The purpose of this study is to clarify the influence that the residential environments of at-home elderly people have on activities of daily living (ADL) and quality of life (QOL), and we carried out an investigation into psychiatry daycare users conforming to international classification of functioning disability and health (ICF). As a result we knew that "body function and structure" affects "activity" while "activity" has an influence on "participation." Besides, it was found out that when residential environments are planned, it is necessary to make the environment available for hobby activities.
This paper aims to clarify spatial formation of the previous Japanese residential district and transformation of shop House in shopping district at the front of station in the Samrangjin village of Milyang city (KOREA). Shopping district area was shaped on the parallel line along the railroad. In this research, we clarify formation process and spatial pattern of Shop house in the Samrangjin. As the result of this study, we found that the characteristics of street construction and arrangement of Shop house and transformation of living space by Korean living style. Transformation of living space is caused firstly by appearance of 'ROJI', 'MADANG'. Division of Living space and Shop space are affected by the positional at of 'ROJI', 'MADANG', and linked also with transformation of circulation. In this study we found out the composite formation of Japanese living style and Korean living style.
In order to obtain insights related to the arrangement of ownership and management administration-which ensure appropriate maintenance in collective owner-occupied housing-various functions of the Norwegian co-operative system, including empowerment of management bodies, promotion of resident participation in decision-making, and enhancement of community relations, were examined, based on interviews of related organizations in Norway, as well as literature study. The findings indicate that in order to make special arrangements, such as indirect-ownership, to promote sustainable use of housing stock, it is necessary to introduce mechanisms not only ensuring appropriate maintenance but also improving community relations.
The aim of this study is to understand the influence of difference of levels within the same floor of house on the sense of privacy and communication among family. We conducted two experiments, the Field Experiment and the Image Experiment. First, We compared the sense of privacy and communication in detached housings with and without 'skip-floor' territory between living and dinning space, in the Field Experiment. The result indicates that a skip floor has the effects on occupants' perception, for instances, a variety of space, softening the feeling of privacy disturbance, being conscious of the presence of other family members, and comfort to start communication. Next, we conducted the Image Experiment by computer graphics for the purpose which shows clearly whether the result of the field experiment is the influence by the floor level difference. we obtaind the result that the significant difference was checked in the sense of privacy between the higher and the lower stage, on the Evaluation factor and the Privacy factor.
The aim of this study is to understand the influence of floor level difference on a sense of privacy. We conducted experiments measuring personal territory in a full scale experimental room with a difference of level in the middle. We used "stop-distance measurement" methodology to the horizontal distances between human and the object supposed human, and between human and object. We found the follows. 1)Personal territory felt to object supposed human has a different meaning for every height of the floor level. It expands when the difference in the level is 15cm, and shrunk at 30cm and 45cm. It also greatly expands at 60cm and 75cm. 2)Personal territory felt to object on the lower level is larger than the one of upper level of the floor. 3)Personal territory felt to object becomes large to 45cm and becomes small in 60 and 75cm, on the lower level of the floor. It becomes small, so that the height of a floor-level becomes high, on the upper level of the floor. 4)Male's personal territory is larger than female's personal territory. 5)The personal territory required for "relaxation" is larger than the one of required for "comfortableness" and "conversation" as defined by Hashimoto et al.7)
The purpose of this research is to investigate environmental improvement and the process through interventional research by using the concept of the Professional Environmental Assessment Protocol (PEAP : Japanese Version 3) for creating better care environment for the old model nursing homes for elderly people. The investigation is conducted by several research methods in eight facilities in Wakayama Prefecture. The progress and the achievement for creating better environment varied because of different engagement of practicing and managing care. Positive or negative factors of environmental improvement were clarified in each facility. Several research methods were conducted, such as the questionnaire method to all staff, photograph method at fixed points, and the PEAP evaluation of the environment in four selected facilities. As a result, the following factors become important for better care environmental improvement : (1) The dominating organizational factors to create better care environment were categorized in three patterns, (2) As for the system construction of the organizational environment, the necessity for reorganizing those patterns into the content of the training sessions was clarified.
A rapid aging is advanced in Japan, so that it is one of the most important problems to make public buildings barrier-free and universal design specifications. Under such a situation, environmental equipment is advanced to the newly-built building by the law such as "Heart Building Law (commonly called)". However, the method of maintaining an existing building is not understood yet well. Then, existing public buildings are researched in this study. The problem that happens for the wheelchairusers and the visually handicapped persons, etc. when they use the building is extracted, and arranged. And, the method of improving them and the easiness of the improvement to do are considered.
