The objectives of this study are to find out the actual situation of discharged patients' home modifications to mitigate the environmental gap between a recovery rehabilitation hospital and their own houses, as well as to identify their potential needs of house improvement. The results of this study shows: 1) Patients have many potential needs for home modification which is hard to be discovered by PT or OT at the one-time-only home inspection one month before discharge. 2）The typical suggestion from PT and OT is to install handrails while architectural expertise has limited opportunity to give professional advice, therefore their collaboration system should be established.
Planning for attracting customers facilities and how can the facility attract many people, proper prediction of the visitors number is quite important. By measuring the number of visitors using the Huff model that proposed by D.L.Huff to attract facilities have been performed as a kind of gravity model, which is interpreted as an analogy of Newton mechanics. For example, why and whether it acts to be drawn by the power of human beings is inversely proportional to the index times the distance in accordance with the law of gravity, has not been fully explained. There is a need to consider why there is this analogy holds fact theoretically. The thought people to perform action to maximize the utility with their own limited conditions, this paper tried to build a model. It is intended to make new examined attendance prediction replace it also causes, and to organize concepts related to appeal coefficients in attracting facilities and Huff model is studied in this paper.
We examined the effects of visual noises caused by wall-moving robots on task-performance. Subjects attended to Calculating-task and Inputting-task on a desktop display while the projected black circles as visual noises were moving on the front wall. Results indicated 1) Answering-time for Calculating-task was increased while black circles were moving in the area within 35-degrees from Gazing-point for the task. 2) Just after black circles appeared on the horizontal area spread on Gazing-point, Answering-time for the first quest of Calculating-task was increased. 3) While black circles were moving on the same horizontal area on Gazing-point, Eye-blinking rate was increased.
This paper investigates physiological effects of indoor greenery in a simulated office space as a result of subject experiments. Indoor greenery is expected to mitigate stress of occupants in an office space mainly due to the visual effect. However, the optimal green volume is unknown to recover from stress in an office. In order to investigate the optimal green volume, subject experiments are carried out in a simulated office room with greenery of 6 types of different green factors, including the control condition without a plant. As a result, the optimal green factor to mitigate stress is evaluated when the green factor is in the middle ratio for the dynamic visual field among 6 types of greenery layouts. The optimal green layout by the subject experiments is the same type as the inquiry survey previously submitted.
Vehicle choice behavior of railroad passengers was modeled using five essential factors. Using the actual data of passengers, unknown parameters were estimated, and the accuracy of the model was confirmed. From the estimated values of parameters, we discussed the degree of influence of each factor on vehicle choice behavior that varies according to travel direction and the time of day. Finally, we estimated the spatiotemporal distribution of passengers on each platform, and discussed the time loss, which will be observed in the process of passengers' getting on and off when they are distributing unevenly on platforms according to their preference.
The aim of this study is to clarify the relationship between spatial composition and light environment in contemporary Japanese courtyard houses. Firstly, sectional forms of courtyards, such as the height of enclosures, the ratio of windows to walls and the finishes of their surfaces, are analyzed. These spatial elements are considered to have various effects on the characteristics of daylighting by courtyards. Secondly, light environment in the courtyard and adjacent rooms are analyzed by the measure of brightness based on simulation. The combinations of brightness and its transition during a winter day are classified into seven patterns. Finally, eight types of sectional composition and light environment in winter are suggested. Furthermore, the relationships among these types are defined by sets of three different contrasts of "space," "light" and "time." Prevalent types show a common feature that they have all of the combinations of three contrastive characteristics, such as "open or close," "homogeneous or heterogeneous," and "variable or invariable."
The purpose of this study is to reproduce the restored old maps of rural villages on the main island of Okinawa by cadastral maps made in 1902-1903, in combination with historical records. Moreover, changes of the spatial composition of each village were analyzed by comparing their restored maps with the aerial photographs by the U.S. Forces, the present maps and field survey. It was found that the general structure of streets described as "grid-pattern", and the location of holy places called Utaki had seldom changed until present. On the other hand, residential area had greatly expanded in each village, and a large areas of the farmlands and woods had now vanished in comparison with the restored maps.
Today the block pattern of Skopje's Bazaar, created by the Ottoman urban strategy during the 15th and 16th century, is only partially understood. The aim of this paper is to identify the block typology of the Old Bazaar by analyzing the relations between form and development. To meet the aim, we analyzed previous research, Skopje's map from 1929 and conducted field survey (09/2011). Based on the data from 1929 map, we identified two other subtypes of facility blocks from the one facility and three shop blocks described in previous research. Most of the surviving blocks still preserve their shape and structure although in some cases an alteration of the block type occurred as a result of the destruction of Ottoman facility or shop rebuilding. We concluded that the historic urban order of the ground plan and the block pattern, created by the systematic relationships of facility, shop and street in the Ottoman urban strategy, are important values of the Bazaar's urban form. As the pressure for modern development surges, the results of this study can facilitate creation of design guidelines for sustainable conservation of the urban form of Skopje's Bazaar.
