The objective of this study is to clarify actual conditions on the renewal procedures and management activities of the building agreement and then make effective functions for building up residential environment through neighborhood participation by application of the agreement. By this research study, it was found that various measures for renewal of the agreement were established according to the actual status of the communities. And then it was further clarified that the building agreement had an important role for the means of leading a norm formation according to "cooperativity" and "autonomy" after re-concluding the agreement by the procedure of neighborhood consent. For these reasons, it was suggested that it's necessary for sustainable environmental management in the agreement areas to strengthen the social organization for supporting an agreement management by community association and renewing opportunity of the building agreement was important for anchoring sustainable environmental management.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the significances of independent action by residents in the process of conversion to day care center for the elderly. For this objective, NPO which was established in a solitary island by residents were surveyed by means of interview. Some results show as follows: 1) Calculating the number of institutions for the elderly, the number per area in solitary islands is smaller than that in the whole of Japan. 2) Dividing the action by residents into four stages, transition of the conversion process were shown. 3) Newly redesigned day care center near to the community plays important role to improve the quality of life of the elderly and their family.
The purpose of this study is to make clear the architectual planning of long-term care ward as the place for coming to end-of-life.We selected the long-term care ward of downsizing care with private room for a case study and carried out the survey for elderly family.The results of this study are as follows. 1) The length of end-of-life care is about a month. 2) After downsizing care with private room,elderly family visit long-term care ward more than before and the length of visiting long-term care ward is longer than before. 3) After downsizing care with private room, a relationship between elderly family and staff is better because of a good relationship between the elderly and staff. 4) Afer downsizig care with private room, Most of elderly family determine palliative care as end-of-life care.
In this paper we typologically clarify the characteristics of the relationship between exterior spatial composition and the conditions of location in contemporary Japanese museums. Firstly we analyzed their exterior spatial composition by volumes accompanied with articulated outside spaces, and with internal functions. Secondly we analyzed their conditions of locations by their topographical features and the surrounding elements. Thirdly we analyzed the relationship between the exterior spatial composition and the conditions of locations, and found several typological features characterized as 'contrast of outside void space and volume shape, which is including exhibition space,''spatial arrangement regardless of internal functions on plane and open location,''insertion of void space in crowded location,''composition of separated volumes on sloped location,''public spaces on the ground level of sloped open location.' In the conclusion, we pointed out that the formal composition is found in the contemporary Japanese museum buildings, which is defined by the interactive relationship between exterior volumes, their internal functions, and conditions of location.
The purpose of this study is to clarify kehai on streets. In psychological experiments, subjects walked both sides of a street and answered questionnaires at points 200m apart on 11 streets. The questionnaires used a semantic differential value that consisted of seventeen pairs of adjectives (such as lively/ lonely, multiple/ monotone, and healing/ stressful) and seven steps of evaluation. The study conducted principal-component-analysis of the subjects' answers. The result indicated two to four elements that represent each street. The study also created psychological quantity figures and analyzed them.
This paper experimentally clears the relationship between the effects of office layout in a large-scale space and personal sensation from others. Two kinds of experiments focuses on the sense of someone's existence ("existence") and visual contact ("visual contact"). Subjects experienced 5 patterns of layout being surrounded by many people in experiment 1, and 4 patterns of layout to a long distance in experiment 2. The results were as follows, i) The sense of "existence" and "visual contact" are spread to the front, and a person behind a facing person is in particular hardly sensible. ii) The range of "visual contact" is smaller than "existence", and personal sensation depends on the people sitting faced to the subject. iii) It is essential to decrease someone's personal sensation in the center of many people to suit interpersonal distance, and in addition to cope with each degree of the angle, in case of "visual contact". iv) Side-partition has an effect to decrease someone's personal sensation on close people, and front-partition has those effect on people at distance.
This study is to explicate the relation between the characteristic of "Figure" of the composition element and the spatial consciousness of the square in Nepal by the correlation method in correspond with the result of indication analysis obtained with the previous paper and the psychology structure. As a result, 1) The 5 important psychology factor axes to evaluate the spatial consciousness are extracted by the factor analysis. 2) The [Individual] element gives a "centrality" effect, on the other hand, gives a "less profundity" effect. An increase in number of [Movable] elements gives the influence of "Uncomfortable". 3) Regardless of the shape or the situation of the square a lot of elements and architecture are exist together and depending on the feature of the composition of "Figure" and "Like-Figure" elements a different consciousness effect is given respectively. 4) The existence of the element that strongly remains in the impression influences and decides the entire psychology evaluation to the spatial composition of the square.