The purpose of this paper is to analyze relation between students' psychological evaluation and spatial design of the classrooms. We carried out questionary surveys to the students of elementary, junior high and high schools in the metropolitan area. Results are summarized as follows ; 1) As a result of factor analysis, three factor axes were extracted : primary factor is about "a feeling of spaciousness", the second is "acoustical and visual environment" and the third is "a sense of hot, and cold". 2) Evaluation of the girls' "a feeling of spaciousness" factor was heigher than the boys'. 3) In the case of the classrooms of standard type, as the age is younger, the evaluation became higher. 4) Open-type classrooms were generally judged to be good for students. 5) With a lattice ceiling, evaluation of "a feeling of spaciousness" factor lowered. 6) The classroom was generally judged to be good when it is attached to open space with ceiling of 5m to 6m height.
The aim of this study is to analyze and find out space utilizations around classrooms with open-space from actual classes in elementary schools. Sometimes pupils sit on the floor and sometimes are at their desk during classes. The results of this study are summarized as follows : 1) Behavior settings of classes were defined as combination of five factors, i.e. activities, unit of class, pupil's aggregate configurations, pupils' number and spaces. 2) We classified classes by the transitions of pupil's aggregate configurations and spaces. We found the basic pattern of transitions of learning program. 3) Finally, we grasped space utilizations around the classrooms in the case of classes with sitting-on-the-floor-activities.
The characteristics of floor plan as recognized by the visitor shows a relationship between people and space. In order to understand the difference between cognition and reality of floor plan and the reasons for distortion of orientation, we compared the actual plan with sketches draw by subjects after visiting a museum exhibition hall. The overall proportions of the exhibition hall plan and the proportions of "space sections", which are defined as the space within one's field of vision from a specific position were surveyed using the sketches. It is found that : 1) Depth of a "space section" is overestimated when it is walked in two or more discrete parts as opposed to walking the length continuously ; 2) In the experiment, in "space sections" which were bright and proportionally high, the ratio of width to depth was overestimated compared to less bright, proportionally low "space sections" ; 3) Light and expanse visible through side windows have the effect of overestimating width ; 4) the distance of the plan width physically crossed has an effect on the overestimation of comparative width.
Anti-inundation measures are extracted from disaster prevention planning of eight major cities in Japan. And they are analytically arranged according to the items. In this research the following is clarified. (1) The status quo of anti-inundation measures in the disaster prevention planning (2) Deficient items in present anti-inundation measures Then proposals are made to heighten practical effect of disaster prevention planning. The results are expected to give us useful suggestions for reducing inundation damage to underground space.
Physical and psychological properties of collective form of architecture in Harajyuku were analyzed on following 2 aspects. 1) Form and Elements....Model of the collective form was classified into "street" type and "area" type. And distribution of physical elements in the collective form was classified into "scattering" type and "closeness" type. 2) Evaluation....By using SD method with 24 couples of adjectives and correlation analysis, 3 evaluation axes are translated as meanings of "unity", "urbanity" and "amenity". And, identity of each collective form was analyzed by the evaluation of "similarity" in aggregation.
This paper inclusively analyzes the interrelation of three characteristics of the space, the operation, and the connection to the concerning residents through the recognition of those who establish and operate the place for community. Respective three cases in which the detached houses and the vacant retail store are used are selected and analyzed. The findings are the followings ; (1) The connection to the concerning residents influences the ways and the contents of the operation. (2) The spatial configuration of the retail store is suitable for inviting the residents, and making them stay, from the case study on vacant store in the shopping mall. However, it is necessary to analyze the case operated in the residential area further because there is also a necessity for operation near a potential user, too. (3) The location of the place doesn't necessarily fill the operators' intention. One of the reasons is to use an existing building. But, there is an advantage that flexible operation can be achieved because it is comparatively easy to change its location, if necessary.
This article studies the arrangement of place on Higashimachi-Machikadohiroba. A method of this article is fieldwork such as interviews to volunteer and analysis of a journal. In this article, the arrangement of place is defined as following activities : preparing furniture and displaying, deciding rules, waiting on guests. This article clarified that Machikadohiroba is the place arranged not simultaneously but gradually, and that the daily arrangement of place has following features. (1)Not only the host but also the guest can regulate the daily arrangement of place. (2)Machikadohiroba is arranged by using things which is available for the host. (3)The daily arrangement of place is not prevention of the problems but managing the events. (4)The daily arrangement of place set community visible as a concomitant effect.
