Objectives This study examines that action of children and mothers from a new aspect of sectional perspective. In this study, I pay attention to IKATA (whereabouts and movement) of mother and children in the Skip Floor (SF) housing, and intend to contribute to a sectional designing of the house that is considered for the communication of parent and child. Spatial cognition and the distance to others in the horizontal field of view have already been studied. However, the studies including three-dimensional elements of space such as height is not sufficient. Particularly the study for children is less, only The change of perspective due to the body movement of children is less than adults so the environment may play a role in the change of perspective. Therefore, it should take into account the spread of the cross section in the environment that children spend. In the SF housing, because the space is connected a family is easy to detect the presence of another person, and have characteristic that we can talk with and look each other. and We have not been studied a distance feeling that mother and children feels each other in sectional space of housing and how to use the space yet. Methodological approach First, we conducted behavior observation and questionnaire survey of children and mothers. In behavior observation, we make certain that the transformation of children and mothers whereabouts and actions. Subjects stay 30 minutes in the skip floor housing, in this time we instructed mother to move every 10 minutes, but the children were allowed to choose whereabouts by themselves. After spending on the skip floor, we asked mothers and children about the psychological state when they spent in SF housing. And from the viewpoint of psychology, consider the sense of distance that affects the way of mother and child spend. Main findings As a result of behavioral observations, as means to adjust the sense of distance to the mother, children had an action to look at the state of their mother from upper floor. These behaviors that children look down their mothers is characteristic. Also, in SF housing, children are easy to grasp what their mothers are doing, even if their mothers and children are away from each other, and it becomes easy for children to feel closer to the existence of their mothers. By watching the mother's appearance, children feel that the mother is nearby, and it seems that children will feel secure. Likewise, for the mother, she was relieved by the connection of space, even though the child was in a high position and the child's body could only see a part. In brief, it seems necessary to think about the connection between space that considering visual and sound. Conclusions From this research, "visible" is important for both mothers and children, because they capture each other's state and existence. Among them, looking down from a high position makes it easy for children to adjust the sense of distance with the mother. We think it is necessary to create a space where children can positively recognize their mother faces, appearances, movements. Due to the above We think that it is important to locate the child's whereabouts higher than the mother's whereabouts so that the children can look down on their mother's figure
With transition to knowledge-based society, importance of knowledge creation and communication were pointed out and a lot of studies were conducted. This study is intended to clarify the influence of indoor built environment on “communication effort” in conference room and meeting space. When we think about relationship between communication effort and indoor built environment, it must be needed to consider how environment is captured in personal construct system, and how it is evaluated on this concept. Then, interview, which aimed to understand personal construct about communication effort, and experiment about subjective evaluation on different acoustic environment were conducted in conference room. Sixteen office workers were interviewed with evaluation grid method. By using the photographic images of conference room or space from their own office as evaluation elements, they were asked their preference rankings of elements with considering communication effort and reasons of rankings about top two preferred elements. Evaluation words, obtained from the interview, could be classified into three categories; their sensation for the meeting environment (E), their mental conditions in the meeting environment (M) and actions or purposes in the meeting (A). Putting participant's answers all together, peaks of each category items in number appeared in the order of E, M, A on laddering steps. In addition, by replacing evaluation words with E, M and A, each participant's answer formed EMA chain. Hence, personal construct system in meeting could be described with E, M and A, and EMA chain was the most typical pattern of answers. Next, we conducted a psychological experiment to clarify the influence of acoustic environment on communication effort in experimental conference room with sixteen participants. Evaluation items were selected from each category words of E, M and A considering experimental condition. Acoustic condition, absorption coefficient and background noise level, was changed with minimum change of visual condition. The results of subjective rating were affected by acoustic condition, in terms of not only auditory sense but also the sense relating to both auditory and visual sensation, mental conditions and actions. Three factors were derived by factor analysis. Factor 1 and 3 had large factor loads of E and A, and factor 2 was mainly composed of M category items. Those three factors, which indicate human evaluation framework on acoustic environment in meeting, have two aspects. One is functional aspect relating to sound transmission and meeting efficiency, the other is feeling aspect like comfortableness in meeting. In other words, feeling aspect is thought to relate on the emotion, affecting people's attitude when they interpret another person's speech and reply answer. It should be possible to design totally good meeting environment considering both functional aspect and feeling aspect. Acoustic condition affected evaluation items of M category in the psychological experiment, even though those had weak relation with acoustic environment in the result of interview. For making better communication effort, it must be important to design both visual and acoustic environment in consideration of those influences which people does not recognize.