In the prewar period there were plans for the reconstruction of castle towers, but some remained unbuilt in the end. This paper examines three cities and aims to elucidate the details of the plans and their backgrounds. The movers behind the plans were municipalities, organizations combining public and private representatives. The plans ranged in degree of completeness from wishful concepts to specific designs. In each case regional promotion by attracting tourists was an aim, and the local citizens ware supportive. However, insufficient fundraising prevented the plans from reaching fruition.
This study analyzed "recognition-response process" of citizen to find the factors of Han-Ok (Korean-Traditional house) Village as local identity that induce Recognition and response from the citizen. The main conclusions are as follows.1. Recognition of Han-Ok Village, though built in modern times, is enhancing by the preservation policy and there is possibility that the enhanced recognition will improve local identity and response because recognition is positively correlated to response. Therefore, potentiality was confirmed for the growth of "recognition-response process" of the citizen regarding groups of Historic buildings.2. three differentiated spatial components of its identity were observed in Han Ok Village: facility, traditional landscape and cultural activity. Therefore, both landscape and facility and cultural activity should be considered in planning groups of Historic buildings into a local identity. In addition, a plan should be established focusing on such identity factors as symbolism and originality to induce response from the citizen.
Brownfield revitalization policy has developed since 1980's in the U.S. The first generation policy until 1990's was developed for each brownfield site with federal grant especially for assessment and state's voluntary cleanup programs. Most of economically feasible sites are redeveloped by private initiatives supported by the policy. However, distressed area with many brownfield sites left unchanged. The second generation of brownfield policy was developed in early 2000' s based on area-wide planning approach. Both policies rely on coordinated operation of environmental measures and planning in federal, state's and local government.
In this study, we studied aspects that consist the core components of guidelines regulating the landscape of traditional architectural buildings; The spatial composition of household and the change in the local community (change of the number of households and household structures) and household engagement in the tourism industry. Our findings are: 1) Regulations that have uniform measures controlling new construction and extension of buildings in the preservation district tend to limit the choices of building use and have impact on life styles of residents if not taking considerations in the number and sizes of buildings owned by the family; 2) It is virtually impossible to have uniform regulations that regulate various types of scale, location, and arrangement of the buildings as well as the spatial composition of residential buildings different from one household to another; 3) The spatial composition of the community has been changed due to the the changes in the number of households and household structures and their engagement in tourism industry. Based on these findings, we propose the new measures for landscape management of Shirakawa-go village: a) Landscape guidelines and regulations that correspond to each and different types of household condition; b) Regulations that include not alteration control of the buildings only but also should include the rules that correspond to different types of use of buildings and requests of alteration by residents; c) Management that generates employment opportunity and encourages the use of vacant houses for residents.
The purpose of this study is to analyze the relationship between spatial organization and means of transportation of large commercial buildings in the metropolitan suburbs. Firstly, we compared the commercial characteristic with means of transportation in Tokyo Metropolitan Area, using person trip survey and census of commerce. Based on the result, we chose the target area and performed an on-the-spot survey. The result shows that from 1998 through 2008, the share of car users increased, and the spatial organization of the commercial buildings is greatly influenced by the distance from the nearest station and scale of the station.
The results of this research are as follows. 1) Existing home buyers purchase a house with limited information mainly from the supply-side. 2) While they are satisfied mostly with the acquired information and circulation situation of information, many of them feel anxiety and dissatisfaction in getting information and dealing. 3) The number of acquired information, the degree of information, and the level of satisfaction with information's circulation situation are also connected with the degree of satisfaction with housing. 4) It is necessary to educate consumers and organize a counseling center which supports consultation for them.
Following the Great East Japan Earthquake, the housing lease program for disaster victims supplied over 60,000 private rental houses that serve as temporary housing. The number of houses has exceeded the number of newly constructed units of prefabricated temporary housing and many residents moved to urban areas in order to acquire rental houses. To examine moving processes and living conditions of residents under this program, an interview survey was conducted with residents living in leased houses in Sendai City. The following results were obtained. (1) Residents who were able to acquire housing in the early stage found rental houses with the cooperation of relatives and acquaintances, instead of real estate agents. (2) Many residents were not able to acquire adequate houses for the number of persons in their households. For this reason, families had to live separately. (3) Some residents experienced stress with their new life in rental houses because of the drastic change in their living environment.
