of townscape were carried out in the field. Exterior colors of buildings that are indicated to need improvement are more diversified in hue, lower in value and higher in chroma than general colors. In proportion to the above indication of many subjects, colors in question are higher in chroma. As for the improvement for advertising, reduction on the scale was chosen largest in number. Color arrangement should be taken in deep consideration in colors of advertising, as well as exterior colors of buildings.
Stratified smoke flow ascending along an inclined passage is mixed with lower air-flow by the turbulent shearing force at the interface. Experimental studies on density flows in an inclined channel have been reported by Ellison & Turner  and Tsujimoto . Such smoke flow, however, may also be affected by the bordering of the floor, create large eddies in flow or short circuite at the smoke inlet side and it results in sencible inclease in smoke quantity. In this paper, we present the flow pattens of smoke/air flow by the execution of the numerical calculation for two dimensional steady flows by the k-ε model, and show the increasing rate of the smoke ascending the corridor under the influence of various conditions such as the slope angle, inlet smoke velecity, temperature and height, static pressure difference of both ends and the corridor length.
Since the indoor air pollutant concentrations are related to the room ventilation rate, it is very important to secure reliable measurement methods of ventilation rate in the state of actual habitation. This is to report on the results of ventilation measurements in six newly built houses along with the concentration of several pollutants emitted indoors and on a proposition of measurement method of average ventilation rate for a relatively long period using passive samplers. This results show that the difference between the estimated ventilation rates and the measured ones are not yet small and more improvements are necessary.
In this study, isothermal two-dimensional flow field in plenum chamber indicated by Huang et oi., in which the anisotropy of the stresses is significant, was predicted by DSM and k-ε model using Navier-Stokes equation's steady state condition method developed by Matsuo et al., The results of calculation confirmed that k-e and DSM were in agreement with Huang et al's results and DSM was effective in analyses of flow fields where the anisotropy of the stresses was significant and eddy viscosity model was not applicable. Furthermore, the comparison of three types of Φ^W_<ij(2)> models impinging flow against wall indicated the Craft-Launder's model was more accurate than the other models in impinging flow against wall, and Gibson-Launder's model was not applicable to room air flow.
In this paper, we described concretely the contents of some trials that were shown us by textbooks for home economics in Japan in Meiji 20's period. The point of the contents in the idea of planning method is presented as follows; the planning method of house is that it was firstly to arrange the dwelling rooms to face on the outside, and it was secondly to arrange precedently the dwelling rooms for the child and the old to face on the south, and it was thirdly to arrange the Japanese-style toilet to face except on the north.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the distinctive feature of "machiya" in Niigata, especially focused on the common-use space such as "hiawai", "dashiai" or "kuiawase" in Takada, Shirone and Tochio. The results of this study are as follows; (1) "Zashiki" in Takada, which has the family altar between the room and "do-ma", is used for Buddhist mass and formal reception. But "chano-ma" in Shirone with the family altar opposite side of "do-ma" is used for that. (2) The limited space between two houses are equipped for "tokono-ma", family altar, stairs, closet and so on. This is called as "hiawai" at Takada, "dashiai" at Shirone and "kuiawase" at Tochio in Niigata. (3) In Shirone "tokono-ma" and family altar are equipped as "dashiai" at "chano-ma". But "hiawai" in Takada dose not have so bigger depth to have these as "dashiai". For that, "zashiki" is furnished with the family altar at the side of "do-ma". (4) "Chano-ma" is void both in Takada and Shirone. "Machiya" of Takada has not the ceiling but Shirone. There is the relation between these difference and the shape of roof (the gable of "machiya" is faced to the street in Takada but the side of eaves is so in Shirone).
The day-to-day variability of the 14 Exposition visitors has been seasonally adjusted by U.S. Bureau of Census Method II. X-ll. Trend-cycle was classified into five patterns, that is the pattern of constant increasing, having peak in the first stage, in the middle stage, in the last stage, and expectation. There found four distinction of a day of the week factor, that is small fluctuation, large fluctuation, Sunday's increasing ratio, and Saturday's high ratio. On large scale expositions the peak become in the last stage and a day of the week factor fluctuates small, besides on small scale expositions no peak was found and the high ratio of visitors usually expected on Sunday.
