By the revision of the Building Standard Law, to ascertain the evacuation safety performance, the methodology that regards a fire as the phenomenon of combusion that the heat release rate changes every moment was added. The purpose of this paper is to consider the influence of the characteristic of fire load on the heat release rate and smoke movement at the early stage of the fire. First, we estimated the heat release rate and smoke movement in the room where fire started by changing some parameters with the model that considered the random distribution of fire load, and inspected the limited time defined as an indicator of fire safety, that occupants in the room where fire started could safely evacuate. Second, we examined about the limited time by changing smoke exhaust rate in the same way.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the factors that constitute the impressions concerning buildings and streets and to evaluate the relationship between the impressions and stages of simplification of the facades by means of colors and so on. Two series of experiments were conducted using the semantic differential method. The results are summarized as follows. 1) As for the simplifications of the buildings, three factors, naturalness and monotony, dignify, were extracted and the values of each factors change along with the stages of simplification. 2) As for the simplifications of the streets, four factors, harmony, vividness, monotony and naturalness, were extracted and the values of each factors change along with the stages of simplification.
The survey of thermal environment and thermal comfort were conducted in the indoor and the semi-open spaces of the traditional houses, during both summer and winter, in five districts of Nepal: Banke, Bhaktapur, Dhading, Kaski and Solukhumbu. The surveys were carried out for 40 days, gathering a total of 7,116 thermal sensation votes from 103 subjects. The results are as follows: 1) Frequency is highest in 'neutral' in thermal sensation, 'comfortable' in thermal comfort and 'no change' in thermal preference. The residents are highly satisfied with the thermal condition of the houses. 2) The neutral temperatures for indoors are 21.1〜30.0℃ in summer and 13.4〜24.2℃ in winter, while the neutral temperatures for the semi-open spaces are 23.8〜31.7℃ in summer and 19.1〜20.3℃ in winter. The regional difference in neutral temperatures is 8.9K in summer and 2.8K in winter for indoor spaces, where 7.9K in summer and 1.2K in winter for semi-open spaces. It concludes that the residents are well adapted to different climates, since the neutral temperature is lowest in the cool climate, medium in the temperate climate and highest in the sub-tropical climate. 3) The seasonal difference in neutral temperature for indoor spaces is 4.9〜13.8K, and for semi-open spaces it is 3.5〜11.8K. The difference of about 1.5〜6K is explained by the seasonal difference of clothing insulation and wind velocity. The remaining difference might be explained by the seasonal adaptation of the residents. 4) The neutral temperatures for the semi-open spaces are 0.4〜3.7K higher than those for the indoor spaces both in summer and winter. The neutral temperature is higher in semi-open spaces, which suggests that the higher environment temperature raises the neutral temperature. The findings reveal that people in the resions studied adapt well to the natural environment, as a result of which the neutral temperature is different in different climates.
In cold resion like Hokkaido, well-insulated and high air-tightened houses are supplied and have made indoor climate comfortable in winter by a little expense. However, a few of the house unfortunately require the real air-conditioning system in summer. So the new air-conditioning system must be developed considering well-insulated and high air-tightened conditions. In this report, the characteristics of moisture-absorbent of the diatomate used for the new air conditioning system are discussed. Powder of the diatomate is made into grains (diameter: 8mm) by a machine. After that, the grains are baked. Small balls (diameter: 45mm) are made from the grains, those as moisture-absorbent materials are used for the cells of the dehumidifying device. The gross moisture conductivity (GMC) of a small ball is measured in case of two conditions. (1) GMC of small ball not soaked in CaCl_2 solution is 0.45^*10^<-4> [kg/m・s(kg/kg')]. (2) GMC of small ball soaked in CaCl_2 solution is 1.5^*10^<-4>[kg/m・s(kg/kg')].
Subjective experiment was conducted to investigate the influence of environmental condition of buffer space on thermal comfort in succeeding environment. Climate chamber was divided into 3 rooms and controlled to represent indoor, buffer, and outdoor spaces, where subjects made successive transitions from indoor to outdoor and back. Two separate thermal sensation scales were used to distinguish subjective votes describing the thermal state of environment and subject himself. A clear impact of environmental condition was observed on physiological parameters, though only minor influence was found for thermal and comfort sensations in post-transition period. The effect was negligible 30 minutes after transition.