Japan is a country surrounded by seas and has abundant marine resources. Therefore, there are various hut for fishery along coast. Boathouse "Funagoya" is one of them, and is a hut to put a small wooden ship inside. There are a lot of boathouses in Oki Islands. A purpose of this study is to confirm the present conditions of the boathouse in Oki Islands. At first, we confirmed the distribution of boathouses. Then, we performed hearing investigation about the placement and made a survey of representative boathouses. Thereafter, we considered about relationship between boathouse and climate, occupations and local culture. We found new boathouses in 3 villages, and confirmed that there were boathouses in old days in 16 villages. There are few boathouses in northwest area of Okinoshima-cho, where we can see many cliffs. And, it became clear that there are many boathouses in areas rich economically in old days. We classified location of the boathouse into 3 types. Then, we checked placement and the possession relations of boathouses in Iibi village having representative landscape. We confirmed that boathouses protect wind from sea. And it was revealed that the tendency of the owner is different from the east side of the Iibi River in the west. We classified the form of the boathouse into 4 types. And we showed the difference of type and constructional element, by comparing all boathouses. Continuous type boathouses have long span in beam direction, and solo type boathouses have long span in ridge direction. The length 1-ken of solo type is bigger than continuous type. In areas where the length of ridge direction is big, they make walls to village side and make space for storage. Villagers built boathouses by themself. They made boathouses with miscellaneous small trees and scrap woods of houses. Pillar of boathouse was buried in the ground, roof was made with the peel of cedar. We investigated five representative boathouses, and clarified the details of the building method of boathouses. Solo type boathouses are made with many logs. Continuous type boathouses are made with square timbers and joint metals. Most of continuous type boathouses are new and are built by public fund. And one of them is made with traditional method of “Zairai-kouhou”using ground sill. Almost all boathouses are not in use now, and seaside landscape with boathouses is disappearing. But, boathouses are local precious cultural resources, and have high value as tourist attractions. It will be important to preserve and utilize them.
As demands of consumers are getting more diverse, downtown and residential areas in Japan have changed to satisfy various image requirements, not just functional differences. It should not be overlooked that the activities of people who make, sell, and interact with their hobbies are growing to a non-negligible economic scale, with invisible change of landscape. In this research, through interview surveys at multiple exhibition spot sale meetings held in the Tokyo metropolitan area, we grasp the actual state of the hand-made craft market and the social background of their formation. We grasped the position of handmade craft market in chapter 2 and clarified the following three points.
1) The system of the places for activities constituting the hand-made craft market of hobbies The places for procurement of materials diversified in the real space and the Internet space, and they came to satisfy the quality, kindness, reasonable prices, convenience for the producers. Production of handmade crafts are enhanced by outside places and services such as shared workshops and the vendor services. In addition, the places for selling works has also diversified, with exhibitions and craft market services, the producers felt delighted that their work gained empathy with the purchasers and exchanges between artists and fans were born. These facts lead to their motivation for making. Almost all of the producers are using SNS to receive information and stimulated from works of other artists, and they also try to exhibit / advertise their works in SNS. It was found that the development of SNS supported the hand-made craft market, which have physical and non-physical places on the internet, crossing the process of materials procurement, production of handcrafts, and selling of their works.
2) Types of hobby handmade craft market participants and their characters Participants who started making their works and joined the handmade craft market could be classified into six types, and characters of each types are revealed, based on their motivations, sex, using of interest, working environment, school, occupation and so on. There are diverse participants, one purely enjoys making their works, while another one tries to sell their works, and some have activities for exhibitions and exchanges. It was found that these diverse participants with different purposes were gathered and formed a hand-made craft market.
3) Space and social function of the places for making handcrafts, case study of shared studios In the chapter 5, we targeted at the “share studio”, which is a new working model for handmade crafts. The share studio is a space that can be flexibly changed in layout according to the purpose of use, such as the installation of wheeled equipment, and it has the features that they are located in convenient places close to the station. We had investigation at three shared studios in Tokyo. They are not only providing a place for production but also a system of support for manufacturing of both hobbies and main businesses, while they are also providing a place for exchange of artists and information. They also have a role of expanding the base of monozukuri. They are widely used as a place of production for people who are hard to make their works in their own houses. These shared studios are established as a place to support "making things by yourself that is not by mass production".
