The aim of this study is to clarify the methods to improve the built environment of community facilities for handle type electric wheelchair users by the interview, measurement of the size, and behavioral observation. As a result of this study, the following has been clarified. 1) Electric wheelchair make users' outdoor lives more active, and their behavioral range wider. 2) Usability of community facilities by handle type electric wheelchair users depends on both their personal factors and environmental factors. 3) Therefore, the built environment of community facilities for them should be changed according to scale and kind of the facilities.
This study is trying to verify that Kami-Asagi has the same origin with Ton in the Okinawa Islands and Amami Islands. Primarily used as religious functions, they have changed their forms as well as the functions, and today, usually look quite different. Therefore, not to mention these names, they may well be taken as two different things, which however doesn't agree with what close explorations find. This paper consists of 1) Distribution of them, 2) Transitions of their forms and functions, 3) Classification of them, 4) Theory of the identity between them from the viewpoint of their traditional designing norm.
"Structured teaching" of TEACCH, a method of setting proper environment for people with autism, has also potentials for empowering people with intellectual disabilities. In order to empower each individual person, the structured teaching needs to be re-examined in the context of individualized and flexible support system. This paper defines the individualized and flexible supports of setting environment as "environmental support," and attempts to clarify the validity and the meaning of the structured teaching in the support activities for people with intellectual disabilities. Taking an intensive case study of a workshop in Penang, Malaysia, this paper focuses on 1) the individualization of client's activity space, 2) the improvement of the working processes, 3) the moving routes of the clients, 4) the changes of interrelationships between the clients and the supporters. The research results lead to the conclusion that an introduction of the structured teaching into the support activities at the workshop made it possible to construct the highly organized working environment, and to improve the staffs' attitude from "directive" to "facilitative," and enabled the clients to act spontaneously.
We made the investigation and the research on the composition of the shrines, the Noh stages and the galleries of existing 51 Noh stages in the southern part of Hyogo Prefecture. The composition of the shrine takes mostly general modern form and are classified in fourteen kinds of 7 types. Most of the passages take passed on the right side of the Noh stage. When it passes on the right side of the stage, they made the temporary Hashigakari (Bridge form passageway) or, the bridge which could be easily taken off. For the fundamental module of the Noh stage they have used the Kyo Ma (1969mm=1 ken) Chukyo Ma (1908mm=1 ken) and Kanto Ma (1818mm=1ken).
In a case of fire at high-rise building or complex usage building, many evacuees uses staircase at once. At the staircase, confluence is happened between the evacuees from upper floors and ones entering to the staircase. The condition of merging may have impact on escape time, not only on the fire floor but also the time in the whole building. However there is less research about the condition of merging about staircase. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of merges in stair case and easiness of merging in various cases. The tests were conducted to compare different cases in: 1) crowd density, 2) directions of merges, 3) door open or close. The results lead to the following conclusions: 1) it is easier to merge at lower density; 2) it is easier to merge if the direction of the merging crowd is same as the direction of the crowd in staircase; 3) it is easier to merge if the door is open, and it lowers the evacuation flow rate by 70% at the door when the door is closed at start.
Clarifying the block formation and division of housing lots in Paramaribo, this paper discusses the influence and modification of Dutch colonial city planning in Suriname. Paramaribo is one of the uniquely preserved Dutch colonial towns in Caribbean Regions. With numerous historical buildings and wooden houses, Paramaribo was registered as one of the UNESCO World Cultural Heritage sites in 2002. This paper is based on the research project that had been launched under the title 'Field Research on Origin, Transformation, Conversion and Conservation of Urban Space of Colonial Cities', the major target of which are the Dutch colonial cities. To compare the colonial cities all over the world is ambitious objective of the project. The Dutch is well known as a developer of high densed settlement and townhouses. One of the major focuses of this paper is to clarify how the Dutch planned the block and housing lots in Paramaribo. The paper firstly studies the history of the process of establishment and development of Paramaribo and the considerations on the block formation and division of housing lots. Analyzing historical maps in terms of the block formation planned in the late 18th century, this paper clarifies that the planning of the blocks was based on the unit of measurement called Rijinlandse Roede. And from the comparison with the grid pattern of Cape Town, South Africa, this paper points out the relevance of the city planning between Paramaribo and Cape Town.
