Although many fire-prevention devices are set on buildings to secure the safety in fire, some of them don't work though engineers predict that they work. As a result, the fire enlarges. The reliability of fire-prevention devices depends on their maintenance. First, this paper analyzes the effect of reliability of fire-prevention devices in past researches, considering their regulations and features. Secondly this researches about it, and reconsiders the reliability of fire-prevention; the input values in the evaluation of the safety in fire. Finally this proposes how to set up the reliability of fire-prevention devices.
A measurement method of sound radiation efficiency (the discrete calculation method) was newly developed and it was confirmed to be useful one. In this paper, measurement results of sound radiation efficiency using this method on diverse vibrating objects, flat boards, ribbed plates, variable thickness plates and so on, are shown. In addition, the followings on the sound radiation characteristics are revealed as results of the present work. That is, the sound radiation efficiency may considerably change by the exciting method. The sound radiation characteristics can be evaluated due to vibration modal shapes and the coincidence frequency. The discrete calculation method is a high precision measurement method on the sound radiation.
Experiments have been carried out to determine the sense of horizontal vibration where subjects can see the view from a window. A gap between physical feeling and visual amplitude of vibration can cause discomfort and an uneasy feeling in the high frequency and acceleration range. The visual situation has the greatest influence on vibration perception, and this is closely connected with vibration amplitude. Vibrations can not be perceived physically in the low frequency and small acceleration range, but they can be recognized visually as movement of the view. Therefore, many subjects can perceive vibrations when they can see the view. It is therefore necessary to assess the perception threshold in consideration of the influence of visual sensation. The visual sensation does not influence perception in the high frequency range, because the vibration amplitude is imperceptible in that range. It is therefore possible to assess vibrations on the basis of perception threshold scatter by physical feeling in the body.
The increase of ultraviolet radiation caused by the destruction of the ozone layer produces various health problems related to human bodies such as skin cancer and cataract. Along with the increase in outside activities, the number of people who work in exteriors is also increasing. The ultraviolet reflectance and transmittance of the building material are one of the important factors of ultraviolet radiation in and out of building. In this research, the ultraviolet spectral reflectance of many kinds of building material is measured, and their relationships with visible ray reflectance are discussed in different wavelength bands. Also, the relationships with the lightness, roughness, and chromaticity, which are surface characteristics, are discussed. From the measurement results, the ultraviolet reflectances on Wood are about Visible 55-68%, UV-A 7-12%, and UV-B 4-5%. Wall Tiles are about Visible 18-40%, UV-A 8-20%, and UV-B 7-8%. Concrete is about Visible 37%, UV-A 28%, and UV-B 19%. The ultraviolet reflectance can be estimated by visible reflectance. As material lightness becomes higher, ultraviolet reflectance also becomes higher.
It is very difficult to take an accurate measurement of parameters of the water transfer properties in the soil, although they are important to investigate the hygrothermal characteristics in particular soil under rooftop lawn surface. The hydraulic conductivity, the matrix potential and the diffusion of water vapor in the soil pores express the moisture properties in the soil; they are generally considered as functions of the soil water contents, represented with several parameters. In this study, the procedure to estimate those parameters simultaneously by the inverse solution technique is discussed. Parameter identification method, so-called the inverse solution based on Least Square Technique, was applied to evaporation rates and volumetric water contents selected as the object variables. Results from both experiment and simulation show practical effectiveness and proper accuracy of the procedure presented in this paper.
To clarify the hygrothermal behavior during winter of vertical edge insulation methods for foundation walls in moderate and humid climate region, temperature and relative humidity in 16 houses that include several insulation types and locations, have been measured. Results are as follows; 1) Temperature difference between south and north part in the crawl space is small even if under partial heating. 2) Absolute humidity in the crawl space is rather higher than that in 1F indoor air for 1 or 2 years from completion, and it tends to become the same level with that of 1F indoor air as times passed. 3) The condition of moisture in the crawl space is much influenced by the humidity in the just above 1F room.
