In this study, it aimed to focus on Sylhet Zila in Bangladesh where has been sending out lots of emigration to United Kingdom by chain migration from the British colonial period. Trough the housing research on Sylhet Zila and Biani Bazar, this study clarified that there are some influence on living condition and housing style at emigrants' hometown from their experiences in United Kingdom through the long-term movement. In the living situation of Sylhet Zila, rebuilding of houses and construction of infrastructure have been progressing with overseas remittance. The housing style of emigrants' houses has had some aspects from propagation of housing culture from United Kingdom. Building houses in Sylhet Zila show different feature of housing style from Tin/Wooden, Semi pacca, and Building in other areas.
This paper aimed to clarify the process of moving into rental housing for the elderly and the effect of living environment after relocation. To make clear these point, the interviews was repeated several times, from 2008 to 2009, in two rental housing for the elderly. Consequently it was shown that 1. Many of the motivation for moving was a vague sense of unease felt in old age. And changes in circumstances to feel anxiety were diverse and complex. 2. Many elderly people moved to the housing without obtaining the property information by themselves. 3. The degree of involvement of the elderly for moving was divided into three from the relationship with children. 4. Circumstances leading to the housing was divided into eight types from the relation between psychological transition and active involvement of the elderly on the move. 5. The elderly who have moved aggressively were easy to maintain the living environment of the past. On the other hand, the elderly who have moved negatively did not get used to the new living environment.
The purpose of the series of studies including this paper is to get suggestions on discussing the usefulness and possibility of the residential relationship between parents and their family of living next door style which allows a balance of mutual support and mutual independence, through to elucidate the aspects of the succession and the transfiguration of the custom of retirement from the headship of family. In this paper, we take up Goto Island, Nagasaki Prefecture. I made it clear the aspect of the succession and the transfiguration of the custom of retirement from the headship of family in two typical districts.
The purpose of this study is to investigate the sustainable residential system of a habitat that changed into a town for senior citizens by analyzing the management system of a residential organization, a proprietary company and common facilities. The authors clarified that the following items are necessary for a sustainable residential system for such habitats: 1) Long-term contracts of houses and lots by real-estate agents allow of different generations. Thus it makes a chain of the support from younger to senior generation.2) A proprietary company should be permanently established within a habitat in order to strengthen its cooperation with the residents of the habitat.3) A proprietary company should ensure the availability of space, ensure that a sustainable lifestyle is maintained, and support cultural exchange within a habitat. The comprehensive residential management system of a proprietary company should warrant the security and safety of its residents.
The purposes of this study are clarifying as follows for reevaluation of ‘bunka-jutaku’. 1) trend of supply and demand and change of notion war 2) position on local development of nongovernment apartment houses 3) meaning as family type apartment house The sources of information for the analysis are advertisements of real estate on Asahi newspaper morning (Osaka) (1952-1976). By result of analysis, it was cleared that as for ‘bunka-jutaku’, just negative understanding called a kind of ‘mokuchin’ is insufficient. ‘Bunka-jutaku’ was platform for trial that was gradual advancement of living convenience and expansion of unit for needs of nuclear family.
This paper found the characteristics of environmental settings of Non-formal schools in Nairobi slum as follows: 1) They tend to move from rental-houses to their own properties. 2) In ‘congested area’, they layout classrooms scattered in the community. While in ‘not-congested area’, they layout them from the corner of compound to protect from ‘land-grabbing’. 3) Many of them don't own latrines, playgrounds and don't serve lunch. They supplemented these functions by using community resources, such as rental-latrines, open-lands and children's houses. Because of this, children spend break-time outside, and this makes children's activities more diversity and produces more demands for neighboring shops.
First, this paper was organized the overview of facility management and spatial composition, for preschool facility of special needs children. Then, current space and the environment have been assessed by caregivers. The characteristics and needs of the space and an environment by kind of disabilities were revealed. Finally, consideration points of environment by kind of disabilities were summarized. There were the same things and different things to considerations for environment by kind of disabilities. Moreover, it was necessary to be arranged environment to be able to individual support to consideration of personal characteristics and nature.
This paper aimed to obtaining the knowledge of the proper standard formulation of group size and area scale based on it and understand facility management of after-school day-care center, we conducted a questionnaire survey on after-school day-care center based in Tokyo.Analysis of the survey results, it was to grasp facility management such as complexed facility, target children, area and group size.The difference was seen ideal sizes and environment such as a dynamic play and number of nursery space by another complexed facilities and target children.
