The International Daylight Measurement Programme (IDMP) is now in progress to develop the daylight and solar radiation database which is essential to daylighting design. Cloud amount is an important measurement item closely related to the daylight and solar radiation data. The purpose of this study is development of an automatic measuring instrument of cloud amount for the IDMP. This study proposes estimation of cloud amount from color temperature of sky light. First, this paper reviews various mechanical methods of estimating cloud amount as well as surface and satellite observations. An outline of the proposed method is also given.
It is an important measure to release solar irradiation on a roof by natural ventilation of an attic. However, the detail of the heat transfer and air movement beneath the roof remains unknown. In this study, the characters of heat and mass transfer beneath an inclined and heated plate were examined experimentally. The maximum air velocity was 0.46 m/s, and the air flow was 0.12 m^3/s for a width of 1m, when inclination was 25°, and heat flux was 100W/m^2. Strong flow was found beneath a roof, so an appropriate ventilation opening(s) is needed to an attic.
It is important to evaluate the influence of equipment or furniture to the thermal environment in rooms. The previous paper presented the calculation method of form factors considering obstacles and the evaluation of the influence caused by equipment to the room radiant interchange. The purpose of this paper is to make it clear how equipment affects the airconditioning load in such rooms as telephone exchange rooms. For this purpose, the airconditioning load weighting factors considering equipment are evaluated on the basis of the results of the previous paper. And the difference of airconditioning loads between by the conventional weighting factors neglecting equipment and by the new weighting factors considering equipment is evaluated.
The purpose of this study is to describe the possibility of heating by the heat pump system in a cold region. The indoor thermal environment and energy consumption of a super-insulated detached house in Nagano city were investigated for a year. On this house, the outdoor unit of heat pump was placed in the attic space to improve the efficiency of the heat pump air conditioner. The results of the investigation are as follows: 1) The average indoor air temperature of 150 cm above the floor in the living room is 18 to 21 degrees. 2) The suction temperature in the attic space was about 6 degrees higher than outdoor air temperature. 3) The frequency of heat pump was influenced by the suction temperature. There was a tendency that the lower the suction temperature, the higher the frequency of heat pump. 4) According to calculation, the electric energy for heating when the outdoor unit of heat pump was placed on outdoor was about 16% higher than those of the outdoor unit was placed in the attic space.
Field tests were Performed in an office to (1) investigate the desktop task conditioning system (DTC) performance in situations when demand for the local control capabilities may be increased; and (2) compare DTC performance to that of a conventional overhead system under similar high heat load conditions. When the wall thermostat temperature was maintained at 26℃ to 27.5℃, DTC was able to maintain average temperatures in the workstations to be 1 to 2℃ lower than the thermostat temperature. Under increased activity levels, DTC could be adjusted to maintain similar comfort conditions, although each subject had different responses to the same environment.
In this paper the authors investigated the fundamental data which were necessary for estimation of the optimum number of the fixtures in a lavatory of the multipurpose stadium. The sanitary fixture usage of soccer audiences in N-stadium of Gifu Pref. were surveyed actually by means of the electric methods. Then, the following results were obtained. 1) In the case of a lavatory for male, the waiting line generated in the half-break time. But in it for female, because the number of water closets was insufficient, the waiting line existed continually through the game. The length of moving line between the different sanitary fixtures was according to the lavatory layout. 2) The European style water closet for female was sometimes avoided. The occupated period of wash basin for female of soccer audience was longer than the other sports audience, in order to make up before and after games. 3) The ratio of female of audience was important to estimate the number of fixtures in a lavatory of stadium.
This study discussed the combined effect of sound, ambient temperature and illuminance on the evaluation of the environment in a room. Since there are many environmental factors in a room, the non-specific image of the combined environment was measured in this study. Subjects evaluated the combined environment of eight kinds of sounds, two levels of temperature (19, 24℃ (SET^*)) and two levels of illuminance (5,530(lx)) on seven-points bipolar scales of 23 adjectives by Semantic Differential Technique. Sutjects were 21 male students. The result of factor analysis was different from Izumi et al. (1983) which discussed the specific impression of sound. It was suggested that the difference between them is caused by the difference between non-specific and specific evaluation of sound. Since plural factors have significant effects on every evaluation, it was suggested that even in the case of the study on the specific evaluation, the other environmental factors should be recorded.
The purpose of this study is to confirm the role of squares as facilities in a district, and to search for their important factors in order to improve the squares effectiveness as residents' common-spaces. Utilization and evaluation of the squares was undertaken through questionnaire surveys of residents. This study researches the case of vest-pocket parks. In conclusion : The squares are well known to residents, characteristically used by each generation, self-managed, and recognized as common ownership spaces. We find that the main factors that improve the squares are residents participation in the squares' planning, the addition of various characteristics to the basic utilization of the squares, and an increase in residential management of the squares.
Summer living patterns are surveyed for elderly (>60) living in two mid-rise walk-up apartment dwelling complexes in Tianjin, China, a growing metropolis of ca 8 million. The goal is to improve the database for planning for this growing population segment. Twenty-four in-depth interviews and apartment surveys were made on the basis of 182 responses to a self-reporting questionnaire, including the estimation of ADL (Activities of Daily Living). Indoor and outdoor activity patterns are analyzed by type, frequency, and location. Further study is needed to establish relationships between access to outdoor space and demand for indoor space.