It is very popular in East Asia and Japan to heat some parts of the body using a small heating source in slightly cool or cool conditions. The objective of this paper is to clarify the thermal effect of heating the soles of the feet on human thermal comfort and to consider the optimum heating conditions in such cases. Thirteen (13) men participated in these experiments and were exposed to various sole heating conditions. The following results were obtained: Overall thermal sensation and thermal comfort were not influenced by heating the soles alone. Therefore it was thought that the optimum conditions of a hot panel should be decided by the local thermal sensation on the soles. There was a close correlation between the thermal sensation of the soles and the energy input through the soles' surface and this was used to decide the optimum condition of the hot panel.
A numerical simulation method is proposed for predicting the effective radiation area and the projected area of human body for any postures. This method is based on the solar heat gain simulation. To confirm the validity of this method, predicted effective radiation area factors and projected area factors for both standing and sitting postures are compared with those by the measurements. It was found that predicted figures are met quite well with those by the subjective experiments within 10% accuracy. The effective radiation area and the diagrams of the projected area factors for a person sitting on the floor are illustrated.
The Leipzig Wind Profile is generally known as a typical neutral planetary boundary layer flow. But it is not completely neutral but weakly stable. We examined whether we could simulate the Leipzig Wind Profile using a non-isentropic (k-ε) turbulence model or not. By solving analytically the Second Moment Closure Model under the assumption of local equilibrium and under the condition of a stratified flow, we expressed the eddy viscosities (both momentum and thermal) as functions of flux Richardson number. The result by our turbulence model which includes the potential temperature equation accorded with the Leipzig Wind Profile.
Ice/water mixture can transport much greater amount of cooling energy than ordinary water pipings. To find a basic flow characteristics of the ice/water mixture, the model experiments were performed about the flow characteristics at the bend piping and branch piping. It was found that the local pressure loss of the ice/water mixture at the bend was not affected so much by the ice packing factor nor the direction of bend piping, however some influence of the size of ice piece was found. At the branch piping, the amount of the ice in the branch pipe was influenced by branch directions. The amount of branched ice was increased at the downward branch. It was decreased at the upward and horizontal branch.
This paper presents an automatic on-line fault detection and diagnosis algorithm for VAV AHU, based upon recursive Auto Regressive Exogenous model and recursive parameter estimation technique. The model is trained using several days of normal real time operational data and validated on data obtained by introducing faults artificially in the VAV damper control sub-system under normal operating conditions. Variation of the parameters identifying the system is analyzed with the help of statistical tools and a method is evolved to select the threshold levels for flashing warning signal. It is concluded that the method is robust and can even detect difficult faults such as damper getting stuck at half opened position.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the value of a river, as a recreational space for inhabitants. We carried out the observation survey and the interview with users in Seno River located in the east area of Hiroshima City. These investigations were conducted in five seasons from summer of 1994 to summer of 1995. Based on the calculated number of the people playing in the river, we compared among the effects of the time zone, weekdays or holidays and four seasons. Also, characteristics of each recreational use were shown. For example, playing with water is not frequent, but staying time is long. On the contrary, walking is daily and customary, but staying time is short. Lastly, to clarify the effects of the physical settings on uses, we analyzed by the Quantity Theory Cluster I. As the results of them, we showed that weirs and bridges give opportunities of playing with water.
To examine effects of a row of roadside trees on solar shading and thermal comfort on footpaths, field measurements were conducted on hot-humid, days at two streets which have different quantity of roadside trees. The authors proposed predicting methodobgy of distribution of MRT at streets with and without roadside trees based on the results of field measurements. And using this model, numerical experiments were performed. The following conclusions were reached. 1. Reduction of MRT by the roadside trees is more remarkable than reduction of air temperature. 2. Larger solar reflection rate of wall and lower building height make more reduction of MRT by roadside trees. 3. Sparse tall trees with large crowns are more valuable than dense low trees with small crowns from a viewpoint of thermal comfort.
