Sakaide Artificial Ground in Sakaide, Kagawa prefecture (built 1963-1978) is a known example of the combined applications of Modernism and Metabolism in post-war Japanese Architecture. It was developed as a high-density complex for commercial use and public housing. The ground floor is for retail spaces, theaters, restaurants and parking and the second level artificial ground was built for public housing. At present, the structures are partially deteriorating, outdated, and are used by a community composed of aging residents. The pedestrian traffic and circulation within the area is affected by the lack of elevators, narrow paths, and steep stairs. While Sakaide Artificial Ground was a frontier development during the post-war era, its design is no longer relevant with its present use and is expected to hugely affect the living situation of the residents. For example, on the second-level artificial ground, the privacy of the residents are noticeably different from public housings that are built on natural ground. Residents in Sakaide Artificial Ground use the public area like they own the open spaces privately. This paper aims to clarify the influence of the interaction of residents on the community formation of Sakaide Artificial Ground, focusing on how to use the public area of public housing. The measures devised to obtain data are: (1) surveys to investigate the occupation and utilization of the public areas that are affected by the residents' perception of personal space, (2) the time sampling procedure to record behaviors of residents in relation to time-patterns, (3) behavior mapping to investigate the nature of activity, and (4) the last one, interviews, to investigate the perception of the residents. In conclusion, results of the study show positive actions by residents' autonomy in the use the public area of public housing. For instance, residents voluntarily encouraged the use of the public area, and this activity contributes to the formation of the community of Sakaide Artificial Ground.
1. Purpose People of all ages visit expressway rest areas. But in Japan, up to now, the focus was on quantity and not quality of rest areas. As for seniors and families with children, though easy-to-use rest rooms and pictogram signs are provided, no standards to make the entire rest area more convenient for them have been set. So to see what is needed, we have monitored rest-area behaviors of seniors and families with children. 2. Method Behavior tracking was carried out at 3 rest areas with the following features: long average parking time for small vehicles on weekdays, high environmental assessment index, and where there are parks and open spaces. The locations were identified from traffic statistics taken by NEXCO to study the needed parking spaces at rest areas. The 3 rest areas were A , B and C in Shizuoka Prefecture. The subjects were people aged 65 or older (seniors) and families with children aged one to six (families). We explained the purpose of the survey to subjects selected randomly at the rest area, got their consent and had them fill in a simple questionnaire. Then we let them do as they please and observed what they did. Rather than selecting the subjects beforehand and asking them to cooperate with the survey, this approach makes it possible to see their true behaviors. A fieldworker was assigned per subject and observed and recorded the subject's every move—what, where, route, duration — on a map and took photos. The subject was interviewed at the end. A total of 29 seniors and 57 families were monitored. 3. Results (1) Length of stay 1) Elderly Usual rest-area behavior took about 25 min, which is about the average of rest areas. But 20 min of special rest-area behavior was observed at all 3 rest areas, extending stay. 2) Families Usual rest-area behavior took about 30 min, which is about the average of rest areas. Special rest-area behavior took between 10 and 20 min at all 3 locations, extending stay. (2) Special rest-area behavior 1) Elderly At A, seniors enjoyed window shopping, sightseeing boats, and the view from the terrace. At B, they enjoyed window shopping, the bike exhibit, the view from the observatory, and chat at outdoor tables. At C, subjects walked their dog, strolled, widow shopped. 2) Families At A, children played in the garden, enjoyed the view of the lake and parents took photos. At B, children played in the kids' play area in the food court. At C, families went to the terrace and the dog-run. 4. Conclusion Following points to be considered to better accommodate seniors and families were revealed through behavior-tracking. ·For seniors and families, usual rest-area behaviors (restrooms, meals, shopping) took 25 to 30 min at all three locations. ·Special rest-area behaviors that extend their stay differed per individual for both seniors and families. ·Special rest-area behaviors, for the two groups at all 3 locations were resting in the outdoor gardens and window shopping. In the gardens, they tended to spend time at places with a good view, or on patios where they could sit down. Families let their kids play in the garden and play area. When comparing seniors and families, families stayed at rest areas longer because they needed to spend time for the kids. But the activities of the two groups did not differ much. In conclusion, we saw that a common approach could be taken to extending their stay.