The purpose of this study is to verify the validity of current renovation systems of vacant houses and to delineate some issues of architectural planning for improving renovations. Based on data from 14 surveys, the relationship between renovations and tenants' life style is analyzed. As the result, repairing roof and exterior walls, updating the kitchen, bathrooms and toilets, and interior re-decorating have been the major concerns. As tenants are mainly able to use Tsudukima Zashiki, or DK and neighboring room for their family space, and to enjoy the convenience of space continuity. In the future, it is necessary to put the reinforcement of insulation and earthquake proof systems into consideration, meanwhile, to respect tenants' lifestyle wishes.
Authors have been conducting the field research under the title 'Origin, Transformation, Alteration and Conservation of Urban Space of Colonial cities' since 1999. In the period of the Spanish urbanism in America, one of the most interesting creations was the Colony of Nuevo Santander, constructed 250 years ago. The formation of this group of Spanish colonial cities was made at the same time, in the period (1749-1776), in the same area (Nuevo Santander of Mexico, now Tamaulipas region) in the same territorial net and designed all by the same person (Jose de Escandon) and with similar plan. But in that time all theses cities were planed under the influence of 250 years before of Spanish urban experience in America. There are various cities, the sizes of which are from 2, 000 to 400, 000 populations. However we can identify the original core and grid. of almost all cities founded by Escandon This paper discusses mainly the differences between the Escandon's model and the present formations of cities established by Escandon, checking the changes on the geometric traces, block pattern, the public spaces (plazas) and the architecture.
The purpose of this paper is to clarify the process how inhabitants lose their independence of will for a district design and how a district design standardizes in a period of high growth of economy, by paying its attention to a contribution forced to inhabitants. The results are the followings : 1) A contribution was forced to deal with a problem of a district. 2) A contribution had a function as a management system of a district design. 3) A contribution disappear by planlessness and outbreak of contradiction. 4) And the district design was standardized.
The development permission system of the urbanization control area to achieve the district division was installed by the City Planning Act in 1968. At the time the Act was introduced there was a need for such regulations. However, as the population is now decreasing the drive for new construction has diminished. The application situation of the development permission system based on a land use plan in Hyogo Prefecture was investigated. As a result, the method of formulating a land use plan, the resident consultation process and the resulting adjustment of the land use plan were clarified. This was done in order to identify how best to provision for the urbanization control area.
Although the trade-off between the cost and the quality in public construction works should be optimized, the open and competitive bidding procedure could give us the lower quality as well as the lower price. This paper proposes an optimal contract mechanism to cope with the above issue. The mechanism is designed to give us the maximum total utilities by having contractors select a payment system out of three choices that are cost plus fee with fixed percentage contract, quantity based contract, and fixed price contract. The contractors can consider their own cost and quality incentives through selecting a payment system. The significance of the mechanism is the idea to maximize the total utilities of the projects through the contractors' discretion.
This study has a purpose in driving meaningful ideas related to problems of the institutions and their assignments, as well as clarifying the actual conditions, by paying attention that the Housing Performance Grade Indication System of Korea has been enforced to a supplier as a duty. After we selected several construction companies ranked within top 20 of Korea, we collected their data through an organized questionnaire (18cases) and interviews (10cases) from July to August, 2006. The conclusions are as follows : 1) Suppliers were passive in uses of the institution, and felt a sense of burden for disputes between all of demanders, and complaints for the institution of a duty, as well as troubles for cost and technique. Also, in general they considered the existing performance items seriously, and felt the needs for its improvement, as well as a sense of burden for the expansion of new performance provisions 2) Insufficiency of social opinions, valid performance item, technical and cost problems, and less predictable standards for methods of estimation were pointed out in process of implementing the institution, focusing on, within such institution, enforcement and indication items for the institution of a duty, and indication of items, as well as properness for a way of estimation. 3) Through an awareness of supplies and their estimation, and three points totally from a problem of the institution, we should make up for institutional inertia for demanders, and it is so important problem to be solved.
This paper introduces facilities programming process based on business continuity plan. To sustain facility function of emergency measure base is one of crucial business goals. To cut down investment as well as reduce function drop and shorten recovery time are required to specify facilities. Organizing impact network system with several elements such as the number of bases, distance between bases, probable emergency and measures, simultaneous damage probability at plural bases, function recovery scenario and time, and management resource investment policy, clarifies the relationship between business goals and facilitis' specification. Those elements are variable, then organizing structure based on peculiar condition is recommended instead of copying precedent.