This research offers insights into the spatial composition of traditional commercial streets through a deep investigation from the point of view of pedestrians. First, we conducted typological studies among all the streets based on data from field investigations. Then, we selected typical spaces according to the classification results to clarify their dynamic relations with the social activities and physical environment. Furthermore, this research illuminated potential issues implicated in the forms of spaces with consideration to the needs of pedestrians. Based on these findings, we offer adaptable urban design guidelines to support the sustainable regeneration of the traditional commercial urban streets.
In Okinawa, a number of children whose family is struggling financial poverty, which could cause financial poverty on the next generation of the family again, is put spotlight on these days. This is one of the most immediate Okinawa prefectural government duty. These children tend to be more non-attendant than others. One statistic study shows there is correlation between poverty and non-attendance. In other words, it is possible to say income inequality causes unequal opportunity to receive education and to get experiences that they are supposed to do. It follows to be called “HIKIKOMORI”, who is always in house that they barely communicate with others, even with their family. Therefor one of the Cabinet office's poverty alleviation to improve their environment in Okinawa has been to emergently provide “Ibasho facility” for children since 2016. According to Nakajima, “IBASHO” is composed by “territory of space” and “feeling of distance between one and other” as quality. In this study, it can be defined as a condition of “BA” which means anywhere under any condition with anyone because Nakajima's “IBASHO” is already existing in any-space around us. Nakajima's “IBASHO” is defined as a place where one is able to reflect oneself throughout feeling sense of belonging and acceptance by others and even oneself. Factors of “Selectable Ibasho for Children” proposed by Sato are fallowing, (1) they can visit the place without any purpose and (2) there is a key person, who has capability to let children get new experiences or to let new beginnings invite, such as an organizer in playpark, a staff in children's community center or a neighbor in candy shop. In this study, “IBASHO” is defined as a selectable place for children where one feels sense of reflection of oneself (called “IBASHO with reflection of myself”), acceptance by others (called “IBASHO with other's acceptance”) or both (called “IBASHO complexed”). This study aims to clarify functions of “IBASHO facility” from non-attendance student's point of view throughout participate observation for 10 months in kukulu, which is one of the “IBASHO” facility for non-attendant teenage student. The research methods are 3, taking individual interview 5 students in kukulu about their usual life and floor plan of their home in order to grasp their circumstance, recording observation of all people in kukulu in order to reveal how each space in kukulu work for students, and individually plotting with the 5 object students on “BA” and “IBASHO” appraisement map which has two theoretical frameworks, “territory of space” and “feeling of distance between one and other”. Based from the results of the plotting, it shows 6 groups on the “IBASHO” appraisement map, 1)place with oneself in home, 2)place with family in home, 3)place with oneself in kukulu, 4)place with favorite group or others in kukulu, 5)school, 6) place in other. As results, there are three remarkable features of “IBASHO” facility for non-attendant teenage student, kukulu. Feature (1) is providing opportunities to belong social place. Feature (2) is providing selectable place where the students are able to choose with whether oneself, favorite people or other. Feature (3) is staff in kukulu, who let the students feel their own “IBASHO”.