To verify the creative program of a multi-functional community hub, this paper analyzes “Casa del Quartiere” in Turin, Italy, from the
view points of the planning process, the relationship to spatial structure and activity program, the management and operation. “Casa
del quartiere” means neighborhood house. It may look a kind of community center, but has totally different characters of multifunction,
well-involvement of citizen, and creation of public nature for local community. Finally, the following results were found as
essential items for creative program of multi- functional community hub; (1) the effects of renovation of existing facilities and
utilization for its establishment process of community hub, (2) the diversity of activity program and flexibility of spatial structure, (3)
the necessity of the mechanism for sustainable management and operation. (4) the diversity of citizen’s implementation process for
Nowadays, zoos are expected to make an important contribution to the conservation of biodiversity through species preservation involving the breeding of rare animals, and facilities capable of raising animals are required to take their living environment into account. Apes in particular have advance intelligence, and thus are susceptible to stress in their living environment. One after another, Japanese zoos are introducing towers in their facilities for arboreal apes (chimpanzees, and orangutans) for environmental enrichment. Though many towers have been built, research studies have not been conducted to find out how the animals are using the facilities from the perspective of architecture and landscape. The purpose of this study is to identify the spatial utilization during the behavior of chimpanzees on trees in zoos from an architectural perspective and design tower configurations in consideration of behavioral characteristics. We selected the outdoor tower of the chimpanzee facility at Sapporo Maruyama Zoo for this study; one of the tallest and largest facilities in Japan and one with a large breeding population. We divided the shape and materials of the tower into constituent elements such as columns, beams, ladders, decks, pipes, and ropes, and a conducted a behavior analysis focusing on the tower elements frequently used by the chimpanzees in their tree-borne behavior. We recorded arboreal behavior dividing it into locations on trees of mainly static behavior of relatively long duration and instantaneous and dynamic behavior of relatively short duration. The on-tree rate was 81.5%, which was close to the 81.1% rate of the Kyoto University Primate Research Institute and the 83.7%rate in the wild at Bossou. The frequency of arboreal behavior was 3.72 times/minute, a value that can be expected to attract the attention of zoo visitors. We found that chimpanzees preferred higher locations where visitors could not look down on them, and they simultaneously used a combination of locations that can support their torsos with a stable posture and members of graspable size located slightly above them when maintaining their posture on trees. The results showed that chimpanzees travel back and forth 20 m between the trees and the ground, and prevent falling by grasping branches. This matched the behavioral characteristics of wild semi-arboreal ape chimpanzees and was a major factor in chimpanzee selection of locations on the tower. Moreover, we found that during arboreal behavior, the chimpanzees use members that support their torsos and members of graspable size, and the distance between the elements was within their height range. Adults preferred firm members for gripping rather than unstable components like long swaying ropes, while children and infants frequently used continuous members such as nets and trusses, revealing that which elements were used differed depending on age. Taking into account these behavior characteristics, the conditions required for tower configuration are the providing of various spots on a tower combining members to support torsos with a stable posture and peripheral elements of shapes and sizes for grasping. Both elements can be provided by setting up a steel truss structure using pipes of graspable sizes, enabling a structure with a very effective configuration. Usage based on individual size and athletic ability is enabled if the horizontal distance between members such as beams is less than the height of adults, and if members are arranged at an incline. Paying attention to creating locations on trees receiving shade, arranging them at heights in relation to visitors and other details, as well as adding ropes and nets for children, are also necessary.