The role which the environment of the child-care facility before entering school plays to the purpose of growth and development from the memorized scene is aims at arranging. In both the scenes of "play" and "life", it was together gathered to [A feeling of affirmation] through [sociability, Interpersonal-relations capability] or [humane growth]. And it was arranged as a structure which leads to the feeling of plus.
The first report on this series, this paper describes the actual status of the municipal policies of family day care and investigation on floor planning of facilities, based on the study of 72 municipalities and 132 facilities throughout Japan. As a result, we clarified the following points: 1) Policies related with family day care are defined on a municipal level, and they differ significantly from each other. 2) From the study of actual facilities currently on operation, 8 models of floor planning are founded according to an analysis based 4 aspects: (1) number of the nursery rooms, (2) spatial continuity, (3) doors to the nursery rooms and (4) access to toilet, bathroom and kitchen from nursery rooms. 3) Due to the lack of a standard level of service and equipment, owner's approach and resources, big differences on economical cost of transforming living spaces into this kind of facilities are founded.
With the progress of society with fewer children, the reorganization of primary schools solely for the purpose of enlarge the scale has been increasing. The purpose of this study is to clarify and evaluate the actual situation of various primary schools reorganized in recent years, from the viewpoints of succeeding the characteristics and advantages of conventional small-scale schools, increasing the merit of enlarging the scale, and improving the quality of learning environments.
Current street space has complexity such as various building configurations, various street furnitures, and so on. In this study, the objective is to obtain an index that is used for planning streetscape based on a Psychology evaluation experiment and Indication experiment using building volume model. As the experiment method, Total 39models applied to standard deviation of ［Fluctuation］= 0 to 12 of various elements as random number was used, and volume model was made. Psychology evaluation experiment and Indication experiment that whole view of model and individual building of model were indicated when "unity" was felt. As the results 1) "unity of whole" is indicated at ［Fluctuation］ of 0 to 4. 2) At ［Fluctuation］ of 5 to 7, volume models that "unity of whole" is almost indicated and "unity of individual" is also indicated are obtained. From results, useful basic knowledge can be obtained to conduct plan and volume composition for future streetscape.
This study aims to clarify the transformation of the former community before and after the great Hanshin-Awaji earthquake and the actual situation of the reconstruction project. The following results were obtained : 1. The former community was maintained by territorial bonding before and after the earthquake. And local activities , for example Danjiri festival, serve as opportunity for broad-based communication. 2. Although the reconstruction project is evaluated in terms of keeping the fundamental unit of the society , it leads up to some problems in term of local interaction. 3. The issue on decreasing opportunities of interaction within local activities due to the low birthrate and aging population in recent years can be discussed in the future.
In rural areas, a lot of small villages have been abandoned due to the trend of population outflow. Nevertheless, some parts of environmental elements such as farmlands and forests have been still properly maintained by the former inhabitants. This study is focused on condition of their going to their villages as a precept to maintain small villages. It was revealed that they go to their villages at different frequencies not only to maintain farmlands and forest but also to maintain their graveyards, to gather edible wild plants and so on. In addition, as a result of their action, they don't recognize the effects on their villages but feel their own satisfaction. Besides, most of their descendants won't take over their action. Meanwhile there are some problems like complicated land ownership to pass on their action to someone.
In this study, we discussed sustainability of habitation in the historical preservation areas by comparative analysis between preservation districts for groups of historical buildings and non-registered districts. Actual situation of preservation and habitation in historical districts were analyzed by 103 respondents of the two-type questionnaires and by fieldworks and interviews at 7 areas. Though historical preservation districts have the advantages for community design over the other districts, they have similar problems in continuation of habitation of ordinary declining towns and villages. We considered general, singular and local solutions for sustainable livability in the districts.
This research presents one part of the investigation stage for land use planning at the War Damage Reconstruction Institute, which proposed planning standards for each municipality. This paper analyzed preliminary draft of zoning made by Department of Interior and practical examination of land use planning by temporary employee. The results are given follows; 1) The War Damage Reconstruction basic policy showed reconstruction plan based on a land use planning, but first draft of the land use planning standards focused on reconsideration of zoning. In the background of this deliberation, this draft had positioning as proposal towards revision of the building regulation. 2) This draft came under review to the standards for land use planning match the War Damage Reconstruction basic policy. In this process, practical land use plan in the War Damage city proposed by temporary employee. 3) Finally land use planning standards was changed as follows, district in the residential area become diversified. The particular area was re-arranged substantively. The implications of urbanization control of a green area were strengthened.
