The purpose of this study is to verify the relative effectiveness of vertical grab bar and horizontal grab bar usage to step over the bathtub, by and between healthy elderly persons and elderly persons with osteoarthritis of knee. The experiments were carried out in the experimental facilities simulating a reproduced bathroom for six healthy elderly persons and three elderly persons with knee osteoarthritis and the subjects' movements were recorded on video. The recorded data was closely observed focusing on how to use a grab bar. The results of analysis were as follows. 1. Healthy elderly persons were able to use a vertical grab bar and a horizontal grab bar in much the same way (the subjects showed the ability of using just one hand to use the grab bar set against the wall leading to the bathtub). 2. Horizontal grab bars showed greater effectiveness for elderly persons with knee osteoarthritis as these allowed use of both hands to support posture and stabilize movements.
It inquired about the space where those who visit the shopping street which is doing the festival sit down. And the following thing was obtained. 1. The field survey was performed. As a result, the classification of the space which sits down was obtained. The space inside the existing chair, a temporary chair, a building, and a building, the surrounded space, the space in which people gather, open space, a way, an alley. 2. Three purposes required for the space where a shopping street sits down were gained. (1) "ethics", (2) "environment", (3) a "request". 3. When the proposal plan was shown to the local resident and the request of use was asked, the base obtained evaluation for the flowerpot.
In this paper, the optimal and equilibrium facilities location in competitive, non-competitive, and partially non-competitive environment using the Reilly-Huff Integration Model is concerned, and the feature of the location of partially competitive facilities such as chained stores are clarified. Initially Reilly-Huff Integration Model is introduced. And facilities location model in non-competitive and partially non-competitive environment is formulated, and method of solution is presented. Then optimal and equilibrium facilities location is simulated, compared and analyzed. Finally, changes in location and changes in the captured demand by the difference of the density of stores in city are investigated.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the globalizing dwelling spirit and the taking over the dwelling spirit by analyzing families, spaces and houses drawn on 512 children's books. And we get 8 consequences of dwelling spirit. The result is as follows. Globalizing the dwelling spirit : (1)Globalizing a conception of the house with changing the type of family. (2) Spreading a conception of symbiotic relationship. (3)The global and advanced view point on the environment is taking over. Taking over the proper dwelling spirit : (4)The child bedroom functions as his private space and communication space between parents and him in Europe and U.S. (5)The space in which being alone is bringing up the self-identity in Japan. Changing the dwelling spirits of Japan : (6) In crease of the dwelling information to children. (7) A sign of the spirit to accept the various lives from the same lives. (8) Spreading the interest of living culture in Asia and Africa.
The Republic of Kiribati is one of the small island states located in the Pacific Ocean and is directly and indirectly influenced by climatic changes. A rise in sea level is threatening to submerge Kiribati's land, which is formed of small, narrow atolls. In addition, other incidents such as shore erosion due to an increase in environmental pressure caused by the convergence of various anthropogenic influences have been fostering the awareness of such a crisis. The residents' lives are also gradually being subjected to environmental limitations. Traditionally, the dwelling lives of the people of Kiribati are supported by multiple houses that are constructed on the same property and that have an architectural space and form suitable for the local conditions. The climate change influences a spatial usage of people's lifestyle and house. Consequently, climatically suitable houses are transforming gradually. The maneaba, which is a meeting place symbolizing the social life of the people, is being used in various new ways due to changes in people's lifestyles.
This study aims to clarify the transition in the housing environment in inferior urban habitations in Changchun City from 1997 to 2007. The results are as follows: • While inferior houses have increased in size, the extent of the increase is less than that observed in general houses. • The inhabitants' proprietorship with regard to the land use right and the house has improved, and each type of habitation exhibits certain specific feature. • Coal is still used as the main energy source because it is the traditional fuel for floor heating.
A large number of residential estates were constructed all over Japan in the period of high economic growth. However, as time goes on, their residential estates have numerous problems such as deterioration of buildings, low fertility and aging of population and so on. Those problems, particularly, could be caused in Oita city where residential estates increased rapidly after designation of‘New Industrial City’in 1964. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to grasp the current situation of living environment on the residential estates and find the measures to improve the quality of living environment for sustainability. The method of this study is as follows. Firstly, the forward projections for population figures are computed using cohort estimation method and the population change is grasped in the residential estates which are more than 5ha in Oita city. Next, the accessibility of living convenient facilities and the convenience of public transportation are measured. Then, the principal components of those factors are analyzed to grasp their characteristics of living environment on the residential estates. Finally, the residential estates are classified into 6 groups based on the principal component score using the cluster analysis and several improvements of each group for sustainable residential estates are suggested.
The purpose of this research is to clarify the present condition of narrow street arrangement measures and to consider the possibility of community rearrangement design project for earthquake disaster prevention. The following issues were acquired from the result of questionnaire survey. (1) The "judging problem" to fix dangerous narrow streets not to be widened has been existed. (2) The key point for reducing dangerous narrow streets is to establish a promotion system of narrow streets arrangement in ward municipality. (3)The patterns of the solution of a narrow street problem are different from each other according to the local characteristic.
The purpose of this study is to clarify characteristics of building accumulation in terms of urban unities by using the Space Syntax Theory. According to previous study, it was pointed out that Mikatsuki area was sensitive area in terms of urban configuration. At first, we clarified development trends of Mikatsuki area. Then, we described boundary of system and analyzed urban configurations of systems included Mikatsuki area. Finally, we pointed out that building accumulation from 1970 to 2005 had relationship with present broader plural systems, especially from 1970 to 1989. It implies that the present systems are required evolution from the building accumulation from 1990 to 2005.