This paper intends to clarify block formation and house types of Nagapattinam, India, and analyze their transformation process. The research on which this paper is based is the further study of the project called 'Field Research on Origin, Transformation, Conversion and Conservation of Urban Space of Colonial Cities', which the major targets are Dutch colonial cities all over the world. Further to this project, comparing colonial cities in South Asia, in terms of spatial formation and transformation is the ambitious objective of this research. Another purpose is to elucidate the Dutch way of houses construction in their colonial cities, where in Nagapattinam, Dutch developed the form of town houses for high-density living. Nagapattinam was once a head quarter of Coromandel, one of five administrative districts laid by Dutch on South Asia. At present, Nagapattinam is still holding numerous town houses. This paper clarifies the spatial organization of Nagapattinam, by analyzing distribution pattern of its facilities and block formation, based on field surveys. At the last chapter, this paper focuses on house types of Nagapattinam identified according to their physical features and planning parameters. The transformation processes of these house types are also discussed. This paper suggests that construction of town houses in Nagapattinam were based on regional vernacular architecture and partly influenced by Dutch.
We clarified following 2 points on importance of environmental control of neighborhood by using district planning system together with voluntary rules.・It is possible to make a rule gradually by considering from the voluntary rule to district planning system, and also possible to make an article a voluntary rule or a district plan, depend on easiness to reach agreement or characteristics of the article.・It is possible to realize the comprehensive environmental control reducing community's role, by combining the preventive regulation by administration and the recommending rule by residents to improve environment.
The purpose of this paper is to clarify conditions for practical use of electric bicycles in a hilly residential area with narrow roads in Kure city as a case study. We hereby suggest following solutions. 1) The Government and municipalities are to establish a fund for purchasing electric bicycles in a hilly residential area. 2) The Government and municipalities are to provide users of electric bicycles with recharging stations. 3) The Government and municipalities are to relax the regulation of assistance ratio in order to come into wide use of electric bicycles. 4) Manufacturers are to improve battery power of electric bicycles and to offer residents opportunities to try electric bicycles.
This study consists of the review on the conservation programs in Bukchon and questionnaire research, and the followings become clear: 1) building regulations for conservation run into residents' opposition accompanied with deterioration of living environment, and deregulation and grant program with registration of traditional style housing is now enforced, 2) both new and rehabilitated houses following the guideline of grant program are evaluated by the residents that their design are not traditional but new even if their style are traditional. The present program for conservation of historical resources in Bukchon is effective to sustain the traditional housing style with improvement of housing comfort.
This research has clarified the characteristic of the lighting environment that composes the night cityscape which is an another face of the city. The commercial district (Kabukicho in Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo), the typical place that various lightings are consolidated, was selected to analyze the lighting environment as sum of public lightings and shop lightings. Analyze was advanced by using the evaluation axis of the intensity of illumination and the color temperature. As a result, the intensity of illumination fairly filled the standard in a large-scaled, high density commercial district like the Kabukicho, and the need of new evaluation axis like the color temperature were clarified. It also became clear that in the commercial district, the shop lightings do influenced the intensity of illumination of the street, while public lightings effects the color temperature of the street. At the end, it became clear that the light that leaked from the entrance of the building increases both the intensity of illumination and the color temperature of the shop lightings.
This study aims to clarify color transition of Kobe's townscape from the middle period of Meiji until now. Painted colors of western historic houses of Kobe have been investigated. On the other hand, a comparative analysis of Kobe and Hakodate's townscape have been conducted to the study. Obvious characteristics throughout the study are summarized as follows: 1) It has been known that Kobe's houses have been characterised by different colors, for example, external walls and windows are painted respectively by off-white, light beige (for walls) and, green and brown (for windows and posts). This study has obtained that different colors were used. Before the 1960s various and dark colors, especially dark green and gray, were popularly used. Since 1980, various influences of sightseeing and designated historic district, have affected changing the color of these houses to off-white color. 2) The changing of townscape color of both Kobe and Hakodate are different. Incase of Kobe, the townscape color did not chang for about sixty years and was stable for a long period, while Hakodate's case has shown different performance, hence their houses have been characterised by changeable color for a short period every twenty or thirty years.