In this paper we develop a transient simulation method for strongly coupled solution of three dimensional conduction, convection and radiation. This method is simple and easily incorporated into the conventional code solving the energy equation. In addition to that, several methods of solving energy balance equations on solid surfaces are examined. Furthermore, we introduce an effective calculation method of view factor between solid surfaces. This method is more accurate and fast than the Monte Carlo method. With these methods the thermal flow field in a communication equipment room and the three dimensional thermal distribution inside concrete walls are predicted in detail during eight hours after air-cooling system breaks down.
In the previous paper, Part 1, the full scale experiment of airflow distribution in a room was carried out under isothermal condition. With the airflow data obtained by the measurement, the BOX method and the P. V. method (the prescribed velocity method) were applied to the CFD simulation. The simulated results showed good agreement with the experimental ones not only around the diffuser but also the other part of the room. This paper presents the full scale experiment and the application of the coarse grid CFD simulation using the P. V. method under non-isothermal condition. In the full scale experiments, the detail of the airflow and temperature distributions around a complex air diffuser installed at the ceiling were obtained. The coarse grid CFD simulation with the P. V. method based on the airflow distribution around the diffuser obtained by the measurement was carried out. The results of this simulation reproduced the complex airflow distributions that were observed in the measurements, such as the attached air jet horizontally along the ceiling, the vertical downward free jet and the induced flow near the diffuser. The simulated temperature distributions of the room air and the wall surfaces also agreed with thc measured ones.
The main purposes of this paper are to clarify the annual unit energy consumption (UEC) and to develop models to describe energy consumption for residences in the Chinese cities. First, the annual consumption of electricity, coal and gases for residences was found in various references; next, we divided coal gas from natural gas because the heat of combustion of different gas is not the same; then, the energy consumed by district heating was estimated by previous studies of the authors; and finally, the annual unit energy consumption was calculated and the models for the UEC were developed with multivariate analysis.
Authors have already showed the outline of the databese on indoor thermal environment of detached houses in Nagano Prefecture. This paper, which is a series of study on application of the databese, firstly describes the relationship between a housing attribute and a shelter performance of detached houses. Secondly, energy consurrmtion of ninety-seven well-insulated and airtight houses is discussed. Thirdly, annual indoor environment and energy consumption for space heating in five typical houses using various heat sources, is discussed. These results are shown as follows: (1) The percentage of a house with an envelope leakage area less than 5.0cm^2/m^2 of the floor area is 90%. (2) Energy consumption for space heating in ninety-seven houses is changing between 8.6 and 77.1 GJ/year. The energy consumption of well-insulated and airtight house is more than the mean value of ordinary existing house in Hokuriku District. (3) It is seemed that the energy consumption for space heating is greatly influenced by an occupants' behavior.
In recent years, development of a Fuel Cell Vehicle (FCV) is furthered globally. Although a prompt improvement of a hydrogen station is required, in the initial stage of FCV introduction in city area, it is thought that spread becomes difficult only by a gas station-type improvement. This paper takes up the parking lot of the apartment in city area as a candidate for improvement of a hydrogen station, and proposes the practical theory. By the case study in the Tokyo ward, the curtailment effect of the environmental load substances were calculated. This method is positioned as a one of the methods of the hydrogen infrastructure improvement which enables correspondence to the demand of the common passenger car distributed in the Tokyo ward.
We investigated the actual status of thermal environment and heating methods in 15 prefabricated houses built in the Kansai area with approximately 25% higher insulation capacity than the new energy-saving standard. We compared them with houses without insulation and houses corresponding with the new energy-saving standard. The results are summarized as follows: 1) The advancement of insulation capacity improved the conditions like cold feet and low temperature at daybreak and changed the types and the installation places of heating devices. 2) In the houses with higher insulation capacity, we did not observe any situation where "Lifestyle was limited on the floor-sitting-style as the result of inadequate temperature near the floor surface that made the use of Kotatsu an absolute necessity."
