Few old houses such as ‘sericulture houses’ ‘honmune-style houses’ are disappearing in the Minami-Shinshu. But it is considered that the construction methods used in traditional houses can exist by changing with time. In this paper we suggest that the most suitable construction method in major repair to live in the traditional houses by following generation. In addition we revel that a present state of a forest in the Minami Shinshu and also suggest a relationship between the major repair and the forest.
The purpose of this paper is to research of measures of environment for children in the house development in Tokyo. A population increase by the house development as a factor, a child care facilities be insufficient. In the ordinances and the guidelines of the house development, there is local government that demands the construction of child care facilities as developer's obligation. Child care facilities are constructed with the apartment house in the local government that demands consideration to neighboring areas. But in the local government that demands the infrastructure, it tends not to be actually constructed though there are regulations. The house development plays the role of the arrangement of environment for the child care, and the arrangement of the day nursery is effective for waiting-list child. It is necessary to consider about child care facilities planning for environment for child care.
We predict that acceleration of the individualization makes needs to live with some individuals,not with traditional family that includes spousal and parent-child relationship in the future.In this regards,this paper aims to know what kind of space we need. We surveyed 27 cases that individuals live with someone who is not in spousal or parent-child relationship. As a result,we could observe many variations about way of using common room from the case effectively used to the case hardly used,and we made consideration about factual background that leads these dwellings.The background is consisted of relationship between inhabitants,the way of life,and the space they live.Concretely speaking,in the cases that inhabitants in relationship of equals,we could see that they shouldered their housework,deepened exchanges,and used their common rooms well.However,in the cases that we could not see inhabitants used their common rooms,they also avoid to use them alone,and instead,they used their private rooms for doing something together.
The study aims to clarify the temporal changes in nursing care needs before and after surgery in acute care wards in hospitals. Surveys were carried out on nursing care needs of inpatients in a surgery ward of one hospital and also in two wards of another hospital. The results obtained from surveys are as follows, 1) In surgery wards, Days 0 and 1 postsurgery were determined to be the period when the severity level of surgical patients is highest based on nursing care needs. The requirement of medical assistance practice with a level A of nursing care continues to be high for a few days after this initial care period, whereas that for day-to-day supportive practice with a level B of nursing care needs is largely reduced after that initial period. 2) The number of beds located close to the nursing base can be calculated as follows. Necessary beds for the patient with intensive nursing care located close to the nursing base is [number of operations ×3.29] beds when examining it from temporal changes in nursing care needs A, and [number of operations ×2.17] beds when examining it from temporal changes in nursing care needs B. 3) It was a difficult situation to be used for only perioperative patient in the bedroom which was close to the nursing base.
This study aimed to consider the issues on the family room for baby care as a fundamental daily life environment based on the survey of their actual conditions and users' evaluation from the viewpoint of gender equality. As a result of analysis, the following points have become clear; 1) Breastfeeding space shouldn't be seen from the entrance of the family room. 2) Diaper changing space and waiting space should be seen from the entrance of the family room, and shouldn't be seen from breastfeeding space. 3) The entrance to breastfeeding space should be partitioned by a door, not a curtain. 4) A buffer zone between breastfeeding space and another partition is important to block people directly looking in.
In Tanekura, a village in the Hida district of Gifu, many traditional wooden folk houses have remained.In this report, the transformation process of three storied folk house of the fifteen main houses are presented. About 1900's three storied folk houses already have existed. The attic space first expanded when rebuilding was done from thatched roofing to single roofing during the 1920's. After that, some houses called “tateage” appeared, where the lengthening of doorjamb was added while reroofing, thus providing even more space.The expansion of the attic space is related to the businesses of the house owners, such as sericulture and stock raising, and the change in roof material is thought to have to do with the changes of use of Japanese pampas grass as resources. A opportunity of the change in roof advanced three storied folk houses.
