This research study is aimed at understanding the space features of settlements, which was conducted on the waterfront spaces of Asia. I chose the Messah, Seraya and Kukusan settlement of the eastern islands of Indonesia as the case study. I clarified the space features of the settlement from the relationship between the space structure on the community level, the mechanisms of the dwelling pattern and community dwellings and external space. This study clarified as follows 1) In consideration of the structure of external space, it is thought that the pillar houses has been located as a system that distinguishes the ground level and family lives. 2) The dwelling assumes an important role as the group territory, at the same time as belonging to an individual territory by the existence of the opened below the floor level space without the wall.
This study aims to grasp the life style of elderly people living in housing estate in Tama Newtown, Tokyo, and clarify the problems of the housing estate in this area. The results obtained through research including survey by means of questionnaires and interviews of dwellers areas follows; 1) In Tama Newtown, living environment and the state of resident vary according to the smaller area. It is therefore important to consider these areas when we discuss the environmental improvement in Tama Newtown. 2) The living style of elderly people varies according to their health condition and as they are living alone or in couple. 3) As for the concrete and urgent need of amelioration in dwelling, it is necessary to put in good condition toilets and bathrooms which are becoming too old to use, especially in housing estates built before 1975. 4) It is notable that the condition of estate seems influential on the extent to which elderly people can carry on their independent life. Some correlation is recognized between the independence and the state of dwelling among people of the same level of nursing care necessity.
The aim of this study is to provide some suggestions for architectural planning and design of nursing homes. The analysis is based on the data, autonomy level of the residents and the utilization of private rooms, accumulated in 5.8 years from 1998 when the nursing home was established. The main results of the study are abstracted as follows: 1) The residents moving in and out of the facility goes slowly but steady, and the nursing home is the final place of their lives for most of the residents. 2) The transition in autonomy of the residents has a great impact on the utilization of private rooms, and how to provide enough medical care to the residents is a big issue in the nursing home which is not a hospital. 3) The facilities such as care-giver stations and toilet rooms ought to be located equally adjacent to the private rooms, so that the residents don't need to move to other rooms during their stay. 4) A flexible plan that enables the facility's configuration to be altered to meet various situations is effective.
This paper shows the result of "the questionnaire survey on behavior of going out for parent and child" the one that announced the application actual condition and the user characteristic of "the childcare support center". As a result, we have understood the situation that the parent and child who is in the trend that easy to stand alone visit well, and they are visiting in order to reduce the stress and childcare anxiety. Also the evaluation from the user to the institution is high satisfied, we understood that it is high the need upgrade familiar child raising environment from now on.
It is necessary to obtain the direct evaluation from the residents in the welfare facilities for the elderly, if the staff cannot completely understand the residents' demand. Then, the evaluation from the staff and the residents to the living environment was investigated as a case study, and the following results were obtained.・It proposed the method of obtaining the evaluation from both, and the methodological findings to receive the residents' evaluation were obtained. ・There are differences in the evaluation from both. Therefore, it was clarified to have to hear the direct evaluation from the residents.
The purpose of this paper is to make clear the museum visitor's behavior action indoor house exhibition that was Environmentally Symbiotic Housing in the National Museum of Emerging Science and Innovation. The author evaluates the visitor's space experience behavior action. The visitors who were high ratio of space experience behavior action were appeared like mixture "interpretation of interpreter" and "Hands-on Exhibition". And these were tends to support the interpreters interpretation during reading a panel or participating "Hands-on exhibition". So the author has concluded that it is necessary to consider about visitor's behavior action and to guide the exhibition planning.
Hotel is a labor-intensive industry. Especially restaurants and banquets need many workers. This paper quantitatively examines how the spatial composition of restaurants and banquets affects the number of cooks, waiters and waitresses. We requested hotel general managers to evaluate models of the spatial composition and the circulation planning of restaurants and banquets, which were based upon the existing research, and analyzed those evaluations.
The aim of this report is to illustrate how contemporary Japanese architects think of commercial buildings in the city, through studying their published articles after World War II. Firstly, the contents of each article were considered and some descriptions about the exterior expression of building were extracted. Then, these descriptions were abstracted into two different levels; what the concept and how they represent the exterior expression of building. Secondly, the meaning of concept was analyzed by applying the KJ method. After that those meanings were divided, from a viewpoint of vector in the concept, into two different types; from city to building and from building to city. Thirdly, the representation for exterior expression of building was classified into three types; skin, volume, and space. Consequently, a relationship between the concept for city and the representation of exterior expression of building was found.