My research is on the effectiveness and potential problems that may arise when supervision of residential building procedures are by an organization of mainly volunteers. My study is based on a few actual drafts submitted to the organization for proving before building. The result of this research showed that many cases the management had some effectiveness. However, the potential problems are also very obvious. There should be some legal procedures govern residential buildings.
This study's purpose is to clarify the actual usage of large complex redeveloped building used by various people and evaluation structure. Within 10 large complex redeveloped buildings in Tokyo, Marunouchi-area, Roppongi Hills, and Tokyo Midtown have gained a higher level of total satisfaction than other buildings, and the users stay longer and spend more. As a result of analysis of user's evaluation structure, all users consider that "variety" and "topicality" of the large complex redeveloped buildings are important. For this reason, when preparing business plans for large complex redevelopment buildings, it is necessary to give the utmost importance to the aspect of ensuring the variety of tenant shops and facilities and the topicality such as renewals and events, rather than relying on conditions regarding the site and location.
The aim of the study is to clarify the relation between historic buildings and life styles of residents through the analysis of the historical background of each races, the social, racial and religious background of the current residents and the use of the living spaces. The results showed that Levuka has been accepting people with different races, cultures and religions through its history. That diversity is still reflected in today's residents in the town and even expanding. Asian oriented residents have been manageing shops to supply foods and other goods for the people on the iland. Decendants of early European settlers still live in the town, too. One thrid of the town's population are mixed and non-mixed people are consisted of diversed races. This diversity of the town is showing its open mindness. People use shop spaces for social communication; on the other hand, Indian Fijians have temples in their living space and Chinese Fijians have fish tank which are from their original cultures. On verandas in houses, they sit down on chairs when they welcome guests during day time; however, they place Fijian mats and sit down and drink kava in the evening. This contrast shows the mixture and infusion of cultures. As the conclusion, not only historic buildings but also the race distribution and the origins of families also are the evidences of the town's history. Their living styles are the mixture and integration of cultures of Fijian and immigrants and the modern and the traditions. Levuka has a value not only as a cultural heritage but also as an integrated heritage of tangibles and intangibles.
In recent years, while Chinese construction industry has been developing, there are more and more construction failures appearing in China. This is attributed to the fact that there are some problems in the quality confirmation of construction system. Thus, it is necessary to find out the reasons that how construction failures could be happened and what the problems in quality confirmation are. In this paper, the authors will discuss the problems of Chinese construction quality system through analyzing construction failures.
In detached housing area, the communication activities in the region have two poles tendency such as the following, 1) the active peoples changed to more "neighborhood" by disaster, and 2) the inactive peoples changed to "suburbs outside-friends" and "family-focus" by disaster. On the other hand, in apartment area, 1) the active peoples changed to "friends" by disaster, and 2) the inactive peoples changed to "hobby-friends" and "family-focus" by disaster. Also in the region of either, the inactive peoples are specializing in "family", and the communication activities are becomes estranged in the region (neighborhood), further they are diluted. In this way, it was found that differed large according to living arrangements after disaster, for the communication activities of the elderly peoples. Also they become estranged both activities and consciousness of community, and had especially affected on the activities in terms of emotion of the elderly peoples in apartment area.
Once, in the findings of the priest house of Kamigamo Shrine, it was pointed out related to rural housing. However, in other areas, the relationship has not been confirmed. So the basis of the results of research farm houses, and houses of priests Shimogamo and Kamigamo Shrine , this paper confirmed that the relationship is deep and Kitayama-type. I then pointed out that the relationship is deep and priest housing of Kitano Shrine, a Settan-type. Thus, between the house and model priests house, I was confirmed a deep relationship.
I investigated the private houses for stay and rest of inspectors in 1838 through the old manuscripts. The summary of this study is as follows: That houses in Fukui clan were meddled in equipment by the organization of constructions. That was selected from the farmhouses of upper class according to precedent, and was provided first room of toilet and bath, second room of toilet and bath, third room of toilet, and agariba, tyumon, kagodai. Its room and equipment was required according to each classes. The owner of its house was burdened with the some cost of repair for that houses.
This paper examines role of Jutaku Eidan, Japan Housing Corporation and influence of low for management of farmland on company towns developed by Nippon Steel Co.Ltd. Hirohata Works. Nippon Steel began to build Hirohata Works in 1937. At the beginning, Hirohata Works developed its company housing by itself. Since 1941, Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry controlled farmland conversion by the Temporary Farmland Control Order. So Nippon Steel could not secure lands to build its company housing on. Therefore, Hirohata Works had to depend on Japan Housing Corporation for its company housing.