The purpose of this study is to value the each person's vocabulary and point of view about the environmental evaluation. This paper presents the method of research and analysis using "Individual Scales", which are evaluation items made by subjects' own terms. Thus, these scales are different from person to person. As for analysis, we propose the method named "Personal Construct - PCA", which is the principal conponent analysis by the mode to regard objects of evaluation as observations, and all items of all subjects as variables. As a casestudy, we introduce a research of townscape, using this method.
The aim of this paper is to study the characteristics of residential building with commercial facility ("heizon" -housing) developed by Housing Corporation that defined the townscape of Osaka City after World War II. The analysis of drawings and documents, focusing the morphological and typological aspects, resulted in an identification of perimetral plans along the main roads and detached plans in access roads induced by their location.
Hoi An was an important trading port on the sea rout connecting Asian, Islamic and European countries, and there still remains historical district. Recently, Hoi An has been facing racing rapid growth of tourism, which influences on the townscape. This research shows the relations between regulations of municipal government and needs of house owners as follows; 1)House owners started to install many signboards, to put goods on the sidewalks and building facades and also to paint their houses in not traditional colors to attract tourist interest. 2)Municipal government has responded with a sequence of new regulations to control these changes of the townscape. 3)Functional aspects of the regulations are accepted by the house owners to some extent, because it is rather easy to understand many of these aspects are for maintaining tourist industry too. However aesthetic aspects have not yet had full consensus.
The aim of this paper is to research the features in form and function of "Gangi" which is built in the public apartment houses in Hokkaido and Aomori. Accordingly I will study it's improvement planning and new planning system of common space of public apartment housing in snowy region. 1)We have many types of "Gangi" arranged to apartment houses in snowy areas. But all of those houses are not chained to each other with them. 2)The present "Gangi" has many problems on snow removing, icy floor, and so on. 3) It is necessary to improve it and prepare the new planning system of "Gangi" and common space.
In this study, based on an interview survey of 28 courtyard houses' owners and managers about the renovations, constructions and households change since the houses construction, we tried to reproduce the occurence process of collective living and living space formation. The constructions and renovations in the houses are almost based on the change of the owner family's life stage. In many houses, with the decrease of the number of relatives and parents, some rooms are rented to other households without kinship, but very few new construction are held for them. We also defined the collective living as the living of more than 2 households in the same courtyard house with different "GWA"(kitchen range). Based on that we made the model of collective living and living space formation in 6 patterns. The process in each model can be divided into 4 steps.
The aim of this study is to clarify the paradigmatic characteristics of the composition of exterior space in Japanese contem- porary architecture. Those are determined by the relation between exterior composition of building and approach space. Exterior composition of building is formed by assemblage of hierarchical manipulation on volumetric arrangements, which are depth, width and vertical. Approach space is combination of the space which is left by arranged building on a site and the position of entrance. So 11 types of composition are found. Comparing the every type, three fundamental rhetorics are clarified; emphasis of facade, extension of public space and transformation within approach space.
This paper's aim is to clarify the characteristics of integrational form in spatial composition by analyzing typologically Japanese contemporary complex buildings as groups of volumes with arrangement. Initially, the groups of volumes are defined by combination of the direction of arrangement and the element representing the bodies, and also several hierarchy-patterns are defined by the exerted ranges of those arrangements. Secondly, typological compositions are found by analyzing contents of the arrangements in the hierarchy-patterns. Finally, through comparing those compositions, the integrational form is structured with the functions of arrangement that generate the relationships among volumes such as "master-servant".
As a part of researches on developments of modern building components, we show the summary of trends of the ratio of installation of finish materials or construction systems of office buildings and multiple dwelling houses. We researched the data from magazine articles or questionnaire and compared the data with the previous study about the development of modern building components. And we estimated the trends of ratio of installation by considering and analyzing the results. The mainline of the finish materials of wall in office buildings and multiple dwelling houses became dry materials from plastering materials because of serious consideration of non-combustibility and construction efficiency.