The purpose of this thesis is to clarify architects' thoughts on the relationship between a technological aspect and a design aspect of facade of office buildings. Firstly, contents of each theory were considered, and descriptions of how to design the facade were extracted. Descriptions were classified into a technological aspect and a design aspect. Secondly, in order to investigate constructive methods, the sectional compositions of the facade of buildings were classified into three layers; outer one, glass, and inner one. Finally, we analyzed the relationship between design themes and constructive methods. Then we found the tendency that outer layer is explained in both a technological aspect and a design aspect.
The purpose of this study was to clarify the actual situation about extension or rebuilding of traditional house with changing times at Seongeup village in Cheju Island, Korea. Furthermore, we indicated the future direction of the traditional folk village. The residents are much devising in preservation system of cultural resources and in actual life. They carried out extension or rebuilding of their houses as below. First, traditional houses were become more usefully by modernization, and their life styles also were modernized. Second, a divided house was changed to shop. Third, two generations divided living was changed to the life based on purpose in present-day life. These results suggested that the causes of changing living way are pursuit of convenience, aging of buildings, moving of family, and increasing tourist area. In the future, it is necessary the development and device of preservation system by cooperating residents and administration.
The purpose of this paper is to show a new community system adapted for aging society in mountainous regions, by investigating the way of maintaining community function between generations and the demands for human resources in the future. Main results are as follows: 1) The household function is gradually included in the community function, 2) The way of sharing the community management roles between each generation is changing by aging of the population, 3) It is important to have relationship between generations for succeeding community, and 4) the realization of residents' demand for strengthening community depends on the human resources of community.
The all site plans of Tondenhei-muras have different patterns. Here we would like to reveal the rural design theory of them and the reason to create diversity of site plans, by the method of overlay mapping analysis with field survey and reference of documents. The aim of rural design at Tondenhei-muras was making the sense of community where settlers could cultivate new lands and take roots. To protect from the severe climate conditions of new land, they recognized that the trees, especially windbreak forests were efficent. They designed the site plan by composing of territory of settlers within walking distance through the medium of acsess road. They created two spacial axises in the settlement, socio-economical axis and spritual axis.The unit number of one settlement was 200〜240 and would not be enlarged, so that they could plan with cafefully reading the conditons of topgraphy in each site,create details and variation of site plans.
The main aims of our research are to restructure region planning for agricultural community as sustainable society. On this paper, we aim to figure out the social and economical infrastructure in rural area, and set up the indicators which represent the capacity for maintenance of living conditions on agricultural community, and correlate those indicators with geographical conditions. Using the census data in Japan, we got results as follows. 1. Analyzing the census data on perspective on social unit in rural area, regional economy, living condition, and local resources, we presented 24 indicators as components of the capacity for maintenance of living conditions. 2. The position of 24 indicators on region planning as sustainable society: We set up these indicators as 3dimention components of capacity in agricultural area. These are "the condition of topography","the condition of farm management", and "the condition of social infrastructure".
The purpose of a series of study included this paper is to construct a fundamental evaluation method for planning measures to improve the disaster mitigation performance at the viewpoint of the various functions of a road network in district scale. In this paper, we consider that the evaluation method have ever constructed by our reseach is an appropriate method to extract vulnerable districts with the disaster mitigation performance from the regional area. We evaluate the performance of the road network in Tokyo Wards Area by this evaluation method, and compare this evaluation result with the result evaluated by detailed data which are concerned with city. Finally, we verify the suitability of this evaluation method.
In Renaissance, the representation of cities was called portrait (pourtraict) and aimed to glorify the governor of the represented city. To better depict the city's aspect, the pourtraict was always a bird's-eye view. However, in the 17th century, strict geometry was employed in order to facilitate urban interventions and the representation was then called plan. Indeed, the analysis of the reprentations of Paris from the 16th to the 18th centuries shows this shift. Thus, with the epoque of embellishment of cities (embellissment des villes), with which we dealt in the preceding article, the pourtraict disappeared and the plan was thereafter exclusively used.
The purpose of the paper is to analyze theoretically the sky factor with the sky amount as sky exposure criterion, using a three-dimensional spatial model. First, we demonstrate that the sky factor is always greater than the sky amount for any shape of building. Second, we prove that the difference between the sky factor and the sky amount is maximum when the angle of elevation is between 30°and 40°, measured at the center of the building. Finally, we show that the difference is bounded by 11% for any rectangular parallelepiped.
Municipal incentive zoning guidelines and administrative guidance procedures as applied to atriums as public open space were analyzed based on a nation-wide questionnaire survey. Among 187 municipalities responded, 155 followed the procedure based on the national notification, 26 applied the Tokyo Metropolitan Government model and 7 developed original guidelines. The definition, approval criteria and zoning bonus coefficient of atriums varied across these procedure types. Administrative guidance, with only a few tools for management supervision, was scarcely practiced after projects were opened, which revealed plenty of scope for improvement in municipal guidelines and administrative capabilities.