Students who once attended schools for the blind, deaf, and other special needs are now centralized under special-needs schools. Some have severe disabilities or multiple conditions. For this paper, a questionnaire was administered to the elementary department of domestic blind-school, deaf-school, and special-schools during its transitional period to becoming a special-needs school. Its purpose was to discover issues and considerations encountered during this stage by previously segregated schools by having teachers describe actual conditions of management, spatial considerations, and learning environment. This report seeks to provide basic strategies for future school improvement under the statute to pursue diversification and address the severe disabilities of children.
The following knowledge was provided.
1) Legislation covering various disabilities was passed at different times, so the dates at which the new schools were established vary considerably. Most of the consolidation reconstruction occurred between the 1890s and the 1950s at schools originally established for the blind and for the deaf. 2) The teachers who answered the questionnaire originally taught at special schools where different kinds of disability were intermingled. The school accepted children with multiple handicaps, including intellectual disabilities, physical/mobility disorders, other kinds of disability (e.g., auditory difficulties and visual disorders). The children transitioned to the consolidated special-needs school had previously attended blind-only and deaf-only schools, and did not have additional disabilities. At the new school, actually, there were children who had overlap with various disability types. 3) There were no big differences in class organization, with the students continuing to be grouped by type and severity of disability. The class organization was done flexibly, depending on the number of children registered at each school year and the scope of the disabilities. 4) All the relevant schools were classified with respect to the space constitution, and especially “relations with the open space of classroom circumference” and “relations of connection with classroom and courtyard.” Most were classified as having the conventional “corridor type” of school architecture. 5) Any kinds of school did the correspondence of the children who became the panic in classrooms and health room, empty rooms. Support in the classroom in school for deaf-school and special-school were used dividers. 6) All school types can be characterized in evaluations of learning environment as “object” and “reason.” However, “reason” is defined differently according to school classification (e.g., special needs vs. mainstream), with different goals. This difference is reflected in the results that indicate the characteristic support necessary for children. 7) The school classification found both common needs for the space usage and unique or differing needs for the space usage. In addition, according to the specific respondents, most of the suggestions for schools for the blind or deaf apply to the special-needs school.
This paper addressed issues and considerations that arise during the transition period to a consolidated special-needs school, as reported by teachers describing actual conditions of management, spatial usage, and learning environment. In the next article presents additional information with respect to these schools and how the spaces are used, gathered through first-hand observation.
In product development in cutting-edge fields, it is reaffirmed that the intellectual productivity of the research workers influences the performance of the company. Companies provide researchers diverse work formats with 24-hour flextime to mentally relax and improve intellectual productivity under refreshment and actively develop industry-university collaborative collaborative research By doing so, we are hoping to lead the diversity of researchers' thought and create products based on new ideas. In Europe and the United States, since around 2000, business spaces have been introduced with ideas that are not captured by conventional frameworks, especially in affiliated companies that require cutting-edge technologies such as pharmaceuticals and ICT. In Japan, it has been dealt with only by countermeasures such as environmental improvement by indoor equipment and office furniture layout etc. In this research, in order to raise the intellectual productivity of researchers, attention to concentrating between researchers and concentration of researchers' thinking, consideration of diversity and accidentality of communication, the way of actual building space And it was shown as a planning method based on the results of the research on the pharmaceutical research institute in the United States. Basically, the effective positional relationship and space composition of each area and the environmental consideration complementing it are greatly related, furthermore the diversity of communication and the induction of randomness lead to flexible thinking, and the building space The way of doing it is shown by an example at the research facility in Japan and the effect was confirmed by the transition of the number of articles published over several years before and after completion.