This study aims to raise the employment rate for people with disabilities. It quantifies the monetary value of improvement effect, introduces universal design to existing buildings, and provides basic data for facility management planning. Sixteen buildings owned by Company A have been investigated to evaluate universal design by applying the Comprehensive Assessment Systems of Universal Design Achievements (CASUDA) method developed by Sawada et al. Based on the findings of universal design evaluation, improvement studies were conducted and quantified the improvement effect and the facility cost. The installation of an elevator is most highly recommended on the evaluation, followed by toilet improvements, elevator retrofitting, and renovation of the corridor and stairs. The monetary value of a skeleton retrofit has been compared and elevator was most highly valued, whereas if new elevator shaft was not installed, the value is equivalent to that of a toilet retrofit.
This paper aims to clarify the role of kidomon. These kidomon fix boundary with nearest town in Kyoto city under the Tokugawa regime. This boundary comprised two varieties. On one hand was "Jimen" which mean boundary of town area. On the other hand was "Shihai" which mean boundary of responsible area. Usually, four kidomons of four towns fixed boundary about "Shihai" and made blank apace about "Shihai" in the cross road. However, the boundary of "Jimen" are not concern with kidomons. Those were fixed with town houses and street.
During Edo-Era inspectors ware sent throughout Japan several times. In 1838 inspectors ware sent to Kumamoto-Han and used lodgings for stay and rest. Through the examination of historical materials such as plans, following results were ascertained ; 1) Insepectors ware composed of three officials and three lodgings were required for stay and rest. 2) Lodgings were classified into Ocha-ya, Okyaku-ya, private house, store and temmple.
This paper attempts to show the character of interiors designed by the architect Okada Shinichiro based on some pieces made by the furniture maker Kajita Megumu. Although a considerable amount of research about his life, career, work, speeches and writing has been carried out by earlier scholars, little is known about Okada's interior design. On the other hand, research about Kajita has been carried out in connection with a memorial exhibition about him and an exhibition of plans of his furniture and industrial design work. The data collected in the course of this research is very useful in helping us to understand Okada's interior designs. However as research it is inconclusive. In this paper, I collated the plans kept by Okada with the plans kept by Kajita, and thereby established hichot Kajita's works were designed for Okada's architectural interiors. As a result, I was able to clarify the characteristics of Okada's interior design work.
In this study, I analyze the composition of Noh space (in Japanese named as Nohgaku-golan-jo) of nobility residence in the Meiji period. Nohgaku-golan-jo is an Ima (room) for daily life, but it is changed to a place to watch Noh when Emperor visiting. At first, I clarify when and where and how many times Noh were played as entertainment events for entertaining Meji Emperor, by using the official documents "Meji Tenno ki". The second, I examine the space of Nohgaku-golan-jo, for example, how is the surrounding of Noh stage, how the stage being layout with the main building, more further, when events was opening how to use the spaces including the other rooms of the residence. I take up Toshinari Maeda's house as a case of nobility residence, because there left rich documents recording the event for Emperor. In addition, comparison the Noh event for the general visiting at Edo era, I will make clear what part of the event space to play Noh was changed in Meji era.
This paper examines the site planning of seven hospitals constructed by the Tokyo municipal government as part of the reconstruction program after the Great Kanto Earthquake. Using a reinforced concrete structure and elevators, those hospitals were built as compact multi-storied buildings after the style of the day. More distinctive arrangements were shown in the four municipal hospitals which had both general and infectious wards. In those hospitals infectious wards were carefully arranged in consideration of their placement relative to other parts of the hospitals. Furthermore, the location of infectious wards were chosen to soothe the sentiments of local residents.
The aim of this paper is to clarify the formation process and the character of the terraced house district in Paddington, Australia. The common features of the external design of terraced houses in this area include small-scale homes of two or three floors, a narrow frontage, a rear extension, front and back yards, offset from the main street, with a veranda on the ground floor and a balcony on the first floor. The partition walls of the terraced houses also act as part of the fire walls, as well as dividing two homes and the structure of the house and balcony. The widths of the frontages range from 10 feet to 20 feet, and it is presumed that several lots of land (20 feet wide×105 feet depth) were consolidated into a single plot and the plural number of houses were then built on the site. Moreover we discuss the continuity and similarity of the main and rear elevations. When we picked up the "unit", namely continuous, as well as similar houses, it became clear that the units of terraced houses composed in blocksof two to six houses each and more than half the total number of units were comprised of pairs of houses. Moreover, the rear elevation showed no evidence of continuity and similarity.