This study aims to describe the characteristics of an urban regeneration project namely "Contrat de Quartier" of Brussels Capital-region. This study investigated the project structure and its concrete content at the community level. The important characteristics of the programme are 1) the programme's framework which is organized systematically in order to ensure smooth operation and, 2) its flexibility in responding to the regional needs. Brussels Capital-region which emphasized on rationality has strategically adopted this systematic and flexible framework in its urban regeneration projects.
In France a new planning law toward solidarity and renewal was legislated in 2000. Under the SRU law (2000) and the succeeding UH law (2003), the city of Paris has been engaged in the formation of the local plan called PLU. The works are called surgery to incorporate the fragmented particular POSs into a unified plan, PLU. In this paper we evaluate the PLU process and compare the rules of particular POSs with those of PLU. In conclusion we found that 1) the particular POSs are cumulated into one PLU avoiding complication and the purposes are generalized throughout the whole built-up area of Paris, 2) PADD (projet d'amenagement de developpement durable) which defines urban policies intoroduced for the first time, played important roles to make agreements between citizens and governments, and 3) the rules are renewed to conserve the inherited urban fabrics.
In this study, the quality and the financial affairs of Facilities Management cycle method are focused and analyzed. The purpose of this study is to improve the daily and regular clean quality. Furthermore, the evaluation of clean quality which is to actualize the appropriate financial affairs is under consideration. The analysis of this study is based on the results of questionnaire survey on the evaluation of clean quality by the workers and the visitors of a government building.
In this study, the quality and the financial affairs of Facilities Management cycle method are focused and analyzed. The purpose of this study is to improve the daily and regular clean quality. Furthermore, the evaluation of clean quality which is to actualize the appropriate financial affairs is under consideration. The analysis of this study is based on the results of questionnaire survey on the evaluation of clean quality by the workers for government office buildings.
This paper traces some links of 'Su' and 'Subashira' in terms of roofed mud-wall structure which is made by pounding and accumulating mud and roofing. There were several words of 'Su' in old diaries in the 15-16th century written about construction of roofed mud-wall. 'Su' is a panel which put square lumber in order and was constituted. 'Su' used in roofed mud-wall is a panel which presses down a cross section among temporary molds. This sandwiches and holds a board which presses down a longitudinal face of wall between temporary support pillars. By the roofed mud-Wall without 'Subashira','Su' had achieved the function of a 'Subashira'.
This paper is an introspective taking the Syoinzukuri remaining from the early seventeenth century, looking at it's sectional properties; specifically Kokabe (wall upper sliding doors), and Ranma (transom), and relating the sequential qualities of the internal space. One focus of the research is on the continuous Zashiki space character and clarifying the construction regulations. The second focus of study is how the design of the Kokabe and Ranma effect the continous Zashiki space. The final focus is on the evolution of the directionality of the continuous Zashiki and how this influences the relationship of the individual Zashiki spaces.
There are two major styles in japanese pagoda field. One is storied-style pagoda such as five-storied pagoda and three-storied pagoda. The other style is hoto-rui(a variety of pagodas). There is little particular study about hoto-rui. In this paper, we analyzed hoto-rui, which have a number of different types, in Japanese traditional architectural reference books. Its practical examples are not popular, but we also indicate some of those pagodas in existence. We, in conclusion, can classify such pagodas into 13 types.
Urasoe Yodore is known as the oldest imperial mausoleum of the Ryukyu Dynasty. The mausoleum has two tombs, "King Shonei's tomb" and "King Eiso's tomb". There are stone coffins, sculptured in the form of buildings. From analysis of the architectural sculpture on the stone coffins, they can be dated to around the Kamakura period. The coffins are sculptured in the form of the interior of a hall of Buddhist stupa or temple. The construction of Urasoe Yodore is divided into 3 periods. Architectural characteristics appeared on the coffins show influences from China, Korea and Japan.
The dining kitchen is the housing style after World War II. The dining kitchen has spread to Japan based on "55-4N-2DK" of Japan Housing Corporation. It turned out that "55-4N-2DK" was the same as civil servant apartment "RC52 type". The root was "Wohn Kuche","Wohn Kuche" was researched in Europe after World War I. I defined this process, "Process of Wohn Kuche". In the background where the dining kitchen was born, there was a theme of housework reduction of the housewife. There were five stages in the forming process of dining kitchen. I defined, "Theory proposal period", "Model proposal period", "Experimental period", "Development period", and "Established period".
This paper reports about a reinforced concrete apartment buiding in Komagome, Tokyo (1938). The apartment house was planned for foreigners from Europe & North America, and the Japanese client. Therefore the planning and style of windows were different from ordinary Japanese apartment buildings in those days. Kotaro Ebata was the architect, who had worked at the office of Kazue Yakushiji. Yakushiji is a famous Architect in Japan in those days. And he may have been a friend of the client since they were sutudents.