In theater design, the stage visibility from the auditorium has a dramatic impact on viewer satisfaction, and thus, theater revenue. Therefore, visibility is among the most important factors in theater planning. By accommodating design requirements for sound, lighting, air conditioning, etc., the shape of auditorium space takes on a complex three-dimensional (3D) geometry. This makes it difficult for the designers to account for stage visibility from each seat. This study proposes a method using visible area ratio (a geometric parameter that refers to the degree of evaluation target's visible area) to evaluate stage visibility from the auditorium as a tool for theater planning. It is intended for use during the design phase and allows for estimating the visible area ratio using a 3D model created during planning. Visible area ratio is the ratio of the actual visible area (including obstacles in the line of sight) to the area that would be visible without any obstacles. The apparent area is comparable to the configuration factor of the evaluation target. In this study, the apparent area was calculated using a numerical analytical approach adopting the hemisphere algorithm, wherein the surface elements of the evaluation target are first projected onto a hemisphere of unit radius. Then, the elements are re-projected onto the hemisphere base. The area projected on the hemisphere base is comparable to the apparent area. The projected area is numerically calculated by cell division of the hemisphere base. Although high-resolution imagery improves calculation accuracy, increasing the number of cell divisions requires large computational capability. Nonetheless, the algorithm considerably reduces the computational load compared to other methods, such as the ray tracing or area integral methods. Serially calculating the visible area ratio for all seats allows seat visibilities to be estimated without the need for a large number of perspective drawings. The method is applied to a typical multipurpose theater design with 1,518 seats. For this study, the evaluation target is the acting area on the stage. The calculation points used for determining the visible area ratio is the viewpoint of each person on every seat. In addition to chairs, handrails, and spandrels, human bodies are considered as obstacles in the line of sight. The influence of the number of cell divisions on calculation accuracy and time is investigated. The required accuracy for visible area ratio analysis is assumed less than 1 %. The resulting number of cell divisions required to satisfy this accuracy is 1,000 in both the horizontal and vertical directions. Next, for two different auditorium geometries and seat arrangements, visible area ratios are calculated for all seats. One of these geometries represents the original design, while the other is the revised design, which optimizes the shape of the auditorium to improve the visible area ratio for the seats with poor visibility. When human bodies do not interrupt lines of sight, each seat in both plans has a good view of the stage. When considering human body interruptions, however, the visible area ratio in the original plan decreases for the 1F forward and 2F forward and backward seats. The revised auditorium plan incorporates design revisions based on the visible area ratio analysis of the original plan. These revisions include decreasing the flat area for the 1F forward seats and increasing the slope of the second floor. With these revisions, the visible area ratios of the poor-visibility seats are improved. In conclusion, the simulation of “visible area ratio” provides very useful and effective indications for auditorium planning. It is shown that the proposed method using visible area ratio enhances stage visibility from all seats.
The problem to consider the overall victim of an accident support which is based on a case of western Tottori earthquake, this research is having to do the excercise judged from the reality of the housing reconstruction support and resident's consciousness 10 years later. Resident's endurance of the settlement consciousness, population and number of households were maintained by doing housing reconstruction support. But it is difficult to say that housing as peculiar culture in an area was constructed. Therefore housing reconstruction support has to consider a rehabilitation plan including repairs and ways of construction, to contribute to peculiar cultural maintenance and succession. A change in a victim of an accident living reconstruction supporting method did the age of the supplied object and annual income important matter abolition, and was improved in 2007. But it assumed that the partially-destroyed household was non-applicable. Expansion of a grant system, community building of maintenance revival in an area and systematization of the area cooperation type that made connected with housing reconstruction, it'll be necessary to suggest various directionality as well as the subsidy to a non-applicable household from now on. Clearness of the hit acceptance standard and implification of application procedure, it'll be also necessary to be argued from now on.