In previous paper, the authors have examined about "Actual Situation of PSMV and Problem in Historic Conservation area in Luang Prabang Province, LAO P.D.R". It reported that: Most of illegal buildings have non-permission, in this case had many of them violation on the material of wall, building form. And it was pending subject to survey the consciousness of citizen for preservation. In this paper aims to examine the Citizen's consciousness and Conservation policy, to find some of key for improving the Preservation plans of historic town of Luang Prabang through Citizen's Participation Approaching. The target subjects and area are the citizens, teachers, undergraduate students, administrators of government, Organization or the authorities concerned in Luang Prabang and Vientiane Lao, P.D.R. Some of results are as follows: 1) Citizen think that Luang Prabang is developing to become more beautiful, increasing of visitors after it was registered into the world heritage. But there are many of citizens think the regulation of preservation is being a problem to their housing construction. 2) By sharing the housing images has been performed that the houses which citizen regarded as seemingly LuangPrabang style should be preserved, but that is different type of houses so citizen prefers to live.
This study is, based on the survey of Block Formations, Building Lot, Void Space and ROJI, to bring to light the Typology of Block Formation and the Characteristics in urban area of Kyoto. The analyses reveal that (1). The average of Housing Lot is larger in large Block; (2). The rate of Void Space Area in the Block is higher in large Block; (3). Much remainder Void Space is made when large or midium scale buildings are built and those remainder Void Spaces will be gatherd to make next large scale buildings; (4). The numbers and area of ROJI in Square Block is Larger than in Rectangle Block.
This paper described the study on the planning process for the development of "Tama Garden City" which is a typical residential area developed by the private sector in Japan. From this study, the following matters have mainly been learned for the future planning of residential areas. (1) The development of "Tama Garden City" began as the development of a low density residential area but gradually shifted to high density development to deal with such issues governing the project as the need to secure funding for the project and the rapid increase of land prices in a realistic manner. The five projects relating to this development were prepared with appropriate revisions being made in their preparation process to ensure their realistic response to important issues for town development which emerged as a result of the changing conditions. (2) Instead of regarding the master plan as a fixed plan determining the final shape of town planning, its review in a flexible manner in response to the changing conditions is important. (3) The integral as well as continual development of urban infrastructure and urban management utilising the diverse capabilities of the private sector is effective for the efficient development of a high quality residential area.
The paper proposes the methodology to analyze the components and elements of construction system, and to make clear the merit and demerit of each system. As an artificial system, construction is complicated and variable, and it is difficult to understand without any information of every kind of aspect such as function, structure, process and organization of elements. It is necessary to understand the reason why these aspects change the style, and to understand the logic of the relationship between construction technology and organizational configuration. So it is important to make a method to analyze whole of the system at once. "Architecture" is one of the ways to analyze artificial actions, and the general concept of "Architecture" is the composition of system that is based on the pattern of relationship among elements. This paper proposes to create the new viewpoint about the analysis of construction system with "Architecture" concept.
This paper deals with the actual condition of housing modification of the household where the elderly people who live in a privately rented houses. The research conducted in interviews with the elderly people who live in rented dwelling from private owner in Osaka-shi. The results are summarized as follows: It turned out that the housing modification of rented dwelling from private owner is permitted only by a lender's discretion. Even if the tenant is using the long-term care insurance, needs housing modification, It is impossible to repair a house without a lender's permission.
Recently, the elevator installation in the existing municipal apartment-house is increasing in Japan. This study focus on the coefficient of convenience according to the elevator installation. As the elevator installation increases, it becomes necessary how to deal with the house the house rentPublic housing law says that the elevator is counted to the point of the coefficient of convenience, and it reflects to the house rent. We investigated the elevator installation and the affairs about the coefficient of convenience also.
Recently, the elevator installation in the existing municipal apartment-house is increasing in Japan. This study investigates the installation cost of the elevator to the existing stairs room type multi-dwelling houses. The installation cost of stairs room barrier-free type elevator is much more than the stairs room type elevator. But if including the maintenance and management costs, it is known there is a case the stairs room barrier-free type elevator should be lower than stairs room type elevator.
Recently, new consulting business such as construction management services is performed in the construction project. However, the scope of the services has not become settled clearly. Based on such the situation, the existence of the layered structure of tasks in a construction project is shown in this paper from the view of the client's side. For this purpose, the method of Interpretive Structural Model is used in the example of the construction project.
