This study analyzed housing types called “jūtaku katashiki” and these supplied numbers to each housing estate to clarify the characteristics of housing design by type planning called “kata keikaku” of wooden row houses projects for rent by Dojunkai Foundation. The findings are as follows: 1) The housing types are 15. 2) The housing types supplied the earlier period were designed by each housing estate. The housing types of the latter period were standardized to types of two-unit by two-story and four-unit by two-story (separate households on the 1st and 2nd floors), and the "kata keikaku" method was established.
This paper discusses how people from different countries living in Tokyo perceive the current dwelling environment based on a questionnaire survey as a preliminary step to exploring the update of the schemata of the dwelling environment. The subjects were non-Japanese 30 adults living in Tokyo. Criteria for selecting the dwelling environment were extracted, and classified into six types. The findings suggest that the group that included the atmosphere and impression of the living space as selection criteria perceived the size of the room in which they currently live more positively regardless of duration of residence.
In order to promote classes from the perspective of active learning, an AL room was constructed in an elementary school in A city. This room was renovated from an existing classroom, but furniture different from existing classrooms has been installed. It was clarified that there are many classes that promote communication between children. Table of circle shape is effective for discussion and chair without backrest is effective for reorientation of the body and they can start next activity without thinking interrupted. Therefore, it can be said that the AL room is effective when conducting exchange activities among children.
The outbreak of COVID-19 has become a major problem at various facilities, and facilities for the elderly are no exception. If a positive person occurs, outpatient facilities will suspended, but inpatient facilities can not be suspended, and it will be necessary to deal with residents and positive people. The purpose of this study is to obtain knowledge that will lead to the prevention of the spread of COVID-19. I first clarify occurrence of COVID-19 cases in nursing homes for the elderly, and then consider responce after testing positive from differences in facility types.
This research aims to quantitatively evaluate the effects of physical and human environments on staying in indoor public spaces during short breaks. The research introduces the concept of “visual interaction with others” to handle physical and human environments in a combined and quantitative manner. A formula for ease of staying in a space, which focuses on the stay position and direction of individuals, was proposed and derived from the results of two subject experiments. This formula extends the characteristics of staying behavior and the concept of personal space, and has been shown to be effective in predicting future staying positions.
In modern Japanese houses, there are many cases in which rooms are connected by openings and creating a unique sense of space and depth. We presented a schematization and analyzing method of relationship between multilayered apertures using graph theory. Applying the method to 32 houses, we extracted partial connection relations of nodes and paths, which were named gaze continuity graphs, and created data about the number of each type. It was shown that the characteristics of visual expansiveness in the houses can be effectively grasped by factor analysis and cluster analysis with this data, demonstrating the usefulness of this model.
This research aims to investigate the living conditions of Chinese employees’ residents in Japanese apartments, and to explore the factors that influence their satisfaction as well as potential problems they might encounter. To this end, a questionnaire survey will be conducted firstly. Then interviews with some participants will be carried out to gain a better understanding of issues. The results indicate that the satisfaction of them is much affected by five factors: 1) the size of room, 2) building performance, 3) cost, 4) relationship with the real estate agent and 5) rules within the building.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the influence of the characteristics of the textile industry on the architectural characteristics of the saw roof factories. In this study, we conducted a field survey of the saw roof factories and the transition of the textile industry in the three regions of Bishu, Mikawa, and Chita in Aichi prefecture, which are representative textile production areas in Japan, and analyzed the relationship between the two. This study reveals that the saw roof factories have different architectural characteristics in terms of factory scale and construction methods due to the management system differences and the textile industry scale.
In this study, we conducted a composite four-category analysis of social contacts and space use tendencies by isolation and loneliness types for all generations aged 16 and older, conducted a residual analysis of them, and indicated effective intervention methods for each of the four composite types. Regional differences in specific space use tendencies were observed depending on whether respondents were in urban, peri-urban, or rural areas. These results suggest a regional planning issue that requires spatial prescriptions that contribute to the prevention of isolation and loneliness, focusing on the characteristics of the placement and use of public goods in the region.
This research focuses on the Defensive Architecture(DA), which prevents people from staying in public spaces, and collects and categorizes them through workshops. The first WS revealed the presence of 21 different DAs. The second WS defined the “depth of nonrecognition” and the 21 DAs were divided into 6 stages. Furthermore, the field survey revealed that there are three types of Defensive Environments with spatial extents in which multiple DAs act to alienate squatters. The study of “Defensive Architecture” is a good clue for us to think about how to use public space.