The purpose of this study is to consider an organisational aspect and a future direction of local partnership groups in Japan based on the Groundwork approach in the UK. Compared with Groundwork in the UK, organisational characteristics of local Groundwork groups in Japan are summarised as follows: 1) liaison-type structure by voluntary organisation; 2) a small number of establishments in urban area; 3) environmental regeneration-oriented background; 4) grass-roots organisation by local initiative; 5) the existence of operation in a small limited area; 6) external and partial commitment from local sectors; 7) national exchange network with local groups of a variety of organisational structure. In conclusion, the following four points are necessary for developing Groundwork movement in Japan: 1) building a comprehensive and inclusive partnership with each local sector; 2) standardisation of organisational structure to each local Groundwork group; 3) structuring a national Groundwork network by franchise formula; 4) organisational approach by Groundwork network for introducing partnership policies.
This paper examines the prototype and its transformation of northern planting system of premises forest based on the field survey of the farmhouses in Tsuga Area that were depicted in the Meiji Era. The prototype was composed of 1) simple cedar forest which forms background trees, 2) zelkova tree or evergreen broad-leaved tree which forms “a big tree with a small shrine”, and 3) square-shaped trees called "hi-yoke" surrounding the buildings (mainly kura). Also it has turned out that although these patterns still remain basically, several patterns have transformed differently in response to the change of land use.
This paper clarified the spatial structure of Manhai, a traditional Dai village in China's Yunnan Province through the collection and analysis by the place name with life, which is distributed in village space of the village. Moreover, it is confirmed that the space analysis of village used the place name with life are able to get an effective finding even for the village research in foreign countries.
In our country, the involution of the regional community becomes a problem by change of the life form and advance on science and technology. As the result, the regeneration of the regional community is required in order to solve the problem of the region. Regional force and social capital become with the importance keywords to solve the problem of the region. The purpose of this study is to clarify the role of social capital for the advance regional force. Three case studies were taken up in order to clarify the relationship between regional force and social capital which are the residential environmental problem, activation problem of the central urban district, and the NPO activity. From the above case studies, the social capital showed being the fundamental capital for supporting the regional force.
In continuation of Part 1 and 2, we analyzed urban modality based on the concepts “EDGE” in which modality drastically changes and “AREA” in which modality doesn't change as much. The results are as follows. 1) We could describe modality more precise and various ways using properties of EDGEs and AREAs. 2) We got much knowledge about urban modalities: for example, what kind of words is often used to represent the modality of AREAs, and the properties of such words through the concepts of “Connectors” and “Shifters”. 3) We also found some knowledge about grasping areas which would be applied to refine modal theory.
The application of 3D CAD has been gradually expanded in Japan. However, the use of 3D CAD is limited. There is no methodology which makes full use of Building Information Modeling (BIM) especially for the compliance of the Building Standard Law of Japan. This research aims to make clear the structure of the Building Standard Law of Japan, and to establish the methodology of compliance of the Law with BIM. First, this paper analyzes the provisions of the law with a questionnaire for architects and inspectors from the standpoint of the application of BIM. Secondly, this paper extracts the necessary items to check the compliance of the law. They are numeral 3D shape data, text data and object position data. Thirdly, this paper shows two kinds of methodologies for the compliance of the law with BIM, and examines the maximum height of building, the height of eaves and the fire-resistance as case studies. Finally, this paper points out the effectiveness and problems of methodologies for the compliance of the Building Standard Law of Japan with BIM.
Regarding the urban dwellings of Japan in pre-modern times we show, on a drawing, the actual architectural situation of 13 dwellings in the central area of Osaka. We discuss the dwelling types and the layout of the houses drawn. As a result, we were able to draw the following conclusions: 1) we can confirm three dwelling types; Tori-niwa type, with an earthen floor passable from front to back (7 examples), Kiri-niwa type, with two earthen floors (2 examples), and Mae-niwa type, with an entrance earthen floor (4 examples). Houses for rent including six Tori-niwa type houses facing the main road Mido-suji and Minami-Kyuutarocho-dori measured 2.5 to 5 ken in width and 1.25 to 8.5 ken in depth. Each has 3 rooms in file inside and five houses have a set bath in their dwellings. 2) Five houses were set on rear sites and two houses next to the corner house, with sharing wells and toilets. The composition of these 13 houses shows a layout technique in a central urban area in Osaka.