This research reveals the location of Hatazao-shikichi, Flag-Pole-Shaped Housing Lots (FPSHLs) and the causes for their existence in housing development lots, which were built by private companies in Machida city. FPSHLs are not ideal housing lots because they are closely surrounded by other house and residents can only evacuate in case of fire via narrow ails, which are often used as parking lots for the residents. These kinds of housing lots are present in suburban areas as well as downtown. This research identifies the location and causes for the presence of Flag-Pole-Shaped Housing lots in Machida city, which is 30 km away from central Tokyo. Machida has three types of areas. Flat land that was developed since early 1900's as a commercial zone. The hillside with several housing estates was developed after the Second World War. The northern hill area is designated as an urbanization control area. There are 88,414 detached houses in Machida city and 7.2% of them are FPSHLs. A survey was conducted with 104 housing estates built by private companies and 13,402 detached houses. More than half of the FPSHLs were formed in the 1960s during the boom of housing estate development in Machida city. Thus, a higher ratio of FPSHL was found in the housing estates built in the 2000s, which was smaller than three hectares and at a distance of one to two and a half kilometers from the stations, and the Quasi-residential and Category 1 medium-to-high-rise exclusive residential area. Recently, the size of housing estates is decreasing, and the smaller housing estates contain a higher ratio of FPSHLs with non-rectangular shape lots. The survey of the FPSHL location in the housing estates shows that they are more frequently located in the 25-meter fringe areas than the center areas. In addition, the higher angle of slope of some housing lots can also be the reason for the numerous FPSHLs in housing estates. The survey closely observed housing estates that have a high ratio of FPSHLs. Plans of smaller housing estates are unable to include streets that are accessible from all the housing lots, and this situation leads to FPSHLs on the fringes of the housing estate. Most of the private housing estates have been constructed on the hillside with terraced housing lots. Some of those housing lots cannot meet the streets at the required height; therefore, they are connected to the streets that can only be accessed by narrow ails. Another situation that causes FPSHLs is that housing estates are planned on a complex topographic hillside, and the fringe parts are curved into the hills' complex topography. No street access can be planned around these odd spaces, and the housing lots become FPSHLs to be connected to the streets inside the housing estate. The recent housing estates are planned in alignment with the original topography of the hills. Therefore, the housing blocks are not always rectangular. Thus, the FPSHL is located in the center of the odd-shaped housing blocks. We can find these types of housing blocks in the estates of the 2000s rather than those of the 1960s. Some FPSHLs are located along green walking paths. However, vehicles are prohibited on this path and the housing lots need to access the street that is on the other side of the block. Based on the research, it can be concluded that FPSHLs are located in housing estates that are developed on the hillside in Machida city. Irregular topography and housing blocks are two major reasons for the existence of FPSHLs.
This paper focuses on the planning process and improvement method of transit mall using the first transit mall in Seoul City called Yonsei Street as case study. Yonsei Street was created in 2014. As recently transit malls are internationally spread for the improvement of the pedestrian safety, and the revitalization of the region. This was appeared as in case of Japan where there are 20 cases for transit mall; however, only 3 cases are operating regularly, and the others were discontinued on the pilot program. In case of Korea, there are 3 cases such as Chung-Ang street in Deagu city that was created in 2009. Recently, the concern of transit mall has been increased by the local governments. However, there are common issues in the implementation of transit mall that seen in both Japan and Korea such as the traffic control of main streets that resulted from locating these transit malls in the city center, and a consensus building among many stakeholders. This study aims to 1) clarify the primary factors to how to implement the transit mall. This was done via conducting a survey on Yonsei Street as a case study based on the planning process, and to 2) suggest the issues and improvement method that suitable and applicable to the Korean community. The case study was analyzed via field surveys, document reviews, and interviews with local administrative offices (Seodaemun Ward and Seoul City) and merchant associations concerned with the implementation of transit mall of Yonsei Street. In Chapter 2, we reviewed the law system for both Japan and Korea related to transit mall. It was clarified that the central government in Korea has 1) the district designation system of transit mall based on the Road Traffic Promotion Act and, 2) introduced a specific subsidy system to the district designated by the law in order to realize a transit mall. Chapter 3 reviews the selection process for the sites that were proposed by the local government (10 sites). It was clarified that there are no inaccessible facilities after the implementation of transit mall, and no median exclusive bus lane for BRT (Bus Rapid Transit) as common characteristics. In addition, the streets of proposed sites have approximately 600m in length, and 20~30m in width. In Chapter 4, it is determined the characteristics of consensus building process and spatial improvement. It was clarified that the construction of local organization related to the street spatially and the role of merchant association are important for the consensus building. Chapter 5 points out the issues on the street management of transit mall; which are 1) Change of human traffic flow after the spatial improvement, 2) Consideration of vulnerable users who need their own car, 3) Absence of law system for the violation of traffic regulations on a transit mall. Consequently, based on the planning process of transit mall in Yonsei Street, this paper suggests four primary factors that help to achieve the transit mall, which are 1) the organization of law system, 2) the construction of selection process based on the proposed sites, 3) the existence of the local association based on a neutral position. and 4) the coincidence of interests among the stakeholders. Moreover, it points out three issues of the planning process that are 1) the continuity of the organization for the coordination of opinion on stakeholders related to the street spatially, 2) the management of local needs that based on the change of space use after the spatial improvement, and 3) The role of local organization for solving local problems and using street spaces autonomously.