In these days, the cooling load in homes has increased with the IT revolution, and people have paid more attention to energy conservation during the summer. In order to cut down the energy consumption for air conditioning, the displacement ventilation system, which supplies cold air directly to the occupied zone, has been adopted in the experimental house in Kitakyushu. Compared with the conventional mixing system, the characteristic of cooling load of displacement system is analyzed. Simulations of different air change rate and different inlet/outlet heights are carried out in a residential room. And the energy consumption for cooling and the thermal comfort in the occupied zone are analyzed. According to the simulation results and the field measurements, although the air temperature is stratified in the vertical direction, this may not have an effect on thermal comfort in the occupied zone. Compared with the mixing system, the displacement ventilation may cut down 13-27% of the cooling load, and the outlet of return air set at a lower position may lead to more energy saving.
The purposes of this study is to clarify the effects of improvement of thermal and lighting environment distributions in the classroom of a newly rebuilt school, that is the rebuilt classroom, comparing to the environmental distributions in the classroom of an old school which is a typical old style, that is the old calssroom, and to indicate the effects of the planning factors on the environmental distributions. The distributions of thermal and lighting environment in classrooms of old and newly rebuilt elementary school buildings in Nagaoka-shi, Niigata were measured and pupils' environmental evaluations were surveyed by questionnaire in summer and winter, 2001. The results are shown as follows. (1) The distributions and changes of thermal environment in summer and winter are remained more uniform and stable in the rebuilt classroom than those in the old classroom as the results of providing insulation materials inserted in walls and roofs, air tightness of windows and buildings, a balcony, and pair-glass windows. Most pupils vote better evaluations for thermal enviornment in the rebuilt classroom. (2) The distribution of lighting environment in the rebuilt classroom becomes smaller than that in the old classroom because of shading incident sunshine by a balcony and additional light from illumination set at the ceiling of open space. Many pupils in the rebuilt classroom vote "very bright" or "slightly bright" in the evaluation for the lightness on their own desks.
In this paper, the effects of energy system types and energy-conscious behavior on energy consumption in detached houses were studied. A questionnaire for the residents of detached houses in Kinki region was carried out. The energy system types of residential houses are next four types : 1) E-G house; the ordinary energy system, electricity and gas are supplied by the energy companies, 2) E-G-P house; the ordinary energy system, with a photovoltaic s system, 3) E house; all-electric houses, 4) E-P house; all-electric houses, with a photovoltaics system. As a result, the largest energy consumption in the primary energy conversion was found in all-electric houses (E house). On the whole, the energy consumption in E-G-P house was smaller than in E house.
We have continued studies about relationship between air temperature and land uses. This report discusses the secular change at every five years during 1955〜1995 about land uses and temperature distribution at Kanto area. The study led to the following result. (1) The man-made areas increased about 60%, in the opposite the agriculture land decreased about 23%, but the waters and the woods not change respectively while 40 years. (2) The difference of the temperature between cities and suburbs shows a tendency to expand. (3) Compare with the each isothermal charts at 1955〜1995 we identified the high temperature areas is growing up years after fear. (4) Throughout the year, the contribution to temperature rise on man-made areas have a warming effect and the value increase yearly.
A questionnaire survey on the possession of electric appliances and its influence on the energy consumption in household were conducted in 1996. It was found that the increase in the consumption of residential electricity was due to the use of higher number of electric appliances. This reflects the higher economic status of the household and their life style. The relationship between electric consumption for lighting and others and the influencing factor is evaluated by using the multi-variate analysis. The results of this study are expected to provide fundamental information in order to enhance residents' awareness of the importance of energy conservation.
This study aims to clarify the relationship between the elderly's social life in community and participation in community work. For this objective, 17 elderly living in one region which has animated community work were surveyed by means of deep interview and behavior observation in the community work. This survey was carried out 4 times from 1999.4 to 2002.3 to trace the changes of one's life in community. The results of the analysis are as follows. 1) By participating in the community work, each elderly gets acquainted with a fair number of people in the community. 2) However, each elderly selects the way of one's social relations according to one's life course. 3) When one's ADL declines, home and day-care center play important roles for keeping and forming one's social relations.