Flophouse areas were formed by establishing many snack bars, cheap restaurants, amusement facilities such as pachinko parlors, and flophouses densely around employment agency for day laborers. At general flophouse, floor size of guestroom is 3 tatami mats, it does not have common space such as restaurant and lobby lounge, bathing equipment is coin-operated shower stall, and the charge is around 1500 yen. The areas were once the base for day laborers. Recently, due to aging of long-term residents who had been day-laborer, some of residents get home-visit care nursing services and medical checkup services in each room of flophouse, and some of pachinko parlors and snack bars converted into welfare facilities such as day care center for low-income elderly people. On the other hand, we need to discuss the rights and wrongs of being welfare areas for only single person with very low-income and the elderly, and increasing converted welfare facilities in case of replacement of residents in the future. This research aims to explore the current status and problems involved in conversion into welfare facilities from facilities for day-laborer in main flophouse areas in metropolitan area of Japan (Kotobuki area in Yokohama City, Sanya area in Taito-ku and Arakawa-ku, Tokyo). We describe the secular changes of welfare function by researching residential maps in the areas for 28 years between 1989 and 2016, and we describe problem of direction about support for long-term residents in the areas by field survey. In this research, we extracted services offered for people in the facilities as the facility function. In Chapter 2, we examine the number of the offer of day labor at the employment agency, the aging rate, public assistance recipient rate, and the years of residing by researching references announced by each local government, labor and welfare center. In addition, we also describe the current status that elderly people can reside in the long term, due to addition of welfare function to flophouse by visiting welfare services for residents in flophouse. In this process, we analyze the change of function by comparison the welfare services in flophouse and in ordinary welfare facility. In Chapter 3, we clarify the converting condition into welfare functions from functions for young people and day-laborers. Specifically, we describe the secular changes of welfare facilities in the areas by researching residential maps from 1989 when the number of day-labor offers are the most in the last 40 years. In this analysis, we examine the secular change of existing welfare facilities in 2016. In Chapter 4, we extract problems that flophouse continue to be place of residence in the long term for elderly people as lodging facility, by measuring inner space of flophouse and hearing survey to the manager of 4 flophouses in the areas. In addition, we also describe the assumption of residing group in flophouse, the change of function in the areas, and the problems involved in the direction of support for long-term residents in case the number of elderly residents decrease in the future by hearing survey to each local governments, support groups for residents, care offices.
From the perspective of maintaining a balance between service supply and demand, the spatial relationship between a residence and a facility in urban areas is an important issue. In urban planning, variations in accessibility to facilities that change with distance are often regarded as monotonically decreasing distance functions. These functions signify that spatial availability reaches its peak at each location of facilities and decreases as distance increases. In such cases, the value of power in distance function is generally determined in advance. However, it is difficult to select an appropriate function type that can be used as the base for facility accessibility. In this study, we aim to clarify spatial distributions of facility accessibility that vary according to facility type by using a distance attenuation function that includes an unknown parameter in the determination of distribution function. One way to estimate distance attenuation function for the analysis of facility accessibility has been discussed in this paper. As for the distribution of population corresponding to facility accessibility, population densities are calculated by dividing population by area using aggregated data. The distribution of facility accessibility is represented as a monotonically decreasing distance function that includes two parameters indicating “distance resistance” and “type of distribution function.” Then, when the sum of the square of the difference between the two distributions over the entire study area is minimized, the minimum values are derived as estimates of each parameter. Next, spatial distribution of facility accessibility by type of facility is clarified using the estimates of the two parameters, based on the distance functions. In this study, we have applied the distance function in a defined region and analyzed facility accessibilities from multiple perspectives. The study area consists of 12 elementary school districts situated in the central area of Oita City, Oita Prefecture, in Japan. We selected 12 types of facilities, such as convenience stores, medical institutions, post offices, elementary schools, and general merchandise stores, for analyzing facility accessibilities. From the results, many estimate values of the parameters that represent the values of power in the distance functions were close to 1 or 2. It suggests that the use of exponential distributions and normal distributions in previous studies on facility accessibilities is reasonable, as far as the result of this study is concerned. The types of facility are classified into four groups by cluster analysis, based on the estimates of the two parameters of the distance function. In addition, we calculated the relative error between density of population and facility accessibility, and visualized their spatial distributions on the map. The values of power in the distance functions, which are estimated in this study, are expected to be utilized for not only evaluating the estimates themselves but also as guidelines for applying representative distributions, such as normal distributions, to distance functions. To formulate a facility accessibility in this study, only the nearest neighbor facility from the residence has been considered. However, facilities other than the nearest neighbor facility must be considered if there are opportunities to choose other facilities or when there are capacity constraints of facilities. To address this problem, one of the solutions is to formulate accessibilities with a parameter that has a certain degree of priority in use in more than one facility.