An experimental research was conducted to study the influence of ceiling height of class room on the subjective impression of students, with a special interest in the difference of age and adaptation to the room. Three class rooms with the ceiling height of 2.4m, 2.7m and 3.0m in a elementary school and a junior high school were evaluated on its impression by students of five different grades at the beginning and the end of their temporary staying of two weeks. As a result, older students evaluate the room less spacious, and age show larger effect than the ceiling height and the influence of adaptation. Additionally the results show the possibility of the existence of adequate height for the subjective impression of class room.
This paper intends to clarify block formation and house types of Wolvendaal, Colombo, Sri Lanka, and analyze their transformation process. The research on which this paper is based is the further study of the project called 'Field Research on Origin, Transformation, Conversion and Conservation of Urban Space of Colonial Cities', which the major targets are Dutch colonial cities all over the world. Further to this project, comparing colonial cities in South Asia, in terms of spatial formation and transformation is the ambitious objective of this research. Another purpose is to elucidate the Dutch way of houses construction in their colonial cities, where in Wolvendaal, Dutch developed the form of town houses for high-density living. Colombo was once a head quarter of Ceylon, one of five administrative districts laid by Dutch on South Asia. Wolfendaal also played an important role in British colonial period when the city experienced rapid growth. At present, there still holds numerous town houses. This paper clarifies the spatial organization of Wolvendaal, by analyzing the distribution pattern of its facilities and block formation, based on field surveys. At the last chapter, the paper focuses on house types of Wolvendaal identified according to their physical features and planning parameters, while the transformation process of these house types are discussed as well. This paper suggests that Dutch colonial town houses still playing an important role in the organization of special formation of Wolvendaal.
This paper aims to clarify the process of land ownership in the urban historical of Samrangjin village (Korea) in the period of Japanese occupancy (1910-1945) based on the analysis of land register records. Samrangjin village was not designated for the cities controlled by urban planning law, which was set up in 1912 and 1934. The major purpose of this paper is to clarify the urbanization process of a Korean railway station town where the formal urban planning projects were not carried out. The focus of the study is the increase of the state-owned lands, Japanese landowners and Japanization of the landscape in the town by railway station. In the very beginning of occupation, Japanese already owned about 64.4%, and state-owned lands owned about 4.5% of the Samrangjin Songjinri's total land. The state-owned was land required for railway and dikes. Japanese-owned lands were orchard for the farming by Japanese of the emigrated from the Hukue city in Japan. The ratio of the land owned by Japanese and nation's went up to more or less 36.5% and 32.9% at the end of World war II. The process which the urban core had been replaced for the Japanese is very clearly traced from the analysis of a register records.
This paper is order to understand the current condition and constructing products of Chinese night landscape, Shanghai, which is the first city to engage in constructing night landscapes are summarized. The features of four representative night landscapes in Shanghai, which are the Walking Street of Nanjing Rd., the Bund, the Oriental Pearl Tower, and the People's Square, are analyzed in detail from the aspect of regional spatial characters, composition elements, evaluations of impressions, and comparison between daytime and nighttime. The space of the construction product of the Shanghai nightscape cannot be neglected in scale, but it may not demonstrate the own character of the area. It should be promoting the area color in night landscape, with memorial and article feature, and measurements must be taken further to improve it.
One of the significant purposes of the research on post-disaster recovery is to find factors in reconstruction process of the victims. Aiming at the finding, this paper demonstrates the reconstruction process of the Chi-Chi town and reconstruction process patterns of the victims after the 1999 Chi-Chi Earthquake. To analyze them, Reconstruction Process Database which contains Image Archives Database was constructed based on field surveys, and Spatial Reconstruction Model Method the author proposed were applied to the area. As the result, physical change and expansion of the Chi-Chi town after the event was described, and reconstruction process charts of about six hundreds damaged private facilities were clarified.
The purpose of this study aims to explain the target of the future land use control, for Pref. Kagawa which abolished Area Division System on May 17, 2004 along with the amendment of the city planning act, by verifying evaluation points and problems by introducing new city planning act. We investigated the change and distribution conditions of the farmland diversion and the development permission from 1999 to 2004, and examined a land use trend in the deregulation area. And we grasped the potential demand in future land by the questionnaire investigation to the persons concerned in real estate.
This article investigates the demand structure of regional facilities from the viewpoint of selection process by users. To this end, demand decline by distance is analyzed by computer simulation of two cases. In the first case the users select the nearest facilities with vacancy. In the second case they select the nearest vacant facilities with the satisfaction level which meets a baseline formed through the selection process. The result shows that the decline curve by distance consists of high demand area in the proximity of facilities, flat demand area within the Voronoi region and exponential decline area outside.