This study intends to make clear the effects of the number of persons in the room on the perception of volume and impression of interior-space. Subjects for a while experienced two experimental spaces which dimensions of floor spaces are different and which heights of ceiling are operated to make a difference of a definite quantity of volume in random order, and then they compared two volumes of spaces. At a time subjects rated which of spaces had felt more 'spacious' , 'oppressive' , 'stretching' , 'tight' , 'crowded'. The results were summarized as follows: 1)In case that the number of persons in the room is plural, subjects perceived the volume of interior-space more correct than perceiving by alone and the volume of the space of high ceiling height is tend to be overestimated. 2)The more the number of persons in the room to the heigher ceiling , the subjects felt more spaciousness and strechingnes. 3)The room that floor area is small is not tend to rate to be spacious, but is tend to rate to be oppressive, tight, crowded.
Based on an inventive kind of analysis idea proposed in our previous paper, we suggest an another analysis method calculating an numerical index for a characteristic of architectural space. We think this index is also much useful in solving some kind of functional problem relating architectural space. Our new idea in this paper is to grasp a characteristic that affects the density of pencil of light rays in the given point of architectural space, controlling a psychological pleasantness of visual environment. In the first step we examine on the density of pencil of reflection from surface of object. As a result we find some important relationship between the density of pencil of reflection and view position or shape of space. We discuss on some posibility to analyze and control space organization based of the density or the above described relation.
This paper describes the system of peculiar dwelling life in housing having major living space in the land floor which Bai people has traditionally maintained and succeeded on the basis of data collected in Dali.Yunnan Province, China in recent years, and intends to grasp the continuity to the system of dwelling life under modem civilization and the changes. The conditions for dwelling life are gradually changing. However, the system of dwelling life which seems to be peculiar to the Bai people has not changed greatly. The study on dwelling for minority people which has been conducted so far seems to remain in the exemplification of spatial construction of dwelling. In this study, the continuity and change of system of dwelling life will be continuously studied in view of culture of materials and the way of behavior.
An incineration plant is one of the most important and indispensable infrastructures to our urban activities. The historical and nation-wide research on sites of incineration plants were made to find the physical and social background of locations. Most of large plants in Japan are located on the urban fringes; river-side, sea-side, mountain-side, administrative-side and social consciousness-side. The result of this research has shown that the tendencies of site dicision was not only depend on the physical and technical backgrounds.
In this study, the importance of "diversity in a phenomenon of color" is discussed to analyze the color in townscape. Three of high-rise office buildings in Osaka Business Park were chosen as the subjects for two types observational survey. One is to measure the colors of buildings by the Munsell color system under the different condition of time, direction and distance of view point, the other is to record the mode of appearance of color under the characteristic feature appeared. Through the analysis, it is clear that the phenomena of color in townscape could not be explained only by the color scale of hue and chroma. The vocabulary for the mode of appearance of color and its scale system is necessary to be developed to identify the townscape in terms of color.
This paper discusses space formation of Newari settlements called Hadigaon in Kathmandu valley based on the field studies mainly focusing on the streets system, organization of blocks, distribution of public facilities and living space. This paper firstly clarifies the fact that the living space in general is divided into three vertically, which is supported by the other precedent studies. The way of use of Dharmashala (open pavilion) and intersections of streets is observed. Lastly the fact that streets system and courtyard network organized houses is stressed in this paper. Newari settlements are known as the high-densed settlements forming highly populated community from which we learn the prototypes of urban houses. We have the hypothesis that old palace city in the Licchavi period existed around Hadigaon area and proposed the reconstruction plan which is based on the 9 (3X3) square Mandala pattern in the previous paper (No. 514). This paper also has the significance to record the present situation of Hadigaon.