Relational structures of meanings between physical elements's "favorability" and total evaluations, which were "favorability", "diversity", "fascinatingness" and "orderliness", were analyzed. Relations between these evaluations in each plaza, analyzed by means of factor analysis with the data from users in fields, indicated that each physical element's favorability linked not only with total favorability, but also with total diversity, physical element's cognitivity, and evaluations which were changed in assortment of wholescape and it's part. Being analyzed on whole plaza's data, this cognitivity was explained by pedestrian elements and vehicle elements.
Infant sports room in the public gymnasium is made as a temporary nursery or a playroom. According investigetion into condition of actual use, type of playroom is used by many visitors. However type of temporary nursery is not used so much. Because the facility level of type of temporary nursery is lower than it of playroom. On the other hand, type of playroom is not useful for parents to care their children who come to the gymnasium with their parents. Because type of playroom is often set regardless of sports room parents do activities. As a result of consideration, we made clear that desirable infant sports room is wide, open to lobby and corridor, also near by main sports room.
The aim of this study is to find a design guideline of urban open space. This paper discusses the psychological evaluation structure of urban space analyzed by using the fuzzy theory. Selecting five types of open spaces from the downtown area of Kumamoto city, the authors used SD method to investigate psychological evaluation. To analyze the evaluation structure, multiple regression analysis in fuzzy integration method was employed. As the results, we obtained evaluation structure of urban open space that shows reciprocal action among some of evaluation indicators.
To correspond to various demand, movable buildings are important. In this study, we classified movements of doors and windows which are fundamental and important in all movable buildings, by several viewpoints as follows. (1) The numbers of plates (The movements of single plate are fundamental.) (2) Attributes which change on movement of doors and windows (Change in position or direction, in shape or size and in quality) (3) Direction of movement and position of pivot (4) Combination forms and relations of movements of plural plates By the combinations of viewpoints mentioned above, we have classified all the patterns of movements of position-changing doors and windows.
Visibility of steps for stair users is one of important factors which affect the rate of stair accident. In former paper,we reported experimental results about each effect of several important factors on the visibility . But,we could compare those effect data only within the same factor items. In this paper, we made an experiment to grasp effect data of different factor items, and analyzed the data by quantification of first method. Also, we analyzed the data in former paper by the same method. As the result, we became to be able to compare all effect data we grasped.
Authors have a purpose to define the profession of built-environment architects who have principal roles making good environment, relating to structure of professional qualification laws. In this process, authors select the Architect Law which is today' s only one law having functions assoiated with design and supervising of physical facilities, and compare to the other 13 laws. The result of reseach are as follows; the architect law has a complete structure and a independent status from others, but there are some problems concering with professional registration boards and dependence to Building Law.
In this paper it is studied on the fluctuation of various life risks with the passage of time and is presented the coefficient of the fluctuation ; a which represents the fluctuation of life risks. Furthermore, it is studied on the relation between the results of these analyses and the results of inquiries about loss of lives and risky level of each death. It was made clear with these studies; (1) Risk perception to the life risk has same tendency both to accidents and disasters and to deseases. The smaller people estimate the number of deaths by a cause, the safer people feel its cause of death both in the accidents and disasters and in the deseases, and (2) In the relation between a and the risk perception, there is a positive correlation at the accidents and is a negative correlation at the deseases. People feel the cause of death is more dangerous while the life risk decreases in the accidents. In contrast with this the safer people feel, the life risk is on the decrease in the deseases.
This study investigated the problems of privacy and security from crime in multi-family housing based on residents' mutual visual interactions. As a tool for site planning considering residents' psychological responses, a personal computer program was developed to predict the amount of visual radiation at a given point in a proposed environment. Part one of the study examined the relationships between the amount of visual radiation from surrounding buildings and the residents' sense of safety obtained by a survey using questionnaires. It was revealed that the outdoor spaces in the housing site where residents feel unsafe could be predicted to some extent by lack of visual radiation from surrounding buildings.