The aim of this paper is to clarify how the urban space of the Central Seoul, especially the Jong-Ro area and Kwoang-Hwoa-Mun District, was changing during the middle and later colonial period. Newspapers and official records of the Governor-General of Chosen are the primary materials. The analysis consists of 3 distinct dimensions ; (1)the process of how the governor decided to remove Kwoang-Hwoa-Mun (2) how the concept of urban beauty affected on townscape (3) the street lamp installed by the inhabitants. This analysis deducts following 2 conclusions ; (1)The restriction of constructing low buildings shows that high buildings are regarded as a symbol of modern city. (2)The street lamps in Jong-Ro district are voluntarily installed by the merchants in that area. This fact implies that they did not forget to be Koreans under the governance of Japan.
Shintenchi district as an amusement quarter has begun in the middle of Meiji Era as "Kanshouba", a commercial promoting zone, and developed in Taishou Era into the representative urban amusement quarter in Hiroshima. The district was located behind the main traffic street of the castle town Hiroshima in Edo Era and mainly composed with the lots for Samurai residences. The joint-stock corporation Shintenchi co. has collected a lot of complicated lots and designed a modern amusement quarter with three big theaters and many shops integrated through subtle lane-network. This paper has reconstructed three stages of allotment of this district, and discussed how the allotment formed since Edo Era were transformed and utilized into the modern space for the urban amusement, which was inherited as one of the central commercial and amusement district in Hiroshima after WWII.
The conservation works of Shin-yakushiji temple in the Meiji period has been known as a typical one of the Japanese modern conservation works. But that hasn't been the only way of conservation works in Japan, and there were then fairly violent arguments over the way of conservation. An article strongly opposed to the way adopted actually was written under the pen name of Senji MIZUTANI. This paper aims to assert that Senji MIZUTANI can probably be Futo MIZUTANI, a famous scholar of Japanese literature, and that the arguments in those days were exchanged on a highly intellectual level.
Restoration policy for each project in this period was basically set up by preservationists at the Ministry of Education through historic investigation on original state of buildings. Chief preservationist at the Ministry, Ryonoshin Sakatani and his successor Minoru Ooka, tried to re-create original design as the concept of architectural preservation, restoring roof shape (often changed by posterior repairings) as a decisive aesthetical element to the overall architectural form. Their positivist academic research-not only on original buildings' form but on unexplained ancient carpenter's technique to make curved roof lines(Kikujutsu)-seemingly gave their idea a certain legitimacy. This architecture-oriented concept, opposed to historian's, was crystallized in Ooka's idea for the Horyuji Toin Denpodo restoration(1938-43) where nonetheless hostile objections its original roof was thoroughly reconstructed on account of preserving techniques of the Nara period such as the manner of projecting eave rafters(Hiendaruki).
This research aimed to use industry related to the fishery by sightseeing in the waterfront. The charm element when the industry that related to the fishery to achieve it was seen as resources for tourism was made clear. The investigation targeted the article on the industry that related to the fishery written during five years (117 in total) in the past of two kinds of travel magazines. The feature of an attractive scene and the element was referred from-the content of the description of the photograph analysis and the journalist on a magazine in that as resources for tourism. As a result, the element to which an attractive role played by each industrial scene was able to be extracted. The scene that influences "Five senses" like a spectacular scenery and a lively place, etc. has been understood importantly.
In this paper, a simulation system using CA is suggested in order to visualize land use patterns in a built-up area after development. A land use simulation system using CA is usually developed in a regular grid net or a network, where the spatial relationship of the adjacent grids or network is easily dealt with. A new concept in this project is the exploration of how to deal with spatial micro simulation in land use patterns of plots in blocks while considering the influence of the road network. Irregular adjacent plots in blocks and relevant plots on the other side of the road network are the intended simulation targets. In this paper, a prototype simulator is discussed regarding how to simulate land use patterns after land readjustment projects. In order to examine the effects of the simulation system, we chose one study area in Kanazawa city. However, the simulation of households, energy expenditure and traffic volumes based on land use pattern is left as our further research, in which households, energy expenditure and traffic volumes can be calculated according to statistical indicators of the Ishikawa province and National Statistics office.