The aims of this study are to estimate the necessary number and to decide the optimum location of hierarchical day facilities for the elderly in Suwa-Nagayama district, Tama New Town. The population of this area is estimated to be about 20,000 in 2020 and a large number of day facilities should be needed; the upper level -3.7, the middle -12.3 and the lower -18.2. Provided we plan to utilize the existing facilities for children on locating day facilities, the latter facilities should replace almost all the former. Fixing capacity of facilities causes split of the service area of them.
There is a growing concern for global environmental conservation in recent years and efforts have been started towards sustainable urban planning framework. Yet, it is still not clear whether the western origin sustainable development approach would work in other countries with different cultural origin or not. Against this background this paper aims at examining the way of thinking on nature in modern Japan. Firstly, the hypothesis on way of thinking in East Asian culture from the view point of ontological argument is presented. Secondly, the way of thinking of the nature and ontological space in modern literary works is examined. In conclusion, it is pointed out that the urban space should be organized so as recall the nature as ontological space.
This paper aims to clarify the actual condition and problems of urbanization in the roadside areas of large-scale agricultural roads in loose regulation area. Characteristics of sections where urbanization has been growing are classified by 3 patterns and commercial and business facilities have been increasing since the mid-1980s in those roadsides. In those factors there are high increase-rate of population in surrounding areas, heavy traffic volume of roads, characteristics of farm land, and loose regulation of land-use control, etc. Residents there need the zoning for prevention of mixed land-use, especially farm and houses or shops, and environment and landscape preservation.
This study aims at clarifying residents' evaluation of green planning and management of public spaces with natural-forest at residential areas through questionnaire to residents. 1. In green areas with natural-forests, residents give high evaluation same as with planted trees. 2. But, residents' evaluation about current condition of maintenance of green areas with natural-forests is low. 3. They want to participate in maintaining green area of public spaces more than now. 4. Their participation in maintaining green areas of public spaces help to strengthen residents' community , resulting in contributing to strengthen their will to participate in maintenance activities of green areas.
An experiment was done in one grid shaped street pattern and one irregularly twisted street pattern. There were two ways to memorize forms in the experiment: a real walk and CG animation presented walk through a fixed pathway. After memorizing the course.the subject walked the pathway by himself. The subjects were 25 males and 15 females. As a result of the sight behavior analysis, it became clear that the subjects who had undergone the walk course demon strated more intensive sight behavior toward the grid shaped street pattern than toward the irregularly twisted street pattern. However, the subjects who learned the course by CG animation demonstrated the opposite results: they showed a more intensive sight behavior toward the irregularly twisted street pattern than the grid shaped one.
Our previous study showed the standard of the performance for an urban improvement plan from the view point of the prevention from urban fire spread, using the percolation models to which we extended the model leading the standard with Fireproof Area Rate that the urban planners often use. However, our previous study had one problem that our result can be applied to the only infinite urbanized area although the actual urbanized area is finite. In this paper, we modifies the standard of the performance for urban improvement, plan and shows the new method to apply to a given finite size area, using the finite size scaling hypothesis based on percolation theory.
Based on the data and know-how of the well-experienced site manager, we built a scheduling support system that could be shared systematically in the construction industry. First, we built a scheduling system that support to move decision timing earlier with Genetic Algorithm according to the constraint condition and rules that we have already investigated at the former paper. Then we compared a result schedule of this system that accelerated by GA to the well-tuned actual decision process designed by skilled site manager. It was clarified that GA was possible for the formulation of the actual production information fixed process.