Cities in Africa are growing rapidly, but urban planning is lacking. Urban populations have few options and end up finding housing in informal settlements, which are developed without government-controlled urban planning resources. Informal settlements have become a major dynamic in African urbanization. The purpose of this research was to empirically clarify the process of African urban development, with a focus on informal settlements, and to provide insights into the paradigms of urban planning in Africa. At the first onset, this paper explores development patterns of informal settlements using survey data from Nairobi, Kenya. This area of focus is the Mukuru Kwa Njenga settlement, which was illegally formed in an industrial area and houses approximately 150,000 people in a one square kilometer area. This case study was conducted onsite via field surveys using observation, measurements, and interviews by specifically examining layout planning, material, building plan and use, building coverage ratios, plot ratios, housing and land affordability, and characteristics of developers. The results are as follows: (1) Spatial structure in informal settlements is not uniform. For example, we identified squatter areas with iron sheet houses and narrow streets, planned areas with high-rise buildings made of concrete blocks arranged in a perfect array, and intermediate conditions. (2) In informal settlements, structures are built and rented to tenants by plot owners who are referred to as structure owners. As a general rule, plot price and room rent are set by structure owners. Plot price, which is related to plot size and the presence or absence of access roads, is unaffordable for most residents. In contrast, room rent, which is related to the size and type of room, the presence or absence of basic services in the room or plot (such as water, sanitation, and electricity), land conditions (such as roadside, low-lying, and flooded areas), and security, is generally fixed in accordance with the area and offers low-income residents a wide range of choices. (3) Few structure owners reside in their own structure, and others are non-residents who build and rent structures for profit. Some own and manage more than one structure. Therefore, informal settlements are not so much a place to live, but rather an attractive investment opportunity for structure owners or developers. This tendency is more applicable in planned areas than in squatter areas in informal settlements.
Chapter 1: The purpose of this study is to clarify the formation factors of "Naga-hisashi" found in Okura of Okura-syo owned by Kaga domain in the Edo Period. The eaves of Okura could be classified into the following two categories. The first one is "Naga-hisashi", which covers around the entrance, the second one is "Tomae-hisashi", which covers only the entrance. Chapter 2: The previous studies and the procedure of this study were shown. Chapter 3: I examined commonality and forming factors of "Naga-hisashi" of the Okura-syo owned by Kaga domain. First, I examined the use and scale of buildings with "Naga-hisashi". In the type of Okura-syo in which "Naga-hisashi" are common, "Naga-hisashi" tend to be set up at inspection station and the largest Okura.As these buildings play a central role in carrying a tax rice into the Okura-syo and carrying out the tax rice from the Okura-syo, this result was natural. Secondly, the layout of "Naga-hisashi" in Okura-syo was examined separately for each type of building arrangement. It was thought that the "Naga-hisashi" was forming the main circulation of people and goods. This is because the "Naga-hisashi" connect the garden behind the gates and the back of the site at the Okura-syo of the L type, enclosure type, parallel B type, garden detached type. On the other hand, in Okura-syo where is difficult to provide a main circulation such as parallelAtype and parallel C type, could not be seen "Naga-hisashi". Chapter 4: In order to verify the formation factors of the "Naga-hisashi"clarified in the previous chapter, I compare the Okura-syo owned by Kaga domain and the Okura-syo owned by Tottori domain that was accounted by "Naga-hisashi". I picked up the Okura-syo owned by Tottori domain which have many "Naga-hisashi" and compared it with the Okura-syo owned by Kaga domain. In Okura-syo owned by the Tottori domain the "Naga-hisashi" connected the front gates and the back gates, the front gates and the back of the site, like the Okura-syo owned by Kaga domain. Chapter 5: In conclusion, In this study, I found that "Naga-hisashi" in the Okura-syo owned by the Kaga domain that is the region with many rainy days, functioned as a passageway connecting the entrance of Okura-syo and the back of the site. In other words, it was concluded that the "Naga-hisashi" formed the main circulation of the Okura-syo.
Based on 20 traces left by nokogiri saw blades on wooden building materials from the Asuka Period to the Kamakura Period in Japan, the following features of the usage and shape of saws during that time were identified: 1. All the material gathered was found on the end grain of the components and not on the components' surfaces (the surface cut parallel to the wood fiber). Therefore, it is thought that the saw blade was primarily used while cutting timber and not for vertical sawing. 2. As for the production of fitting joints (lap or halving joint, notched joint), the saw blade was frequently used to cut to the middle of the component, and then the wood was split along the wood fibers. 3. Prior to the 8th century, the width of the nokogiri saw-tooth (set width) was 3-4 mm that is of a thickness and set width greater than modern nokogiri saws. 4. Of the components researched that were cut using a nokogiri saw, the greatest width was 31.8 cm and the least was 15 mm. Thus, it is believed that different nokogiri saws were used according to the size of the component being worked on.