The main aim of this study is to develop the method of keeping the quality of residential area and the standard of community facilities in the built-up area. The purpose of this study is to materialize and diagram automatically the descriptive model of "Life Area", the area of activity on foot, as fundamental criteria for above aim. The descriptive model is proposed and tested in two actual areas. Through analyzing the form of Life Area, the criteria about the expanse pattern of activities and the organization of residential districts to deepen the understanding of the Life Area's character are conceptualized in several ways.
This Study deals with the transitional process of collective dwelling units in the Korean Autonomous Region in China. The main focus is the change from the traditional Korean dwelling culture to the modern Chinese context. The analysis was conducted on forty-eight unit plans used during the last four decades. Influenced by the socio-economic situation of China, the plan transformed due to the increase in the occupied area and the change in the heating system from the traditional Ondol to modern heating systems. The transitional process, illustrated using justified access graphs, could be represented by four major plan types.
The characteristics of using the Common Space of the lifelong learning facilities are addressed to make clear the correlation between the space and the usage and to analyze the significance of the Common Space. The Common Space is the cue to create a new complexed function which encourages the learning activities more relaxed, elastic and different from those in the space with a specinc function. And also it makes the usage of the space more spontaneous and diverse. Various places articulated and connected by each other is to be designed for facilitating such roles of the Common Space.
This study is a critical anthology of planning methods in determining the relative proportions of different departments / units within hospitals and the size of the hospital itself. It also compares the existing planning method theories and thc planning principles undertaken in practical projects. This is a quantitative research on the basis of dimensional parameters of elements that comprise the hospital. The result of the factor analysis divided the parametrical elements into two broad groups; (A) Capacity (is the numerical expression of number of units likes beds) (B) Rotation (is the measure of use frequency of facilities in a hospital). Especially, the research shows the importance of 'rotation' in the planning process.
The purpose of this study is to grasp the characteristics of outdoor spaces in the national university campuses by using the sky factor and the vertical direct daylight factor. The sky factor shows an openness of the outdoor space, and the vertical direct daylight factor shows a lighting condition. We computed both indexes about 100 campuses and compared it with the rate of building to site and the rate of floor to site. As for 12 campuses, it was examined about the influence which a change in the building arrangement exerted on both indexes and the building density indexes. The results are as follows; 1) Average of sky factor is closely related to the rate of building to site and the rate of floor to site. 2) Average of sky factor and vertical direct daylight factor are useful indexes which can show characteristics of arrangement of buildings.
Many facilities already exist in university campus and it is important to make these facilities adjust to the change of university's organization. The theme of this paper is to acquire a method to place rooms in existing buildings. We proved this theme by using two organizations and two buildings. Both buildings have hierarchical structure and enormous patterns of layout plan. In order to search the optimal layout plan, we applied Neural network. By setting several parameters, the valuable plans are obtained with the bottom-up simulation program.
The purpose of this study is to clarify space composition of an Urban Complex (UC). As a result, (1) we clarified elements impressing spaces of UCs by Indication Method; (2) it became clear that there were some elements such as "Figure" and "Ground" in people consciousness; (3) in particular, it became clear that there were some elements such as "Figure" in spite of "Ground". These are new concepts, so we defined these elements as ZUTEKI (figure-like); (4) applying information theory, it was shown that some UCs consisted of many highly diverse Figure elements, others consisted of many unified Ground elements.
Homeless people have built shacks and settled down in Shibuya-ku / Miyashita Park. In this paper I tried to investigate the need for community, especially through the participatory research by the homeless people themselves in this park. It shows that the homeless people living in the park have formed neighborhood relation and this relation contributes to sufficiency of their basic human needs, house construction through mutual support, cooperative approach for the life rebuilding. Further, it shows that they have practiced many kinds of housing activities through the homeless peoples' autonomous council, which they established, and that they also express much interest in joint resettlement. Important needs for the homeless are not only shelters, but also improvement in their living environment based on autonomous community while living together. Therefore, as a policy, preparation of systems for enabling them to practice such kind of their autonomous activities is more necessary than institutionalization.
