The ultimate goal of this study is to develop a practical means to predict the concentrations of carbon monoxide in building fires. In the preceding paper, we considered a theoretical model for predicting the yields of chemical species for propane fire. In this paper, we extend the model to generic fuel, and incorporate the model into BRI2 fire model and attempt to predict the concentrations of carbon monoxide in transient fire. Also the predictions are compared with the results of the reduced scale single fire tests. Some discrepancies between the predicted and experimental values still remain, however, this methodology seems to be a convenient and promising way of predicting carbon monoxide yields in transient states.
In unidirectional flow cleanrooms, it is important to form a uniform airflow distribution to exhaust quickly contaminants generated indoors. The uniformity of airflow distribution in a cleanroom has been studied as function of the height of plenum chamber and the velocity of flow introduced into the chamber. The influences of the height of the plenum chamber and the velocity of the flow introduced into the chamber on the airflow uniformity are investigated by experiment. In addition, a numerical simulation method to predict the flow uniformity is proposed by taking into account the characteristics of filter's pressure loss. The calculation domain in this study includes not only the cleanroom but the plenum chamber and the exhaust chamber. The validity of the numerical method is also verified by comparing the simulation results with the experimental results. Finally, the method is used to obtain an appropriate height of the plenum chamber and an appropriate velocity of the flow introduced into the chamber.
According to the medical law and district fire prevention plan in Tokyo, emergency medicalservices can be provided at four types of medical facilities; hospitals, general hospitals, emergency hospitals and emergency medical centers. 1. A11 types of medical facilites regarded electric and water supply equipment as the most important ones in order to keep medical functions in an emergency situation, and communication apparutus assecondary important one. 2. Comparative simple culculaton has been carried out on the period of time in which each type of medical facilities is able and desires to keep medical function in an emergency situation based on the building equipment currently installed.
The objective of this study is to determine how the influences of the items that people take into account when they evaluate streetscapes change depending on the type of street. 1. The three streetscape categories were obtained by interviews: an office area, commercial area, and residential area. 2. Between the evaluation of streetscapes and the two factors of impression results, a constant relationship was observed regardless of the category of street. 3. The influences exerted by colors on evaluation change depending on the characteristics of streetscapes. These points lead to the conclusion that the streetscape evaluation structure should be described not for each category of street, but according to the characteristics of each streetscape.
The aim of this study is to examine the relation between amenity of residential environment and green inroadside from the view-point of soundscape. Eight neighborhood units in Fukuoka City are selected as a study area and the residents are asked to fill out a Questionnaire concerning to living environment. People's replies are statistically analyzed. The result shows that the richness of green in roadside highly correlates with an amenity. A new index for evaluating the green in roadside is presented. This index is useful when considering the arrangement of the green in the residential area.
It is unknown now that the various trials in the idea of planning method for improving on the hygienic aspect of dwelling house were practiced in the modern age of Japan. In this paper, we described concretely the contents of sole trials that was shown us by textbooks for home economics in the year of Meiji 10's. The point of the contents in the idea of planning method is presented as follows; the planning method of house is that it was firstly to arrange the dwelling rooms for family use and the kitchen to face on the south. And it was secondly to arrange the study and the Japanese-style toilet to face on the north.
From long ago, Chinese houses kept the space was called "Ting" . This space was a living-room, a dining-room, a guest-room, or a main-hall. But after the revolution, "Ting" died out from the urban houses because the space was useless. At the end of the 1950s, "Ting" reappeared, at the time several families lived in a single house. Then,"Ting" was a pte hall. At the end of the 1970s, the function of the ting changed to the subspace of the public-space. The subspace was used for entrance-hall,living-room, dining-room, guest-room, or sub-bedroom.
The purpose of this paper is to grasp -the present stocks of welfare facilities on national university campuses, that is, student unions, cafeteria, health service center, club buildings and etc,. Data about areas, numbers, and plans of buildings were collected from 112 campuses of 81 universities.The consequences are as followers: 1)The present stocks of welfare facilities are not sufficient for students on campuses, because facilities for lecture, research, experiment, and were build at first under the limits of budget. 2)When coping with increasing of students, complex buildings which contained some small facilities were supplied. Complex building invited confusion of functions, but were useful for future development.
Concurrent with changes in modern educational philosophy and methodology, 'open-planed schools' are now coming to be more and more popular. Add to it, with the point of inauguration of the Government subsidy institution for multi-purpose space of public school, the number of the schools which contain the multi-purpose spaces or open spaces is on the rapid increasing. This paper tried to have an accurate grasp for the contemporary trend of the architectural planning of those elementary and secondary schools. Accumulating the floor plans of all of the nationwide those schools, the author tried to classify the space-type of these multi-purpose spaces and pointed out the typical architectural planning type and planing tendency of today's public primary and secondary schools.
This paper deals with the correlation between main frame and roof frame of timber houses at Rokuseicho, Ishikawa prefecture, analyzing quantitatively the route of load transfer from roof frame to main frame. It revealed that the average height of the route shifted upwards in main frame. In case of thatched roof, the process of expanding openness to the side of frame appeared in transformation of main frame. In case of tiled roof from the beginning,the arrangement of various type of beams has been developed either to show pile of beams or to expand openness upwards within main frame.