The Japanese housing resale market is in an embryonic stage compared to other OECD countries. After describing the necessity to improve the flow of housing quality information in order to vitalize the resale market and promote sustainable use, problems related to schemes requiring the potential buyer to collect necessary information will be analyzed. Finally, based on comparative analysis of housing quality information disclosure schemes introduced by OECD countries, the design of effective and efficient information schemes is examined.
Optimal market segmentations among possible combinations of classification attributes, such as area, household size, head's age and household annual income, are derived based on residents' satisfaction level and housing needs. Results show that household annual income and/or head's age are key attributes for segmentation in view of residential satisfaction for houses; that the segmentation by area is effective for understanding residential satisfaction level for residential environment; and that head's age is a key attribute for segmentation in view of housing needs, while other attributes do not contribute so much.
It is difficult to entrust contractors with daily cleaning services in government offices due to security reasons. Therefore, the quality of cleanness in those rooms is ensured by room users' self-cleaning works. In order to study how to improve the quality of cleanness in those rooms where daily cleaning services are not provided by any contractor, such as "Office work room", "Meeting room" and so on, we assessed the actual situation of room users' self-cleaning works in this study. In detail, room users' self-cleaning works were classified under 4 categories according to the type of cleaning works, "Floor sweeping", "Floor wiping", "Desktop cleaning" and "Trash & ashtray cleaning". And the frequency of cleaning works as well as the number of room users who performed it in respective categories was surveyed. Further, it was analyzed that the relativity between the room users' actual cleaning performance and the result of self-evaluation on the degree of their practice. Also, our study assessed factors which affect the self-evaluation on the frequency of their self-cleaning works such as "Frequently", "Occasionally" and "Hardly".
In this paper, we propose the customer-driven evaluation method for the quality of cleaning works. And further, as the case study toward to the introduction of this method, we apply it to the number of Block parks. Firstly, our research was conducted about points visitors to Block parks focus their attention on when they assess the quality of cleaning works, and the result showed that seven items were essentials, i.e."open space","rest room","benches","trees","play equipment","sand pool" and "dust bin". Secondly, 3-level assessment criteria for the quality of cleaning works on each seven item were prepared. In line with criteria prepared, assessments for the quality of cleaning works were conducted. Analyzing results of above assessment, visitors' demanded quality level, and the degree of visitors' satisfaction with current management condition for cleaning work, we examined the evaluation method for the quality of cleaning works in the maintenance of Block parks.
In the early 18th Century, the Edo citizens made a contract of construction by making papers under the law. This is just about an example of a smll storehouse, but the most important point is, an ordinary carpenter could have understood papers of construction to make the contract. And public servant could have imagined the building exactly, and could order usually by understanding the papers.
In the 16th to 17th century, there appeared the Sankai-gura, three-storied slim shape plastered storehouse (Dozo), in the city illustrations. A detailed comparative study of those illustrations revealed a similarity on roof structure between plastered storehouses, town houses and also early modern age castles. As I studied the plastered storehouse development, the Sankai-gura was evolved from interior store rooms in townhouses to independent exterior structures. This independence became one of a force to modify the city planning in middle age to early modern age.
This paper tries to show the significance of the material the architect Keiji GOTO(1883-1919) left. According to our research, this collection is made up of 7,150 items, whose dates cover almost all of his life. Most of this collection is visual documents. These documents would be the base of his knowledge of architecture. This collection includes the information to show the processes of his designs of his works. And the documents of the structural engineering in this collection include the information on his interest and the sources of his knowledge. And it indicates that he was interested in the ferro-concrete and the statically indeterminate structure and that he studied structural theories and tried to diffuse these new methods. It could trigger a reevaluation of him and could be an example of the introduction of new technology in Japan.
Purpose of this study is to examine contents about the Article 6 of the Bill of the Architect Law: regulation on Architect and its probable side jobs in the Imperial Diet before WW II. Conclusion of this study is as follows: 1. The Article 6 of the Bill had already been considered toward its amendment after the questionnaire to those mainly involved in the architectural business. 2. The amended Article 6 became rather ambiguous. Therefore, it was objected by the Members of the Imperial Diet. 3. Nevertheless, the legislators of the Bill did not make any farther major amendment to it before WWII. 4. The reason seems to be the existence of the Account Law, which had the similar law structure. 5. The Accountant Law was disputed due to lack of article to prohibit Registered Accountants from having probable side jobs. Therefore, a new bill was continued proposed to reform the Law only after two years of its enactment. 6. On the contrary, the Bill of the Architect Law had an article to prohibit Registered Architects from having probable side jobs, which seems why the legislators thought the Bill of the Architect Law as reasonable and did not feel necessity to amend it.