This paper aims to clarify the process and the factor of development of community making in collaboration with public improvements, citizen organizations and rehabilitation of townscape. The results are as follows. (1) Some citizen organizations are factors in developments of public improvements and some public improvements are factors in starts of citizen organizations. So, the community making is continuing in collaboration with public improvements and citizen organizations. (2) The process of community making is classified into three terms. At third term, many rehabilitations of townscape by repairing of buildings occured in collaboration with sustainable community making.
This study aims at evaluating sunlight and skylight access to the ground around high-rise buildings and on their external walls. The key features obtained are as follows: 1. The sky factor is an effective alternative index for evaluating the illuminance under cloudy condition in this model. 2. The maximum difference between relative solar energy and relative sunshine duration is obtained at measurements set around the intersection and near the wall, and the minimum difference is obtained at the midpoint between intersections. 3. The corner dwelling unit receives average solar energy of those received by the adjacent dwelling units on both sides.
This study aims to examine the integrated long-term approach on treating contaminated land and reusing or redeveloping the land. This paper (Part 2) investigated approaches to treat and reuse contaminated land in the Netherlands, Germany, the United Kingdom and the United States. The aims are to examine and evaluate the approaches, and to clarify the key elements which influences the plan for treatment. The result showed that four main factors to influence the plan : landuse condition, contamination condition, and types of landuse after treatment. In addition, these factors were inter-related to effect each other.
The purpose of this report is (1) to clarify the structure of recollection, (2) to search for the relationship between mental scenery of children and area characteristics, from a classification of it and the factor of recollection. For this purpose, the questionnaire survey was done. The results obtained are as follows. a) Mental scenery in the places to like is "The open place system" "The education system", and dislike is "The traffic system" "The nature system". b) Recollection's factor of in the places to like is "Action" "Impression", and dislike is "Impression" "Existence". c) Seto City and Nagakute Town were classified into seven according to area characteristics. Mental scenery and recollection's factor of children are influenced by area characteristics.
The objective of this study is to analyze charms of promenade space. On this account to grasped the reality of promenade behavior of Kanazawa citizen. By this result, a water side is the most charming place of the promenade space. The charm of a water side is an atmosphere and a view of river space. As a result of having analyzed these, atmosphere was the scene that consisted of elements of nature and a view was the scene that looked at along a river.
The purpose of this paper is to show the conditions of traditional residence at present and the inhabitants preferences to their historic buildings. The results are as follows; i) inhabitants are fond of their historic buildings, ii) inhabitants have negative evaluation to their old buildings utility, iii) preferences to the building renovation are different between the inhabitants attributes, iv) facade and kitchen are important to be restored and renovated. Finally the new viewpoints of public aid to the preservation districts for groups of historic buildings, are suggested.
The purpose of this paper is to comprehend the historic streetscape in the old town of Stockholm, Gamla Stan. As a result, the historic streetscapes are classified into four categories -'homogeneous', 'diverse of figure', 'diverse of ground', and 'complicated'- based on the concept of 'homogeneity - diversity', and 'figure - ground'. The usefulness of these categories was found through a description of characteristics of Gamla Stan, which involves both homogeneity and diversity from not only the viewpoint of each building, but streetscape and district. Finally, the paper indicates that homogeneity and diversity brings the attractiveness in Gamla Stan.
Some NPOs try to act as professional organizations solving the architectural conflicts. In this paper, I try to confirm the difinition of 'Machidukuri' (community development) at first, then examine 2 cases, and discuss the future of such NPOs. As conclusion, I suggest that NPOs have advantage to professional persons on merits as institution, but also NPOs have some problems to be solved that they have to brush up their professional knowledge always, or have the balanced perspective of not amateurism nor excessive professionalism.
This research takes the 99 Chinese historical-cultural cities as the object of study. As the first step using the size of urban area and the increasing-ratio of population of these cities, we attempt to classify these cities into 3 types, and we choose the historical-cultural cities of medium and small scale as a main object. Basing on the questionnaire for local governments about the conservation policies, we analyze the current subjects for conservation of the historical-cultural cities of medium and small scale in China.