Generally, the prevention of disasters has been discussed from a view point of each kind of impact, such as earthquakes or typhoons. However, the regional aspect of damage varies not only depending on the kind of impacts, but also on the topographical and social environment of each city. In this paper, we propose a method to compare the damages of the different types of disasters, taking into consideration on the topographical and social environment of cities. And as an example analysis, we calculate the damage of earthquakes and typhoons, which are comparable with each other, by the number of collapsed houses.
Kyoto City applied the land readjustment projects for its urbanization mainly under Article 13 of City Planning Act of 1919 during the early period of modern city planning. Reviewing previous arguments on legal interpretation of this article and examining its application in Kyoto, we conclude that land readjustment projects in Kyoto are characterized by 1) specifying city development area from the city-wide viewpoint in the early stage, 2) establishing a close linkage between land readjustment projects on a city level and building regulation on a district level, and 3) setting high design standard through advanced researches.
Mixed-use apartment houses have appeared one after another in the downtown districts of many Japanese cites. This paper discusses various methods of designing access for such mixed-use apartment houses in Hiroshima. Based on this research. The following observations are presented. 1.Mixed-use apartment houses access design can be classified into five types in terms of the characteristics of the streets faced by each building. 2.The access spaces which are used for mixed purposes have many problems regarding the surrounding environment of the residents. 3. The factors undesirable for the residents are very easily accessible into the residential area.
Ex-emperor Gotoba's palace Nijo-dono and Kaya-no-in were constructed as his main palace. The composition of the plan and the planning concept of ,"tai-dai" building in these palaces are analyzed in this paper. It is pointed out that both plans of these tai-dai had post-eaves space on the side of "sinden". Which was the main building in the aristocratic residence. And the composition of the plan of these tai-dai was similar to that of Seiryo-den, which was the Imperial living space of Imperial palace "Dairi ". And the planning concept of these tai-dai was meant to design for the Imperial ceremony in the Ex-emperor's palace.
Superimposition of ordres was an important subject for the Academy, while colossal order was denied in the name of beauty and convenience. For the proportion of the heights of two superimposed columns. The Academy denied Vitruvius' 4:3, and admired the proportion such as 16:15, or that which makes the upper column higher than in case of 4:3. The Academy's theory was based on that of the Italian architect Sea-mozzi, but usually authorized by the beautiful proportion found, for example, in the facade of the church of Saint-Gervais in Paris. The refore super-imposition of ordres was. In a sense, seen as a national feature of French architecture which was distinguished from the ancient and the Italian architecture. But it was superceded by the vague of the neo-classicism in which slant order was regarded as a characteristic of the ancient architecture.
The excavation of a so-called 'Roman villa' near Tarquinia in central Italy was started in 1992. Prof. M. Aoyagi of Tokyo University is taking charge of whole excavation work. The site is ca. 50 m apart from the sea shore of Tyrrhenian Sea. In the season of 1992, approximately 200m^2 was uncovered, and a trefoiled room of a building was discovered. The floor level of the building is ca. 1.4m deep from the surface and the wall stands up around lm from the floor. Traces of mosaic were also found on the floor, but only fragments have remaind. The date of the building is still vague, but most expectedly around from the 4th century A.D from the stvle of pottery.
Roofed terraces and covered continuous walkways bordering streets are major characteristics of cities in Southeast Asia and South China. These exist/existed not only in former colonial cities but also in such cities of independent nations as Bangkok, Canton, Amoyand Tokyo. This article discusses the relation of planning backgrourd and typology. It concludes that the roofed terraces is an element of vernacular houses in the region. The covered continuous walkways were a more effective method for town planning for British colonial administration who wanted to standardize native Asian settlements, and for modernizing independent countries who wanted to modernize traditional cities.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the structure of space of private houses through the analysis of the relationship among the plans, the spatial elements and ritual. This study examines examples of private houses in Tushima. The summary of the results is as follows: "Hirabasira-flat section pillars" were limited in use in "Daidoko" of the main house and "Koya" in Tuahima. The arrangement of "Hirabasira" are considered to be determined by the holiness more than structual necessity for the following reasons. 1) "Daidoko" has the distinction not only as the center of domestic life, but also as the space for ritual. 2) The arrangement of "Hirabashira" is not equal and shows the directional nature based on the ritual in "Daidoko".
The objects of this study are to clarify the morphological character of Mckim, Mead & White's works through the analysis on the plan of Morgan Library in New York, and then to classify their geometrical compositions based on squares. Through this study, it is made clear that with regard to Morgan Library, the configuration of the plan is designed based on composition of square and grid, and that their geometrical compositions can be classified into four types: inclusion-type, addition-type, ovelap-type, and conjuction-type. Characteristics of each type are also discussed.
This research defines the image of the appearance for Japanese and Korean traditional architectures. In part 1, representative rating scales are sampled by Japanese and Korean subjects' cognitive structure. The subjects had similar pattern of cognitive structure to Chinese rating scales: gorgeousness-modesty. Strictness-looseness, hardness-softness, order-disorder, between Japanese and Korean. Consequently, those four can be used for representative rating scales.