This article examined about the Osaka Post and Telegraphic office completed in December, 1892. It is following points to become clear. The report of "Kentiku Zassi" 77 by Nakajima Senjirou recorded the Osaka Post and Telegraph Office main building with 2 stories, but "NOTES" by J. Condor reported main building 4 corner with 3 stories. The plane dimensions, main dimensions of the vertical plane and wall-thickness are equal to the new report written down by Nakajima Senjirou in the drawing placed in "Kentiku Zassi" 77 are equal. 4 corners of the Osaka Post and Telegraphic office Main Building were designed to 3 stories tower, at first by Satati Senjirou, and this plan was shown in "AN ARCHITECT'S NOTES ON THE GREAT EARTHQUAKE OF OCTOBER, 1891." by J. Condor. After the Nobi earthquake, the office was changed to 2 stories by Nakajima Senjirou, and the building which was finally designed was placed in "Kentiku Zassi" 77 as a "new report" and drawings. At the time of the Nobi earthquake, in the Osaka Post and Telegraph Office, the completion was already imminent. The main building was not seen in the damage point for the Nobi earthquake. So, this building did not make a change to plane constitution, a basic vertical plane, wall-thickness after the Nobi earthquake, and the third floor part of 4 corners of the main building were changed on the second floor. "Sintiku-Houkoku" of Nakajima Senjirou wrote down the start of work day of the Osaka Post and Telegraph Office with November 4, 1890, however it was open bill day of the construction contract bid on that day. The cement was not used for the seam materials of the brick before the Nobi earthquake by the construction of the Osaka Post and Telegraph Office, but cement was used in the construction after the earthquake.
This study examines and clarifies the publication method and characteristics of serial illustrated books published by KOYOSHA, a well-known architectural publisher in Taisho era and prewar Showa. In Chapter One, the purpose of this study is described. Along with technical developments in printing, the importance of visual materials in modern architecture began to increase. However, the importance of illustrated books on architecture has been overlooked in the framework for the history of modern architecture in Japan. In other words, much attention has been paid to architectural magazines intended to introduce various “ism”s or ideologies of modernist thinking, as well as building technical books intended to rationalize the building industry in Japan up to this day. In Chapter Two, the relationship between the form of publication and editing system of KOYOSHA is verified. In KOYOSHA, TAKANASHI worked on editing mostly by his own efforts. The focal point of its activity was to produce and reproduce plates. Under his direction, two staff photographers took pictures of buildings and duplicated figures from foreign books. Through this production process, they were able to issue many illustrated books on architecture frequently. In Chapter Three, KOYOSHA's goal to issue illustrated books on architecture is clarified by referring to variations of how to make plates. Duplicated plates from foreign books were understood in a positive sense, at first as a legitimate instance of the Occidental architecture, then as an object to show contemporaneity and/or immediacy of the modern movement in architecture, finally as an exemplar of “SHINKOU GEIJUTSU (emerging art)”. The purpose of communication using the photographs taken by company staff members shifted and deepened gradually from serving as a model of building types and building elements to , representing contemporaneity, peculiarity and spatiality based on tradition. In Chapter Four, the publishing expertise of serial illustrated books on architecture as a whole is examined. Target audience of serial illustrated books was not only architects but also engineers and clients. Looking overall, each book has independent contents and is treated as equivalent, but on the other hand, they constitute an integral entirety as a whole like a catalog. Therefore, it becomes easy for the audience to find a book they are looking for. Also, it was intended to cultivate a sense of beauty among the audience by providing various visual materials. Chapter Five is a conclusion. Publishing expertise of serial illustrated books on architecture by KOYOSHA is as bellow; the reason for assembling assorted photographs, drawings and sketches was to fulfill diverse tastes of the audience through enriching the architecture design language. The purpose of visual materials as the means of communication has changed gradually, from the model of style or building type to the sense of same age or beauty, and finally to the sense of space and new aesthetics. Through this process, the value of architecture as a medium had been heightened. The platform to share the diversity of architectural forms among the audience was created.