This study aims to analyze the standardization of the member size in Kaisan-do and Shoro, Todai-ji as an inevitable preparation for the formation of the Daibutsu style, the new construction method invented by Chogen. 1) Through the calculation of the percentage ratio of timber volume and structural timber volume, 7 kinds of parts with standardized section are found in Kaisan-do, and similarly 8 kinds of parts with standardized section are found in Shoro. 2) The percentage ratio of timber volume of 7 kinds of standardized parts in Kaisan-do corresponds to 85.23% of total timber volume, while the percentage ratio of structural timber volume corresponds to 95.74% of total structural timber volume. Therefore there is the standardization of the member size in Kaisan-do. 3) The percentage ratio of timber volume of 8 kinds of standardized parts in Shoro corresponds to 90.24% of total timber volume, while the percentage ratio of structural timber volume corresponds to 95.11% of total structural timber volume. Therefore there is the standardization of the member size in Shoro.
The study catches appearance of wooden building more inclusively through the understanding of the figure of temporary artifacts. Especially, this paper pays attention to figure of under posts. Field of study is made place of a festival transmitted to KOSUGE in IIYAMA city of NAGANO prefecture. Kutsuishi and stone's arranged pits have been placed under posts of a temporary artifact. Kutsuishi is the stone with dug pit. Both Kutsuishi and stone's arranged pits fix under posts of a temporary artifact by the stone. Now since this thing is confirmed, interpretation that polarizes to Ishizue and Horitate is a limit in the interpretation of the past.
This article discusses Tsuchiura Kameki's use of International Style and traditional dwelling style elements in his prewar houses. Of the 56 houses he designed in the prewar period, 32 have International Style exteriors, 3 are Japanese style, and 11 incorporate elements of both. 11 of the houses' interiors are designed for chairs and tables, 5 for tatami, and 37 for both Japanese and Western-style living. Only 9 of the houses use the "International Style exteriors and chair-style living arrangements" Tsuchiura preferred, and 21 of them mix chairs and tatami mats behind an International Style facade. This demonstrates the difficulty of insisting on International Style exteriors and chair-style living arrangements. In reality, most of Tsuchiura's houses had individual Japanese-style rooms, but these were designed to be unrecognizable from the exterior.
Purpose of this study is to clarify an enactment process of the Kenchikushi Law for Architects & Building Engineers from the view point of Governmental Officials of Building Administration. Conclusion of this study is as follows: 1. Generally, there was no concern about enactment of the Law before WWII, but some governmental officials had appealed its necessity. 2. One of those officials, Ryoichi Naito, Director of Building Guidance Division at the time of the enactment, had had clear vision of how to realize the Law since before WWII. 3. Naito's intent of vision was to encourage Kenchikushis, including architects, to design homes then in need by individual household, and to establish simple and swift administrative filing process upon the construction. 4. The first architectural designer's code in domestic Japan was the system of general administration for architectural engineers in Kanagawa prefecture, based upon Naito's vision.
The "JIN PING MEI" is known as one of the four most valuable books in Chinese classical literature and is said to be written in the middle of Banreki years of the Ming period. In this paper, It is mainly considered what kind of tables and seats are used in the interior of "JIN PING MEI", and characteristics of a room are tried to explain. As a result, next six points become clear: 1) The Qiaotouan table is a main furniture in the hall, and has a ceremonial character. 2) In a women's room and drawing room of a pleasurehouse, Pingtouan tables are placed. 3) The name and form of a folding chair changed according to the age. 4) In a study room, Dong po yi armchair and Zui weng yi armchair are placed, and their forms are rare. 5) In a woman's room and drawing room of a pleasurehouse, various stools (deng zi) are placed. They are used not only as a table, but also as one of elements of the interior ornament. 6) There is a relation between furniture, the interior design description, and characters. That is to say, the character's social position and life style are expressed through the furniture and interior ornament.