The purpose of this paper is to clarify the character of the Hiro-Gosho. By this study, I tried to indicate the importance of the existence of the Hiro-Gosho in the latter half of the post imperial era. The treatise is organized in the following manner: Introduction Chap.1 A use of the Hiro-Gosho. Chap.2 A private character of the Hiro-Gosho. (1) The Hiro-Gosho as a private space. (2) The Hiro-Gosho as a space where the public entertainer can go in and out. (3) Some similarities between the Hiro-Gosho and the Tsune-Gosho. Chap.3 A public character of the Hiro-Gosho. Chap.4 A middle character of the Hiro-Gosho. Chap.5 A historical significance of the existence of the Hiro-Gosho. Conclusion
Yamaguchi was one of the principle towns in Mouri-Han and the capital of Mouri-Han shifted from Hagi to Yamaguchi in 1863. Through the examination of historical mateials, following results are ascertained; (1)Before 1863 there were 2 Ocha-yas and 2 Hon-jins in Yamguchi. There was difference between them in location, user, and so on. (2)Especially Yamaguchi Ocha-ya shared governmental function with Kanba(local government office) nearby. (3)After 1863 Okyaku-ya, which had governmental function in Hagi, was newly built and Kanba removed near Okyaku-ya.
In 1932, the Kwantung Army established the Manchoukuo state in Manchuria, the Northeastern province of China. As a cultural policy, the Manchoukuo government started investigation activities of "Cultural Properties" including historical buildings in this area. They established a law for the preservation of places of historical interest in 1933. This paper considers: 1) investigation and preservation activities, 2) legal systems, and 3) administrative systems in Manchoukuo at this time.
Chuta Ito enunciated an architectural theory in the lecture of "The future of Japanese architecture from the view point of principles of architectural evolution" in 1908. The theory has been considered to be the first one on the architectural creation in modern Japan. The present author presents some new facts or interpretation as to the origin and the history of the theory as follows. The popular view of the theory which was originated from the Spencer's theory of social evolution is not necessarily correct. The theory was originated from Ito's own "The Architectural Philosophy" of his graduation thesis. Ito made the theory by succeeding to Kingo Tatsuno's discourse and by referring to Tensin Okakura's essays and opinion of Japanese fine art.
The old building was designed by Ende & Bockmann. The construction began in 1888 and was completed in 1895. It had a floor frame and a roof frame in a style known at that time as 'German construction'. The beams of the single flooring were ca. 7 meters in length and were placed every ca.90 centimeters. They were reinforced by intertruss bracings and filled with cinder for soundproofing, as was often done in Berlin. The roof frame was similar to roof frames in Germany, but in Germany there were no examples where posts of the roof were reinforced by braces on either side using many diagonal posts. The reason may be because attic space was unnecessary in Japan and the roof frame was designed to strengthen the frame after the Nobi Earthquake of 1891.
At Akoris in middle Egypt, romanized colonnade was constructed in the front of Western Temple Area in the 2nd century A.D. Setting marks for the base of the colonnade, which provide the information about the construction method, were found on the foundation stones. The colonnade shows areostyle proportion coming from the intercol- umniations. However the base stones were not arranged on lines indicating the centre of plinthes below as well as that of columns above, but were put between the setting marks indicating the rebated surfaces of the baces above. In other words, the setting marks did not indicate the design principles, but instructed the workmen to put the bases on the right places.
The research is a study on historical changes of the dining space of dwelling developed by Han people of china. In this paper the changed process of dining table which is the core of the space is examined. by means of these studies on excavated clay images, portraits, murals, picture scrolls, literatures and historical materials. The results are as following : 1) The history of dining table can be divided by 3 stages as the early term, transition period and later term. 2) The history of characteristic of dining table in each stage is verified. Corresponding to the change in life-style, there is a tendency for the height of the dining table to change from YUKAZA to ISUZA.
Hiroshi OHE architect had built a work "Graduate school of Hosei university" in 1953, and he was authorised after world war secound in Japan. Both he has been critical stanse, and he has been modernist. What mean dose he understand about "modern" in Japan. We shall study this thema through this building. And in this study, we research the way of architecture through reading his discourses as contemporal facts. And we will deverope the way of thinking of architecture.
In order to understand the original phenomena of architectural space, the systems for the definition and division of the inside space of primitive tent houses of old Eurasian peoples are studied. The radial system from central fireplace, the depth from the entrance door and the polarity of right and left from the deepest corner of the inside space are three original moments of the space definition and division of these houses. And the similar system can be found in the Stubeof northeast and central European farmhouses.