The former house of Motoori Norinaga was reconstructed in a new location in 1909 by the Suzunoya ruins preservation association which was organized by local volunteer. The report booklet in typography about removing and reconstructing the former house was archived at the Museum of Motoori Norinaga which took over the preservation association. It should be taken that the reconstruction was applied to the cultural preservation technique similar to the temple and shrine at the time when the way of preserving private residence was not established.
As a result of geometrically analyzing the line drawings of the plan of Salisbury Cathedral measured at site by RCHME, the present author inquires into the way of constructing the plan through distributing geometric figures such as equilateral triangles and squares by making use of a ruler or a compass. Although Peter Kidson has already pointed out that the plan has two different standard measures and grids applied to the eastern and western parts of the cathedral, the author proposes a possibility of analyzing the plan by drawing geometric figures, especially considering the building process of the cathedral.
This paper discusses the development of dwelling types presented by Ernst May from 1925 to 1930 in Frankfurt a.M. through analyzing his texts and exhibition. In his planning of housing estates in Frankfurt May aimed to build low-rise one-family-houses with garden as an ideal dwelling type. But because of serious housing shortage more economical apartments were gradually required. From autumn 1928 he gave priority to the planning of minimal dwelling. His attempt to design efficient dwelling types was reflected not only in a series of dwelling unit types published in1930 but also in the CIAM exhibition in 1929.
Focusing on the early modern era when the "taboos" were established, this paper is to clarify the characteristics of landscape in shrine created by the tabooed land of Mt. Miwa from the perspective of the surrounding mountain forest, and landscapes in picture maps. At the same time as the major development of the Omiwa shrine in the Kanbun era (1661-73), taboos were established behind "Mitsu-Torii", and the area was classified as "Miwa Myojin Main Shrine Mountain". It shows that in that setting, from 1638 there was a view towards "Tomeyama" or the total protection of the entire mountain as, which at the same time was overlapping with a view towards the partial protection. Here we can see the condition of a multi-layered protection taking the shape, and already such an area could be seen in picture maps drawn before the establishment of the taboos.
This paper aims to show an aspect of Kunio MAEKAWA's theory of poiesis by focusing upon his writings about "technique" and "spirit".The main subject consists of the following chapters according to the issues raised in the second chapter. The third chapter describes the relationship between "technique" and "human spirit" in his writings. The fourth chapter considers the "spontaneity" deeply concerned with "techne(technology/art)" and "spirit (mind/heart)" which have been looked at in the third chapter. Thus, the structure of the concepts in connection with Maekawa's poiesis have been discussed. In the modern ages which passed through specialization and division of "technology" and "art", Maekawa's poiesis offers his approach to reunite them based on " human life".
The intention of this paper is to figure out the relationship between Frank Lloyd Wright's architectural thought and his design through an analysis of modification system of the Prairie Houses that represent his works in the First Golden Age. The analysis consists of two main chapters as follows: Chapter 2 overviews the modification of his Prairie Houses focusing attention on several 'types' of his works that originally propounded by the author based on previous studies' three diagrams. Chapter 3 explicates his view to the nature during this period and the concept of "conventionalization" which leads his early design through an analysis of his statements at the time.
This study clarifies the establishing processes by focusing on local towns. The roofed walkways were called Din-a-ka were established in 1900 by the Taiwan Building Regulation, which was an architectural regulation implemented under Japanese control. This regulation caused the spread of shop-houses with Din-a-ka. The townscapes were then constructed in the inner cities, one after another. On the other hand, Din-a-ka become widespread in local towns, following which the city planning committee was organized by the Government-General of Taiwan. City improvement projects were carried out across the entire island from 1910 onward. There was the change in a process of a spread. The project of city improvement on the early stage limited to establishing and extending of specific streets. But after around 1931, the planning of city improvement was required a plan and a system of sustained urban planning. Then the series of shop-houses constructed by the brick structure took place the reinforced concrete. According to morphological research of some representative examples, there were instances of voluntary town development by the administration and the inhabitants. Initially there were improvements in the construction of main streets within the city improvement projects, and the reconstruction of shop-houses along these streets. As time passed, projects were developed throughout the region. At that time, a mutual support organization was formed due to the necessity for backup reconstruction expenses. The characteristics of the town development were strengthened.
This paper described a leading action in the modern city in Japan. Foreigner's land speculation in Kobe open port led to the urban development business that expected of price of land rise by Japanese private companies and Japanese local residents in Kobe. And, the foreigner's autonomy led to the establishment of the local assembly in Hyogo Prefecture. It was Takahira KANDA to have initiated these. Kanda is known as a person who begins the land tax reform and the local assembly in Japan. It can be said that KANDA received these concrete idea from the foreigners' activities in Kobe open port.