The study aims to arrange the problem by the aging progress of the detached housing estates, and to consider the solution for the problem. Case studies in KANI City, two housing estates with different convenience of public traffic are extracted. The questionnaire survey is executed with two housing estates, and the living consideration according to the age hierarchy is understood. Moreover, the surveys of the questionnaire of two housing estates results are compared. As a result, the difference in the living consideration by the difference of convenience of public traffic is arranged.
Based on the past of our researches, we have found out 10 places where senior residents spend the daytime in Suwa-Nagayama neighborhood of Tama New Town located in the west of Tokyo. Two research methods are used in this study: 1. Observations of utilization of the 10 Places as well as a questionnaire survey of the users. 2. A postal questionnaire survey of senior citizens, aged at or above 60 years old, living in the above mentioned area. According to the study, most of the users are above 65 years old, among them there are more females than males. Some of them use several places, while others use only one. After calculating the straight-line distances from the users' home to the 10 places, we categorized the places into three types: the Wide-area based type, the District type, and the Neighborhood type.
This paper explores the impact of married women's employment status on acquiring family-owned housing. In postwar Japan, as well as in many other societies, home ownership has been strongly linked with the male breadwinner family model. Over the past two decades, however, Japan has undergone a prolonged period of economic decline, leading to a decrease in male breadwinners with stable incomes and a counter increase in wives participating in the labour market. Consequently, wives' employment status has become more definitive in stratifying family households in terms of entering the owner-occupied housing market.
This paper examines the construction management of a daimyo mansion in the city of Edo, based upon the analysis of Hagi clan's record that describes the reconstruction of shikidai building from 1748 to 1749. The shikidai building was composed of three parts and the specification of building part was different from each other. The construction system of several types were selected according to the characteristics of each part and combined to execute. Generally the more important the building part was, the more deeply Hagi clan's management team got involved in the construction in order to keep the quality of building.
The purpose of this study is to analyze the brick industry of major prefectures in modern Japan by statistical data. Main results of this study are as follows. 1. The major prefectures of brick production were Osaka, Tokyo and Saitama in the Meiji and Taisho eras. 2. In these prefectures, the scale of factories was larger than national data, but productivity was not. 3. The ratio of large scale factories and spread of engines were higher than national data. 4. The working days of a year were depended on the production facilities. Large scale factories owned grinding and drying facilities; therefore they made it possible to operate throughout the year.
This paper is one of the comprehensive researches to explicate Geoffrey Bawa's architectural thought and works. The aim of this paper is to focus on the aspect of his thought through the inquiry into his fundamental concept of ‘life’ revealed in his principal statements. The analysis consists of three chapters as follows: Chapter 2 describes his great classical rules, such as ‘need’, ‘ambience’ and ‘material’. Chapter 3 explores the conception of ‘climate’ and ‘rationality’ related to ‘life’ through the lesson from the ‘past’. Chapter 4 explicates Architects, realm where a building can reach in a point to give it ‘life’, that is, the realization of Architecture.
In Mies's peculiar perspectives with collage of nature and art the natural landscapes are treated as paintings and all the elements in perspective, nature, architecture and human being, are strictly interconnected with each other by collinear relationships. That derives that the peculiar perspectives just express Mies's architectural idea, respect for nature, and a large whole composed of nature, architecture, and human being.
This paper focuses upon town planning of the western bayside extension district of Amsterdam in early-17th century, which is constituted by islands surrounded by straight line canals and is similar to the town planning of the eastern extension district of Amsterdam in late-16th century. We have investigated the historical bird's eye's views and town planning plans, and reconstructed precise plans of this district at that time. There can be found the idea of grid plan and very systematic block division, but existing land situation was inherited partially and it did not become the consistent rational plan. And the functional urban complex was formed by using of riverbank, which is connected by the network of waterways and streets. We consider that it is one step of the formation process found on the urban design technique of Early Modern Times in Low Countries.
The city of Edo was under the control of town headman. At first, it is assumed that one town headman was assigned to each town. Meanwhile, what kind of change was seen by the town headman's control when the ruled town was taken up and a substitute lot was given? The purpose of this study is to clarify what kind of expansion was achieved by having a town headman ruling a special town as a substitute lot. This study consists of two contents: 1. Considering about recognition to a substitute lot and a change of the town headman's controlled town from "Edo Chokan", 2.Considering about the town headman rule from the analysis of the type of the town headman rule, the expansion of the town headman rule and change in the town headman group by substitute lots. It became clear that through substitute lot, both the merchants and the town headman was able to expand.
This paper refers to a few observations on historic preservation in Morocco under the French protectorate through the legal system of cultural property preservation. After the Fes treaty, Lyautey began to protect the ancient monuments of Moroccan history and of the traditional architecture. In 1912, he established the “Service des Beaux-Arts et des Monuments Historiques”. Drawing upon the existing French laws, Lyautey also made some laws for the preservation of cultural properties, which included not only monuments but also areas or zones. The meshing of cultural property preservation with city planning became the cornerstone of his urban policy, which was carried over even after he left. He played a key role in the historic preservation in Morocco.
This study aims to find the relations among the amount of study, the ability of space recognition, the awareness of subject, to find the correlations between each items and the score. The amounts of study is calculated by the following 5 items: the total time that the students used for their works, the number of reference books, the numbler of sheet of sketches, the frequency of architectural visits, and the frequency of model production. Results are as follows;1)The amount of study and the score shows a high correlation. 2)The level of the self-awareness how much they are able to imagine spaces and the score doesn't show a good correlation, the self-awareness level is increased as the exercise goes. 3)The average grade of the students who think they are good at the painting is higher than the average grade of the all students.