This paper clarifies the spatial composition and formation history of a Theravada Buddhist temple, Wat Paknam Japan Branch, which is a focal point of daily lives of Thai originated dwellers, and the relationship between the temple and them through on-site surveys. By considering land and facilities, Thai-Japanese mixed characteristics of the temple are clarified. Buddhist concept of merit was the key of temple expansion. Then, by considering movement route and activities within facilities it is clarified that temple is used by eight types of peoples with different purposes and degrees of overlap between their dwelled enviroment and temple differ.
The plans of city preservation in post war Nara city are classified into following 3 categories, and revealed each transition. They make general transition of the plans of city preservation in post war Nara city.
1.Part of Nara city’s general plans about historical landscape, 2.Plans of historical landscape: comprehensive plans of city preservation based in low: the construction of a city of international tourism and pleaded the government to enact special legislation of Nara, the Ancient Capitals Preservation Law and Act on Maintenance and Improvement of Traditional Scenery in Certain Districts, 3.landscape planning followed Nara city’s original plans
In this study, a web-based questionnaire was administered to Kobe City employees (N=1,634), and a multinomial logit regression analysis was conducted to explore measures to increase employee participation according to their community contribution status. By comparing the marginal effects of each variable by regional contribution status in the results of this study, it was shown that individual tendencies, motivations, and institutional improvement methods that contribute to greater participation in regional contributions differ by regional contribution status. The model of this study shows the variables that are effective for administrative officials according to the status of community contribution.
Various procurement routes are considered to improve the quality and performance of the building design, especially in the public sector, because of changes in the contemporary urban environment and diversified and advanced client needs. Thereby earlier contractor involvement has been introduced in the procurement routes to incorporate the contractor’s expertise and techniques into the architects’ design work. With several case studies, this paper investigates the impact of earlier contractor involvement in British design and build procurement routes in order to explore the potential to improve collaborative design methods between architects and contractors.
The paper aims to discuss the characteristics of Dairen Chain-Store Street ‘Rensa-gai’ completed in 1930 in former Dairen occupied by Japan, by three view-points, modern shopping street, composite building with apartment house, and urban development of Dairen. And this study positions it in the history of Japanese colonial architecture in the first half of the 20th century. This study shows that there were three house plans in Chain-Store Street to solve insufficient housing. The built of Chain-Store Street also solved the problem of high land prices in the central district and formed a new central commercial district in Dairen.
The purpose of this paper is to reveal the Charles-Edouard Jeannert’s urban morphology theory of squares in the unpublished manuscript “La construction des villes” and clarify its ideological background. We found that Jeanneret uses 19 partis, which means type of element of the city, and criteria to evaluate partis of squares. Among them a criterion “visual closure” is dominant, and Jeanneret treats “volume” as visible space if its “surface” is easy to see. Additionaly, we pointed out the similarity between French “ambiance” used by Jeanneret and German term “Stimmung.”
The peri-urban areas of Japan’s large agglomeration are the sites of urban restructuring phenomena resulting from major societal issues. To understand on a large timeline the morphological impact of those phenomena, our research combines a historical analysis of the central part of the Kawachi region in Osaka and an approach stemming from the thoughts of the French geographer Augustin Berque. This is by the definition and insertion in our research context of the binominal entity of the area of human influence “Ecoumène” and its environment counterpart “Erème” that we hope to improve on the more classical urban growth models.
This paper intends to clarify the regional characteristics of the Shanghai residential area since the 1950s. Shanghai’s residential construction was active before the founding of New China, and after the introduction of the neighborhood unit theory, it has developed more significantly through the planning of small parks and the space between residential buildings. Subsequently, the satellite city development gave rise to the “ChengJieChengFang” theory, which connects the surrounding areas with residential areas. The influence of the Soviet’s “superblock” is extremely weaker than in the north because the southern cities referred to residential areas before 1950s and the neighborhood unit theory.
It’s the study of housing types in the Nantai, Fuzhou in the Qing Dynasty and their relationship with existing traditional housing. First, there are three types of dwellings found in an ancient painting of the Qing Dynasty. Then, it is confirmed by comparing descriptions of Fuzhou traditional buildings from outsiders and locals in various periods. Currently, only two types of housing exist : Chailancuo and Huoqiangcuo. Therefore, by using old photos to examine the reality of a house called Loujiao. Finally, the genealogical relationship between these houses and the three types of houses in the painting is clarified.
In the 1890s, Yokohama became the first harbour to use concrete to build water breaks in Japan. This paper aims to clarify the supply and manufacture of concrete for such productions by analyzing the construction process of Yokohama harbour’s water break, which took place between 1891 and 1893. In this paper, the author considers the structure and civil engineering technologies of water breaks, infrastructure of concrete factory, construction process of concrete blocks and filling in (Bashozume) concrete, and the outcome and influence of Yokohama harbour’s water breaks.