This paper tries to reinterpret the text of Abbot Suger in terms of "colonne en delit" and "colonnette en delit". About "colonne en delit", Suger wrote three times, and he strictly distinguished the word "column (columna)" from "pier (fundamentum)" in his writings. About "colonnette en delit", he wrote nothing but one anecdote. In his anecdote about the tempest, Suger's words "podium" and "suffragia" have been translated as "scaffolding" and "centering" so far, but this paper reveals that the words could be undoubtedly interpreted as "colonnette en delit".
This paper deals with the Cappella Antamoro of the church S. Girolamo della Carita in Rome, which was designed by Filippo Juvarra in the beginning of his career and, in particular, takes up the dome ceiling constructed out of complicated forms and designs. Furthermore the investigation gives attention to the influence of geometry in the later 17^<th> Century, especially to stereotomy which developed in France and which Guarino Guarini applied to his architectural treatises. The purpose is to show the preference that a construction based on certain given conditions was preferred to a design reflecting the theories of the period. In short, in the early 18^<th> Century architectural theory has a need to restructure itself by introducing new conceptions from other fields.
This paper aims at an investigation of the relationship between Richard Neutra and Japan. At first, this study focuses on the intersection between Vienna and Japan, emphasizing of Japonisme in Vienna. Secondly, this study examines Neutra's interest by making clear what he has found in Japan. Finally, this study analyzes how Japan affected Neutra's architectural thought. As a result of these analyses, this paper reveals that he emphasized the significance of Japanese traditional houses, landscape and gardens. He especially has learned from a view of nature and other traditional aspects of Japan. This paper points out that Japan played some important roles on his architectural theory.
The purpose of this study is to clarify R. M. SCHINDLER's relations between plans, elevations and sections. As a result of extraction of volumes by the forms of the surfaces of walls from the axonometric plan, it's guessed that the forms of the walls connect independently of the plans. It's found that the surfaces of the walls which are divided by the plans, are dispersed. It's my opinion that the forms of the outer walls don't express the interior spaces by means of the interlocking volumes. These are reorganized by the surfaces of the walls, which are divided by the volumes of the surfaces of the walls and the volumes in the plans, combine the unevennesses of plans and sections on the same plane.
This paper aims to clarify the transformation of the landscape of tourism after the high economic growth through the oral explanations by the tour guides of the sightseeing bus tours in Hiroshima. Analyzing the guide texts and the interview to the tour guides at that time, we can find out the continuity that the historical environment in Hiroshima City and the symbol of peace formed at the time of the reconstruction after the war. However, because of the loss of panoramic view, the continuity of the landscape of tourism has been fragmented after the High Economic Growth Period.
At the beginning of the 18th century, the town area of Kyoto was almost burned down by the big fire. On the reconstruction of the town area, the noble village was reorganized by the shogunate to provide against the fire. In particular, streets within the noble village were widened and vacant areas were created around the "Tsuiji-no-uchi" to check the spread of fire. To make these changes possible, the shogunate seized portions of noble residential lands then reallocated to the affected nobles lands that were located south of the imperial palace. One of the results of these changes was the significant southward expansion of the "Tsuiji-no-uchi".
Waqf, the religious and pious foundation, is the social institution known in the geographically and historically extensive Islamic cultural area, it is therefore important for clarifying the characteristic of Islamic cities to study how Waqf affected to form a social and physical urban structure. From this viewpoint, this paper focuses on revealing a physical urban structure and forming process of Istanbul, as one case, during the 15th and 16th centuries by analyzing a pattern of facilities' locations recorded in the Waqf deed or its survey registers. As a result, it is recognized that religious and public facilities tended to be dispersed across the city area while commercial facilities tended to be concentrated in a specific area, so that the territorial difference of urban function in the city emerged at that time.
Ookubo settlements are one of typical silkworm villages in Gunma prefecture. The purpose of this paper is to analyze on dwelling types of the three-generation-families. Dwelling types consist of the following three patterns; to live in one house at the same site (that is, "the same dwelling type"), to live two houses which are continuously built (that is, "the continuous dwelling type"), to live two different houses which are built at the same site (that is, "the additional dwelling house a site"). The additional dwelling house a site has gradually gained a support at present. And this type is an effective selection for the life style of older and younger generations.
This discussion raises a few questions on significance of the "map element extraction model" that tries to predict paths and buildings depicted in the existing commercial "route guidance maps" which effectiveness for wayfinders has not been confirmed.
The author's answers to the questions by Dr. Funahashi are shown. The significance of the Map Element Extraction Model constructed using the existing route guidance maps is carefully discussed, and the capability and the limitation of the model is described. Also the meanings of keywords and the details of the sampled existing route guidance maps are shown.