The aim of this study is to get the guidelines of opening the public facilities. The guidelines have been obtained from the process of forming the open-space inside the public assembly facilities and from analyzing its present state. Through the analysis of the developing process of the towns and the assembly facilities since the cultivation period of Hokkaido, this study has made it clear that the role of the open-space inside the facilities has been changing all the time. By the examination of the facilities which has been built up since 1980 and is more than 1000m^2 in area, the present state of the open-space inside the facilities will be gained. The study has proved that the open-space inside the facilities has an important role that even a single person has a possibility to use them. The conclusion of this study is that this role has enabled a person as well as a group to use the facilities. As a result, assembly halls, lobbies, display-rooms, Japanese-rooms, traffic-spaces can be selected as the elements of the open-space inside the facilities. These elements have a close relation to the designer's intention, HAKIKAE-line and Served Space and Serving Space.
In this report we aim to clarify collective form by combination of the dwelling units in collective housing. It is one of the important subjects which decides the compositional characteristics of the building, that is how to make the spatial units by dwelling units and how to combine them. First, we found there were some ranks in the units defined by scale and grasped the composition as hierarchical combination of units. Secondly, we analyzed the differences between the units in each ranks, which concern the diversity and homogeneity of collective housing. Then we found 10 typological compositions of collective form in collective housing. All types were grasped as coexistence of diversity and homogeneity on different levels. The above results indicate the range of the collective form in contemporary Japanese housing, and we think these results are effective indices to design collective housing in future.
The changeability of building in the life cycle for the remodeling, the renovation, or the extension become important matter for the building management. This paper proposes 4 kinds of classification and difinition of building changeability. Type O : changeability for the usual alternation without any construction work. Type I : previously instituted changeability of interior finishes and equipments. Type II : changeability for unexpected remodeling without any skeletal work. Type III : changeability of buillding skeleton or building shape itself. Any type of building requires characteristic changeability suitable for the type of building use and the required service level.
This paper experimentally analyzes the cognition of height of interior-spaces. Subjects experience the experimental space and the compared spaces, and judge which space height is higher than the others. The result shows that the differential limen of height has + - 2 degree accuracy by visual angle to the edge of wall and ceiling. When the difference of the area is 20% or less, the difference of two areas will hardly be sensed, and the height of wider space is felt lower.
This paper presents a study carried out to determine the threshold value of sense of equilibrium on sloping floors. The study consists of experiment and research carried out on inhabitants of boarding house with inclined floors. The main results of this study were as follows; 1. By the experiment, it was determined that about 60% of subjects perceived a change in slope of 1.5 degrees. 2. By the research, it was determined that about 50% suffered subjective symptoms from a change in slope of 1.6 degrees. 3. The periods of recovery from there symptoms were about 60 days up to a change in slope of 1.6 degrees. And in cases where the change in slop was greater than 1.6 degrees, the period of recovery was often greater than 1 year.
The present paper investigates the relation between the stylistic nature of architecture and environment in the Japanese poems "KOKINWAKASYU" and "SHINKOKINWAKASYU" written during Japan's Manyo Dynasty 849-1205. After analyzing the type of wording and the context of poem, we propose that the aesthetic consciousness of architectural space in Japan's Manyo Dynasty is changed from the frank disposition of "MANYOSHU" by using "sky" "sun", to the beauty of "KACHOUFUGETSU" of "KOKINWAKASYU" by using "bird" "autumn" and mutable idea of "MONONOAWARE" of "SHINKOKINWAKASYU" by using "moon" "wind".
This study attempts to apply the predetermined time standard(PTS)method to building production. This paper describes a time standard system based on the Maynard operation sequence technique (MOST), which is an up-to-date method in PTS. 0ur conclusions are summarized as follows. 1)MOST can be applied to various sorts of building work and manhours can be calculated to within ± 10% by making appropriate modifications. 2)By using MOST, an adequte time standard for building work can be constructed, and also systematized in computer. 3)A simulation of manhours in studies of work method, and calculating manhours in studies of building construction and construction method, are possible by using this time standard system.
The Hakkas is one of the Han people, same as the immigrants from Min-Nan but they have had different customs of their own's. This made the different composition and the different usage of the dwelling from those of Min-Nan people. This paper aims to find out how such identical customs have influenced to the dwelling, by adducing the Hakkas' town houses in Fu-Ko Hsiang Hsin-Tsu Hsien as examples. Main conclusions are as follows: 1. Originally a "Tsu-Tang" was seldom placed in a house because the Hakkas Place the "Tsu-Tang" only in their original head house according to their cultural tradition. But, nowadays, the immigrants from the other Han people and the separation of household have brought a "Tsu-Tang" in their dwellings. 2. Traditional town houses might be classified into 2 types by their facades and dwelling structures: these are, "arch type" for one-storied house, and "arcade type" for two-storied one. 3. On enlargement or alteration of a dwelling, there are every indications that they add a "Tsu-Tang", living rooms and children's bedrooms, etc. and also set the sanitary fittings inside a dwelling. 4. Recently, the 2 types of modern town houses, "Mansion" and "Tou-Tien-Tsuo", can be seen, and the latter is the majority in Fu-Ko Hsiang.
Design about the eaves is a very important factor to construct exterior on Japanese traditional architecture. In the Edo and Meiji era, many Japanese architectural books were written. But eaves camber design method was not written until "Banshouke Kayaoisori Mitugousinri" which was written by Tousai Kiko in 1864. After that, 12 books were written. We universalize these methods by functional equations, and attempt to make practicable by CAD. We examine the rate of application for architectural monuments by computer analyzing, and propose "Formula of Eaves Camber for CAD" as best formula.