About the head of the employed carpenters at the Kaga-Han ('the HEAD') : 1. Except the introduction period and the busy period, the number of people of 'the HEAD' was fixed as 2 in the first half of the period or 3 in another half. 2. The Ohnishis and the Yasudas had succeeded to 'the HEAD' in first, and the one whose father was that was advantageous to promotion to that. 3. More than 40% of the carpenters promoted to 'the HEAD' were promoted in their fifties. And more than 30% of them could be promoted in their thirties and forties.
By the inspection of “RUIDAI-KAIZU” etc., I ascertained the results about the Kuroda-family in the Kaga-Han: 1. The family of Masashige KURODA who was the employed carpenter by the Kaga-Han, prospered extremely in the first half of the Edo period. 2. Mitsumasa TATUMI and Masanou YASUDA weren't master and pupil relations, and it made clear that they both were the fifth generation pupils from Yoshimasa HEINOUCHI. 3. Afterwards, the family of Masashige KURODA had a decline in its force, and the record as the employed carpenter by the Kaga-Han was cut off with Jinkichi last.
During Edo-Era inspectors were sent throughout Japan several times. In 1838 inspectors were sent to Kumamoto-Han and used Okyaku-yas for stay and rest. Through the examination of historical materials such as plans, following results were ascertained; 1)Plan of Okyaku-ya was similar to plan of town house and private house in Kumamoto-Han. 2)Unlike town house and private house, Ocha-ya was aided by Kumamoto-Han government.
As a result of studying documents with contents similar to those of “HIDENSHO-ZUKAI”, three conclusions were drawn concerning the method employed in the early-modern period in Japan. 1. There remain several documents whose contents are similar to the contents of this book: These are the Kubota Clan Documents, the Sakagami Clan Documents and the Hayashi Clan Documents. 2. When considering the Illustrated Book in conjunction with these documents, it can be said that these are valuable documents from which details of the early-modern KIKU-JUTSU named HIKIKOMITARUKI can be garnered. 3. The design method for hip rafter was not yet complete in the early-modern period.
In this research, the architectural planning for the Marunouchi Building will be analyzed focused on the modification plan after the reinforcement. Before and after the completion of this building, there were two earthquakes, one in 1922 and another in 1923, and the reinforcement was done after each of earthquakes. During the second one, the main structure was modified. Therefore, in comparison with the differences between before and after the completion based on the remained drawings, the method of planning and the usage of space could be examined. The design which was tried to keep the balance between the earthquakes resistance and profitability will be clarified from this analysis and the role of the Marunouchi Building will be reevaluated.
This paper analyzes the philosophy in “A TESTAMENT” by F.L. Wright on following 3 aspects. 1. Wright tries to open the door to the living whole through creating the living architecture in according to the change of the fate, and Wright gets to the thoughtful philosophy linked to the whole by the quotation of the Hugo’s prophecy to see the architecture revive. 2. The philosophy to the mind of architect guides organic architecture by the image of the poetic principle from ‘the seed’ to ‘the flowers’ in the epigraph. Wright gains the stance of the philosophy through the experience in the nature, Renaissance in Italy, education of Froebel, Emerson' thought and Whitman's poem, and reaches the light of Buddha and Jesus from Laotze. 3. At last Wright's philosophy indicates that the origin of the poetic principle is the eternal law of change: Growth as humanity, the light of world to revive the architecture.
This study aims to investigate and clarify the procedure of building evacuation projects implemented in the Japanese cities toward the end of the WW II. First, before March 1945, the Japanese government's insufficient acknowledgement of the damages inflicted by air raids upon cities resulted in little progress in evacuating buildings anywhere in the country, except in Tokyo. Second, comparison between the Tokyo and Kyoto cases after the massive destruction by air attacks in March 1945 revealed a change in the purpose and method of evacuation. Consequently, after the change, the evacuation appeared to be almost an auto-destruction of urban areas.