The study revealed that certain details and components were omitted at the Greek temple style rock-cut tombs in southeast Caria, concerning which there may be a possibility that these were omitted due to a planning decisions taking into consideration the viewer's line-of-sight from the ground, or the technical difficulties. The study also revealed that the proportions of the height of each of the components of the Greek Ionic temple style rock-cut tombs increase as they go upward, compared to the Vitruvius's them, suggesting that the proportions were adjusted taking into consideration the visual effects of viewing the tombs from the ground.
The first step toward gothic linearization was taken by introducing round piers with shafts ascending from the capitals into grand arcades of church architecture. This type of pier structure was invented in Île-de-France at a time when attempts were being made to construct rib-vaults for apses surrounded by ambulatories, the grand arcades of which were supported by round piers. The choirs of Saint-Maclou at Pontoise, Notre-Dame at Poissy, and Saint-Nicolas at Meulan probably initiated to create this structure, preceding Suger's choir of Saint-Denis.
The ceremony of the Emperor's death in the late middle age were set up according to precedent. In contrast, after the death of the Emperor in the Meiwa period, the shimenawa were hung across the naishi-dokoro where the Shinkyo (one of the Imperial Regalia) was placed. This purpose of the sanctification of the naishi-dokoro was to succeed to the sacred throne. And, at the same time, it was made clear that the Emperor's death was unhallowed as Shokue which mean the pollution caused by physical contacts with the dead body.
Paul Valéry's literary work ‘Eupalinos’ includes various topics and considerations about making architecture. This paper aims to understand it as a theory of ‘poiesis’. For this purpose, the text is divided into units of meaning and they are rearranged according to the process of making architecture which consists of three terms - before, during, after. This trial, however, reveals that the linear arrangement dose not success enough. For that reason, three domains - real, intellectual, virtual - are introduced to define a three-dimension framework in which it is made clear how ‘spirit’ works for ‘contemplation’ and ‘making’ with ‘body’ and ‘world’.
This paper has examined and made formal analysis of the sketches about dispersed city images in “Die Auflösung Der Städte” of Bruno Taut that is the final Utopian sketches of him. The organic city models were found that is following nature's organic system form and is transcending mere formal reproductions of nature. Therefore these organic city models are predicted a possibility of the autopoiesis of city.
Lake Chuzenji in Nikko had developed as a cottage area since the early Meiji era, where a lot of foreign diplomats and some Japanese business people had enjoyed, including the members of Tokyo Angling and Country Club (T.A.C.). In the early Showa period, two clubhouses for T.A.C. on its lakeshore were designed by A. Raymond, upon the request of H. Hunter, a successful business person. And Hunter also asked Raymond to design some private cottages. The objective of this paper is to shed light on the architectural technique and manner of Raymond, focusing on his drawings of two exclusive clubhouses and three private cottages of Hunter, and also referring to the relationship between a client and an architect in the early stage of Japanese modern architecture.
In this paper, it was clarified that the installation process of public facilities by foreigner's autonomy on the mixed residential area of Japanese and foreigner in Kobe at the beginning of the Meiji era. And, a similar phenomenon was caused in Japanese in Kobe, a place of conventional pleasure of Japanese that they had requested was succeeded to as a modern system of public green facilities of Japan by the Meiji government. It can be said that the foreigner and the Japanese community did the urban development, and the Kobe played a leading role of a modern city in Japan.
The parade started at the temporary imperial palace of Katsura and went through the streets where many powerful merchants lived to the Imperial palace at Ansei period. In deciding the course of this parade, Emperor's view "Omikoshi" was important. At the area along this parade course, the environment suitable for "Omikoshi" was created. This parade was carried out to show off the authority of Emperor and the imperial court. On the other, the towns and merchants along this parade course took a lot of doing. However, they were utilizing this parade to build up their social position to invite the customers to the sightseeing.
This study aimed to analyze the vulnerability of privately-owned cultural heritage buildings due to user's rehabilitation and reconstruction before and after the 2009 West Sumatra earthquake. This research clarified that roof was the most vulnerable element in term of maintenance and rehabilitation. Nevertheless, high affection of the users to the original building's style supports the existence of its originality. Maladaptive recovery framework for building tenants forced them to develop "potong-sewa" system at local level. Further, lack of technical guidance on the nature of non-engineered recovery, encourages 7 variation recovery options in the term of materials, retrofitting techniques and buildings appearance.