Towards a population decline society along with the progress of low birthrate and longevity, the concept of a compact city is gathering attention for urban sustainability and a higher quality of life. However, there are some problems: there are no guidelines available for the specific population size and density. And various evaluation points such as infrastructure development, green conservation, and disaster mitigation/prevention are not considered enough in the policy level. And the regional .environmental impact of the compact city policy is not thoroughly verified. In this study, the following three points were conducted. First, the hierarchical population density in prefecture level was examined by comparing to urban cores shown in the city planning master plans made in the local government of municipalities. The focused site is Aichi prefecture. The urban cores in the master plans had different scales from each other according to the scale of municipalities in the prefecture. As a result, four hierarchical population densities were obtained (10-40 people/ha: Community Core, 40-50: District Core, 50-100: Urban Core, and 100-: Center of Metropolitan area). According to this classification, to make the compact scenarios in prefecture level was enabled. Secondly, the methodology of setting several compact city scenarios for Aichi Prefecture were developed by considering evaluation indexes: population hierarchical structure, infrastructure condition, green conservation situation, and disaster prevention/mitigation. According to them, all meshes in Aichi prefecture were classified into Active Population Withdrawal Meshes (AW), Passive Population Withdrawal Meshes (PW), and Population Induction Meshes (PI) and the population was moved from AW to PI on condition that the total number of population in 2050 was constant. As a result, five scenarios were set: (Case 1) Present land use, (Case 2) Aggregation of people more than in community core level, (Case 3) Aggregation of people more than in district core level, (Case 4) Disaster prevention/ mitigation, and (Case 5) Prioritization of infrastructure and green conservation. In the next phase of this study, the improvement of evaluation indexes such as industrial structure, farmland conservation, and preservation of historic city and the weighting processing between the evaluation indexes should be considered. Thirdly, the impacts of five urban compact scenarios were evaluated from the viewpoint of urban thermal environment in the summer of the 2050s by using a regional atmospheric model, WRF. As a result, the space and monthly averaged air temperature in Aichi at 2m height was lower in case 2~5 than case 1. However, the global warming impact was still stronger impact on thermal environment than that of compact scenarios. The meshes which have 100-people/ha: Center of Metropolitan area Level had the lowest air temperature in (Case 3) Aggregation of people more than in district core level scenario, in which the sea breeze from Ise bay had a cool effect on Nagoya city because the southern area of Nagoya city was set as grassland in case3. On the other hands, the meshes which had 10-40 people/ha: Community Core Level or 40-100 people/ha: Center of Local City Level had the lowest air temperature in (Case 4) Disaster prevention/ mitigation scenario and the ratio of population also had the lowest air temperature in Case 4. This showed that the scenario for disaster prevention and mitigation also had the effect of the improvement of hot environment. In the next phase of this study, the more integrated evaluation of regional environmental impact of compact city scenarios should be conducted.