Since the law of city planning was revised in 1992, citizen participation in town planning has become active all over Japan. However citizen charter, which ought to be called the constitution of town planning, has never been studied enough in spite of including much possibility about the style of participation. The purpose of this study is to clarify the present condition of citizen charters in Japan and to consider its meaning in town planning through the view point of citizen participation.
This paper analyzes the actual costs of the repair work and the improvement work of which constitute the main portions of life-cycle cost. A complete enumerative study was made of the repair and improvement work costs of the 1,255 delivery post offices throughout Japan in 2000. This paper reports that the accumulative total of the repair and improvement work costs of some buildings tends to become higher than the total of the costs of each year of many buildings in a specific fiscal year, because it reflects the improvement work costs required by the change of demands in the years buildings were used.
By undertaking an enumeration survey of the operating costs of 1255 general post offices throughout Japan, we were able to grasp the characteristics of the life-cycle costs of post office buildings. After analyzing the relationship between the rebuilding cycle, and rebuilding, repair and improvement costs, by changing the present rebuilding at age 40 to building additions at age 40 and rebuilding at age 60, it became apparent that, we could expect a significant reduction in facilities investment costs.
With this research we did the statistical analysis regarding the bidding strategy of the construction enterprises, by using about each 10,000 cases of disclosure data of the two organization's public works mainly carried out in the fiscal year 2000----the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport (MLIT; the former Ministry of Construction) and also Yokosuka-city. The viewpoint of the analysis is to understand the competition environment and to do the analysis of the bidding performance of the enterprises. The competition environment in 2 markets is different and the difference is observed to the stability and intensity of it. One of the key factors is shown as size of the construction work. An efficient size of construction work range exists by the scale of the enterprise.
The introduction of Multi-skilled workers in real building construction projects is restricted. However, the recent industrial policies regard it as an important role of productivity improvement in construction industry and a future image of construction labour. This study arranges the references to Multi-skilled workers and analyses their characteristics on production through the on-site investigation and hearing to subcontractors. Finally this makes clear the condition in which Multi-skilled workers fulfil their function.
This report is researched about the contents of the business about "Koujikanri" that attracts attention as a strong means of securing quality of the building socially, and aims at reorganizing that into the thing with the actual effect. The restructured management system understood by clients and society should be based on confirming the self-check of the contractor and fulfilling of design contents by corporation of constructors and designers in a construction stage. The self-check of contractors that could be exactly carried out and the drawings and documents includes the fulfillment of the design in a construction stage that could become the basis of the "supervision" were the indispensable conditions to give the actual effect of the "supervision".
The purpose of this paper is to make clear living condition of merchant family, who live in the apartments (combining shop and dwelling units) which are built at the postwar revival time, and the cooperative housing process. By means of extension and alteration or acquisition of two or more residences in an apartment, merchant family adapted their commerce and family structure to residential space. So we have concluded that it can be said that the cooperative housing process - vertical division system- is a flexible building system for merchant family.
This study is an estimation of office buildings lifetime from general contractors construction records. The method used here is based on the one developed by Kaplan and Meier, though some modification was applied in the data process. The results of the estimation are as follows; the lifetime, which we define as the time the remaining rate curve needs to reach 50%, of office buildings in the central area of Tokyo is about 40 years. The floor area of a building and its structural type have considerable affection to the lifetime. The wider the floor area is, the longer lifetime is. The steel construction buildings tend to have shorter life than those of reinforced concrete or similar construction.
The aim of this research is to clarify the characteristic of the design and construction of beam system in the five-bay-halls and seven-bay-halls of the Buddhist temple in WAKASA and ECHIZEN districts in medieval ages and modern ages. The conclusions are as follows. 1) There is some form in the beam system in "Gejin" (the outer chamber) of the Buddhist halls in WAKASA and ECHIZEM districts, and the medieval techniques were inherited till the Edo period. 2)The design and construction of beam system in "Gejin" is slow of development, and its conservative tendency is strong especially in WAKASA district. 3)The beam system newly developed in the 19^<th> century in this prefecture, and it became showy and complicated.