In order to regenerate the inner city area, it is desirable for the community based developer to implement related projects. This study intends to find the possibilities and conditions of such developer and the potential economical implementation process by examining two cases : 1) Kurokabe Inc. (Nagahama City), regenerating the historic quarter, 2) Marugame-cho shopping street (Takamatsu City), where the shopkeepers involved in the redevelopment plan through their own set up organization. As a result, we find the tax system incurred to incorporate the high land-value and the concept and system like nonprofit organization or trust should be established.
The purpose of this study is to clear condominium supply and location to consider diverse patterns of condominium in Fukuoka City by time series analysis. The period for analysis is from 1968 to 1990. The supply trend of City of Fukuoka is classified into seven periods by cluster analysis. From the first to the fourth period, it was primary to supply in central zone. The supply area extended in fifth period. From the sixth period, the supply had especially increased and the price became higher than other peirods. So the supply of housing type for standard families decreased in central zone and increased in suburban zone of the city. On the other hand, the supply of one room type for singles increased in commercial and residential zones. And accumulated zones of condominium which are mainly one room type are formed in central zone and housing type for standard families are extensively located in suburban zone.
This paper examines the status, duties of the temple office known as koban based upon study of historical documents related to the Rinzai Zen monastery Myoshinji. From these materials, it is evident that the office of Koban existed at Myoshunji prior to 1831 and was filled by a monk jointly appointed as comptroller (Kansu) within the monastery's Eastern Rank (Toban). The duties of the koban included the supervision of meals accompanying religious services as well as the management of everyday articles and utensils used within the monastery. In conclusion, decide on a situation of Koban-Ryou.
Katsurano-miya household had three villas in Rakugai (a Kyoto suburb) beside Katsura Villa, and had two palaces called Imadegawa Palace and Ishiyakushi Palace, in Rakucyu(kyoto city). This is a study on the carpenters of Katsurano-miya household. The results are as follows : (1) The buildings in two palaces in Rakuchu were constructed by the carpenter called 'Oie-toryo' only when the expenses for their constructions were paid by Katsurano-miya household. (2) 'Oie-toryo' had been succeeded by the Kitamura family before 1739, and after then by the Kobayashi family. The first 'Oie-toryo' was Kitamura Chikugo, and he was employed by Katsurano-miya household in 1690 at the latest. (3) 'Oie-toryo' were in charge of the New Year ceremony called Chona-hajime. It was the Katsurano-miya household that let 'Oie-toryo' to keep the costumes and tools for the ceremony in their charge. These costumes and tools were regarded as, so to speak, the symbol of the 'Oie-toryo'.
In this paper, the structure of a Scenery, which means the relationship between man and architec tural space, is considered through a scenery South Lake Biwa "lived" and was recorded as a poetic work "Syaraku-Doh-Ki" by 'Bashoh'. I extracted the words which indicated the position and the posture of the body, as they are used in his poem and his theory of making poems. Then, Hermeneutischer analysis of the words usage make clear that awaking to the body sence is rooted in the approach of lively-ego to the world, as one's carriage. In conclusion, the meaning of the body is rehabilitated in the Scenery presence, and which is the ground of a Scenery.
With the unique plan of Mies'Glass Skyscraper Project(1922), the design process is made clear from the analysis of the primary plan and Friedrichstrasse Office Project(1921). First the site is derived from the north part of the Fridrichst-rasse Project. Then the square grid is drawn along the site boundary line. And then on the grid the circular elevater hall is set in the center of the site. Then the axes of the three entrances are decided by the center of the elevater hall, the site boundaries and the corridors of the Friedrichstrasse Office. And the outline of the plan is derived from the circles that are in contact with the site boundaries.
The meaning and the importance of above paper are discussed as following items. 1)Disagreememt of historical materials on their time in above paper. 2)Historical meaning of the constitution of rituai space in KASHIMA JINGU. 3)What point of vew does Dr. Fujisawa have in above paper ?