The purpose of this paper is to explain the wooden roof truss of the first provisional Diet Building built in 1890 in Japan and to reconstruct it, referring to pictures (colored woodblock prints, copperplate prints and the like) of the provisional Diet Building and to other examples with similar construction in Japan and Germany. The roof truss used in the provisional Diet Building was called the "German roof frame" at that time in Japan and was a composite construction reinforced with iron tie bars. We can find several parallels in festival halls of those days in Germany. The reason seems to be that both of them were temporary buildings which had to be built in a short period.
This paper aims to make clear roles and functions of screens in the novel "JIN PING MEI". As a result, next six points become clear. 1) A screen in its origin has a function as a barrier or a shield to protect a human body. However, screens are generally considered furniture in these days. 2) In the novel there are screens called "mo", "zhang", "ruan bi". In general "ruan ping" is made of cloth and considered "partition". 3) Also it is called "zuo pin feng (screen)", but different from Japanese style screen "ruan ping" presented from Japan in the Ming period. 4) Screens are classified into these four ones following their forms: "small table screen(xiao zuo ping feng)","screen(zuo ping feng)","folding screen(wei ping)","hanging screen(diao ping)". 5) Screens are regarded as precious handcrafts, so it is considered that possessing lots of them means a status symbol and wealth of a family. 6) Each place is arranged and characterized by forms, materials, designs of screens, according to social status, class and lifestyle. Therefore there is a social standard in using screens.
This paper aims to reconstruct the original height of the lotus-bud column in the portico of the Khaemwaset's stone structure at Abusir-south hill, Egypt. As a result of analysis on the proportions of Egyptian columns, their total heights tend to be a simple multiple of royal cubit and to be either six or seven times their diameters with many cases. Furthermore, the height of the capital corresponds to around a quarter of the total height of the column. On the basis of these tendencies, the original height of the column in the portico, including the column base and the abacus, is supposed to have been nine royal cubits.
The Congregation of the Oratory, deriving from a confraternity, founded as a Religious Order in the central area of Rome in the late 16th century. It had competitive or cooperative relations with other new Religious Orders in the different situations, and developed together. As an Oratorian architect, Borromini utilized his restrictions, overcame difficulties, and completed the architecture. Although the oval refectory was a representational insance, the Oratorians, who sought a modest design, refused Borromini's creativity. The Trinitari Scalzi appreciated Borromini and accomplished San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane smoothly, which was a precedent to remove the Oratorians' anxiety for Borromini's project.
In this research, we analyzed Mies van der Rohe's montages on following aspects, in order to understand the characters of each montage expression and categorize them on these characters. Montages are analyzed on following 2 aspects, and in order to understand the role of montage, we also analyzed Mies's hand-drawings on same aspects. Because almost all montage was based on the perspective, we mainly research them. 1. The character of the projects: The character of the projects for which montages was drawn was analyzed on its program, site, the year of production, architectural typology, and so on. 2. The character of the montage: Montages are categorized on the character of them, and we analyze the common character of each category. (1) The character of the perspective drawing (2) The character of the montages technique
Museumplein (Museum square) in Amsterdam is indicated one of the potential contact point to loading the Amsterdam brand. The origin of this place was born in the 19th century's European movement to gain the impressive capital townscape like Haussmann's Paris. In Amsterdam, this was brought rather by elite and bourgeois than the State government. Many manifestation of civic pride was appealed, and the National Museum (Rijksmuseum), Stedelijk Museum and Concertgebouw were succeeded to establish at the southern fringe of Amsterdam. These cultural monuments are built in the eclectic classic style including the 17th century's Dutch Renaissance style. However the intermediate area, now called museumplein, was unfinished and left to avoid loosing the equal balance of the power between the State, the city and the private.
The purpose of this study is to analyze the character of the architectural space as information in the 'complete work of Le corbusier'. Extract the types of combination of architectural photograph and archtectural drawing in the spread pages of the 'complete work of Le corbusier'. Show the character of the architectural space as information to analyze the combination of the type of architectural photograph and architectural drawing on the view point of collage. And analyze the relation and combination of types of collage of architectural photograph and architectural drawing in the spread pages of the 'complete work of Le corbusier'.