In recent years, among others while centripetal force of the commercial facility is lost, reproduction of commercial facilities has been required in front of the station square. In the previous paper, we just made the retention behavior in urban space clear. The purpose of this study is to think about the way of the station square with a crowd. Center-north and south which is showing a crowded with people during the day, focusing on the station square, in the residence of the action in the open space, to understand the relationship between the adjacent large-scale commercial facilities. And this study is made the basic study to consider the state of the urban space with a crowd. Research method is as follows: 1) Observational research Observational research has revealed the number of action, time, destination by visual observation. 2) Questionnaire research Interview-type survey has revealed age, companion, and the place of residence. And the author grasped an environmental condition. As the content number of spot, size, form, capacity, the number of stores within 60m from the spot, distance with the commercial facilities, and distance with the station. From these, the author clarified the following things. 1) Relations of a characteristic and the commercial facilities of the person of stay. 2) The sitting and resting behavior the person of stay according to the space and relations of commercial facilities. 3) Characteristics of the sitting and resting behavior the person who moved to commercial facilities. The author understood the following things from the result of the research. 1) A lot of the residence's in the center-north tend to move to large-scale commercial facilities. Features of people is constituted by families of the 40s from the 30s and families with children, staying time tended to move to longer commercial facilities. At that time, it had been carried out behaviors such as chat and play. 2) People in the center-south was a result of controversial strength of the commercial facilities move to each staying location. As a feature of the staying people who move to commercial facilities, as well as center-north, consists of the families of the 40s from the 30s, are conspicuous case of a little remote areas in the residence. The difference is the time and behavior was not observed. 3) The lawn space functions as an amusement place with a child and the parent and because the distance to neighboring commercial facilities is near to 16m at the earliest, from a point having the environment that can move easily. As the characteristic, a lot of stay with the family such as a child and the parent lets a child play in a lawn space and is supposed the case which the parent observes at a bench. 4) By the sitting and resting behavior of the Center-north station square walk space, concentrate on under ten minutes regardless of a destination. It was stay with less than ten minutes in 90% or more of the person of commercial facilities movement in the Center-south station square walk space. 5) Center-north benches continue with a lawn space, there are many sitting and resting behavior such as playing and is observed because a lawn space is united with a bench. In addition, a lot of stay actions including the break are easy to be observed by the functionality of the bench. It is easy to be done a choice enthusiast by the family and can keep the independent environment of the individual. On the other hand, the free place has the characteristic that it is easy to be done a choice enthusiast by a person of one stay.
In Japan, a large gap between the building size allowed by the land use regulation and those in surrounding area often results in conflicts between developers and neighborhood residents. To bridge the gap, it is necessary to designate the detailed district plan in neighborhood level to preserve and improve living environment. In such cases, it is effective to apply the Urban Planning Proposal System as part of the resident-initiated planning activity. This paper aims to define the conditions for effective applications of the Urban Planning Proposal System. It conducts a questionnaire survey to prefectural and municipal governments throughout the country in order to analyze the applications of the Urban Planning Proposal System. Then, it examines the proposals that are applied as part of the resident-initiated planning activity in order to preserve and improve living environment in their neighborhood. The questionnaires are sent to 649 municipalities and 47 prefectures on 2nd September, 2014 and answered by 518 municipalities, 79.8% of collection rate, and 46 prefectures, 97.9% as of 30 November, 2014. More than half of local governments recognize the positive effects of the Urban Planning Proposal System. They expect the designation of the detailed plans which are different from the governments' plans and the change in residents' attitude towards planning. On the other hand, majority of municipalities and prefectures do not provide sufficient support for residents to make planning proposals. Only 10 % of municipalities attend community meetings and help plan making. There are about 300 proposals throughout the country. 87 proposals are for the deregulation to promote the urban development projects initiated by developers. 46 proposals are for the regulations to preserve and improve living environment by resident-initiatives. Then, the paper conducts a case study on 21 successful proposals in 10 municipalities and 3 unsuccessful proposals by interviews with officers and, if possible, officers who supported proposals. It also interviewed with residents in 4 cases. In the cases that achieved the district plan designation or the zoning amendment from the resident-initiated planning proposal, three conditions are observed. Firstly, there are dedicated community leaders who commit the whole process. To designate the plan from the proposal, it is necessary to achieve higher level of consensus on the plan. To build consensus, the leaders work consistently to explain why they need the plan to their community. They also revise the details of proposals many times to reflect people's opinions. In addition, active support for plan making and planning document preparation by the municipal government is a key factor to promote the planning proposals. The financial support for consensus building and land owner survey, the attendance of officers in the community meetings and study groups and the preparation planning documents are effective. Finally, the flexible application of planning system is necessary. The resident-initiated planning proposal contains great details which are different from the governments' plan, since it reflects the community's opinions in the plan. To take the advantage of the residents' proposals, it is important to have flexibilities in plan making including the details of restriction and the rule of regulation boundary.