This paper is continued from 'The establishment of 'Ujiko-iki' in the early Meiji period-A study for restoration of Ujiko-iki area of Tokyo in the Meiji period (Part 1)-'. A term 'Ujiko-iki' means a territory where Ujiko, which means a worshiper to a specific Shinto shrine, live around the Shinto shrine. Ujiko-iki area is very important for research of urban history in comprising the most basically part of the city. The purpose of this paper is clarifying how Ujiko-iki area was changed after Ujiko shirabe, which was enacted as a law to assist the Family Registration Law of 1871, and indicated that the whole nation became Ujiko of any shrines based on ‘Gosha precepts’, was abolished in 1973. Firstly, Ujiko-iki areas of Tokyo in 1872 and 1877-79 are restored on the map from historical records which describes town names of Ujiko of each shrine. By comparing them, several changes, which included change of boundaries of Ujiko-iki, increase or decrease of vacant area and detached Ujiko-iki, are described. Among these changes most important is that many small-scale Ujiko-iki areas were revised. These small-scale Ujiko-iki areas were Ujiko of small shrine there before enacting Gosha precepts and were revised after the abolition to be approved by submission of Ujiko-negai which was a petition to have Ujiko. Finally, Sugimori shrine is taken up as a concrete example of the shrine having a small-scale Ujiko-iki revised after the abolition of Ujiko shirabe. By interpreting the diary written by the priest of this shrine, the relationship between priests and Ujiko is revealed. It is described to rest with not priests or Kocho but townsmen to be Ujiko of any shrines. Secondly, it is defined how the meaning of 'Rekkaku' which is classifying into shrine rank and 'Ujiko-iki' after the abolition of Ujiko shirabe by analyzing details of laws issued in 1873. In 1873 two important statutes were abolished. One was Ujiko shirabe and the other was paying for Shinto priests of Shosha which was comprised of prefectural shrines, regional shrines, village shrines. These abolitions changed Rekkaku as relationship to the family register district into as just grading system among shrines. But Ujiko system formed by Gosha precepts, which divided whole land into Ujiko-iki of any shrines, was not abolished. After the abolition of Ujiko shirabe Ujiko-iki was not abolished perfectly but revised partially. In the chapter 3, it is clarified that local shrines were classified in four times by taking statistics of the date of Rekkaku in the city of Tokyo on the official records of Shinto shrines and that ranking has different means in each time by interpreting historical records of Tokyo prefecture. 1st Rekkaku was held on May 1872 by Tokyo prefecture directly as a principle. 2nd Rekkaku was held on October and November 1872 in following survey by Kocho which were officers in charge of the family register. 3rd Rekkaku was held on July 1873 to add shrines which were not selected in 2nd Rekkaku despite old shrine having small-scale Ujiko-iki. After 3rd Rekkaku, Rekkaku were held each time Rekkaku-regai, which was a petition for Rekkaku, was submitted. Therefore, it is described that the relation between Rekkaku and Ujiko was changed after 3rd Rekkaku and shrines could be classified into four types; Rekkaku and having Ujiko, Rekkaku but not having Ujiko, not Rekkaku and not having Ujiko, not Rekkaku but having Ujiko. The following is a summary of the above. After the abolition of Ujiko shirabe, Ujiko-iki was revised partially to restore religion before Gosha precepts and was completed as the modern religious district.
In Japan, it becomes important to research the aspects of City Shrinkage and other urban form changes that caused by shrinking population. In this paper, the trends of urban form changes of Japanese cities were analyzed with Polycentrism Indicators which were acquired using “Polycentricity” which is one of the new configuration analysis named “Metropolitan Form Analysis (MFA)” proposed in Amindarbari et al. (2013). As the result, some suggestions about trends of Polycentricity and shrinking Centers in Japanese cities were acquired as follows. 1. As the population size of employees in the whole Metropolitan Employment Area comes large, urban Centers defined by the number of employees tend to be numerous, have low homogeneity, and have less dominance in a rate of employee population. And as the area size of Metropolitan Employment Area comes large, urban Centers defined by the number of employees tend to have high homogeneity and have more dominance in a rate of employee population. 2. Applying Polycentricity from MFA with permanent population, “Relative Densely Inhabited District” (RDID) is able to be defined and it can be carried out to analyze trends of urban Centers changes in situations of City Shrinkage in small cities that have less DID. Additionally, using the changes of Polycentrism Indicators (N, Rc, HI) between 2005 and 2010, the shape changes of RDID with its shrinkage in relatively smaller cities are can be classified into 7 clusters in table 5. 3. Classifying the shrinking cities into the 7 clusters, it became revealed that the percentage of cities that most large Center shrank and became homogeneous was relatively high in analyzed 78 cities. In the same way, the cities whose most small Centers disappeared had high percentage. On the other hand, it was detected that several cities were shrinking with these most large Centers split.