The present paper examines the planning process at the early stages of the rebuilding project for the Basilica of St. Peter, launched at the beginning of the 16^<th> c. in Rome. It has been suggested that the project was transformed from a longitudinal into a central plan under the order of Pope Paul III during the time of a political and economic crisis after the Sack of Rome. However, close observation of the floor plans for the Basilica shows that the architects took the initiative in doing the planning. It is probable that the Sack of Rome provided a strong incentive for the architects to depart from long-lasting basilican tradition and adopt the ideal form of the church building as illustrated in the Renaissance theory of architecture. Further observation shows that the architects never found a solution to the problem of how to reconcile wide differences among their designs in the other part of the building. It is conceivable that Michelangelo sought to preclude the possibility that his successors would extensively modify his design. This may well explain the reason that while retaining the form of a central plan, he reduced the size of the building and completed a significant portion of it within the short period of his own tenure.
Follwing aspects are demonstrated through this analysis: 1) Concentrated on the oval form, trianguler, quadrangle and octagonal constructions appear in the eight pieces of garden pavilions. 2) There is an attempt in the facade to show internal spaces into outside in most constructions. 3) According to the first plan in the triangular construction, Fischer arranges regular squres in three directions in circular circumferences and disposes three oblong ovals between these squares. He replaces one of the squares with rectangle in the next progresss. 4) Oblong ovals are positioned in the center in the following third plan, and regular hexagons are added between these ovals. 5) He moves these ovals to outward in the fouth plan. Instead he creates unequal-sided hexagon space in the center and arranges concave forms and regular hexagons in the circumference one after the other. 6) There are two examples of the oblong oval construction. Fischer changes an oblong oval of the first plan into a lengthwise oval in the fifth plan. In the same plan, he also changes the position of regular squares between those ovals to 45 degrees angle and replaces aqures with unequal-sided hexagons in the sixth plan. 7) The quadrangle construction is based on four oblong ovals, which are situated along axis one after the other. 8) The eighth plan belongs to the octagonal construction. The partition of inner spaces consistes of four unequl-sided hexagons.
The "Native Town", the former "Black Town", was first established as a bazaar area for indigenous merchants and craftsman. Now packed with "chawls", multi-storied apartment blocks with shops on the ground floor, it still shows clear traits of the original spatial grouping in accordance with the occupants' religion, cast/business (Jati) and home countries, which coincided with the segregation principle under the British rule. However, a close look at the overlaid survey data as to the attributes of the present property owners, business owners, their employees and inhabitants of all of the blocks in the two typical quarters of the Town also shows distinct deviation from the original setting. The systems that barely maintain the long standing sub-communities can be concluded to be the remains of the "Jati" system and the unique form of tenure of chawls, but the modern stresses causing changes in property ownership, businesses and the family structure are now undermining the stability of the spatial composition of the Town.
It comes down that the temple town of the Mt. Tsukuba was planned in early 17^<th> century. In late 17^<th> century the main people who lived in the temple town were the craftsmen who had settled down for the construction of the temple. In the beginning of 18^<th> century the townscape was well regulated. We can show that in the historic document's picture. (Tsukubasan Engi etc.) In this time the houses in the town were the one-storied and thatched their roofs. And their entrance didn't face to the street. From the end of 18^<th> century to the beginning of the 19^<th> century the style of the houses in the temple town changed extremely.
This paper is to clarify on the architectural form and role of the city mercantile facilities of Kaegyong, the capital of Koryo dynasty, based on a close study of historical records. The commercial space in Kaegyong was formed from a corridor-like basic element, the Rou(廊). This was a long roofed building continuously connected, consisting of section of varying numbers of stories, and having various facades. Its form was long and narrow, aligned with the main street, and the housing district and the street where various events and commercial activities occurred, separated and coexisted effectively by it. The use of this commercial space is shown to have extended to acting as a workshop, a storehouse, a place of rest, and as charities. This indicates that these commercial spaces of Kaegyong also had a character as a kind of political space and religious space. As mentioned above, in the city space of Kaegyong, the market overflowed beyond the district initially designated for it where the domain was restricted, and moved to the roadsides, and so commercial spaces linked to roadways were occurred and established.
In this paper we examine the formation process of the spa town in modern age, by doing the case study of the Atami spa, Shizuoka. This spa town had prospered since Edo period. Our presumption goes on the basis of changes occurred in the community and the space structure of this spa town during both Meiji and Taisho period. In this paper, we study about the modernization of this town, by considering the next three factors; the various aspects of hot spring inn (Ryokan), the development processes of hot springs, and the changes of space structure.