Since 1968, Area Division System has controlled urbanization and protected the agriculture environment and the other nature. However, new urban form is required in a situation of a population decline and shrinking financial resources in a local city. Concentration urban functions and an urbanization for low carbon society gained recognition in plans including the location adequacy plan. Plan making of these should be initiated with an appropriate evaluation of present aspects of city. From these backgrounds, in this paper, we aimed to clarify a relationship between the applying effects of the Area Division System and an urban compactness from the viewpoint of environmental burdens, and to obtain the knowledge for the realization of concentration urban structure and low carbon society. In this paper, at first, we organized a situation of applying the Area Division System and urbanization characteristics in case study from land use and urban facilities convenience. Then we calculated carbon dioxide emissions by city activity. Moreover, we analyzed a factor to affect the carbon dioxide emissions at investigation zones in each city. At last, we arrange the influence that Area Division System and the CO2 emissions distribution situation and municipal facilities location give to a CO2 discharge from the viewpoint of applying Area Division System. Conclusions we obtained are as follows. 1. From the result of quantification theory I, main factor of CO2 emission is “Land Use Regulation” at both city. Moreover, from the viewpoint of convenience of public facility, the distance from “General hospital” and “Large scale retail store” have a large effect on the CO2 emission. In Area Divided City, the emission become higher near the city center. On the other, in Non-Area Divided City, it becomes higher at the area of far from city center. 2. From the distribution of predictive value, in Non-Area Divided City, high predictive value tends to concentrate along the trunk road and near the use district at the suburbs. In Area Divided City, it was concentrated to the central district. It is thought that applying the Area Division System has some positive effects to prevent CO2 emission.
This study aims to validate the vacancy rate and number of vacant houses in the Housing and Land survey. Determining the actual vacancy rate and numbers of vacant houses contributes significantly to housing policy. No preceding research has been conducted with the same aim.
The research method is as follows. 1. Confirm the vacancy survey method utilized by the Housing and Land survey. 2. Compare the results of the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism vacancy survey and Housing and Land survey. 3. Compare the results of the house vacancy survey by municipality and Housing and Land survey. 4. Compare vacancy rates obtained using the number of census households and from the results of Housing and Land survey. 5. Compare the results of the vacancy rate using the SUUMO-ZENRIN data for Tokyo's 23 wards and Housing and Land survey. Based on these results, the validity of the vacancy rate and number of vacant houses in the residential land survey is examined.
The results of the research are as follows. 1. The vacancy survey method of Housing and Land survey relies on a visual inspection overview. 2. The vacancy rate in the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transportation and Tourism's vacancy survey (6.7－8.9%) is lower than that in Housing and Land survey (over 10%). The Ministry's vacancy survey stated that visual inspection is an inaccurate survey method. 3. The vacancy rate in the municipality's vacancy survey (1.6－7.4%) is lower than that in Housing and Land survey (10.3－14.6%). Most municipal vacancy surveys are conducted for all houses (Table 1). 4. The vacancy rate obtained using the census household number (2008: 10.0%) is lower than that in Housing and Land survey (2010: 13.9%) (Fig. 1). 5. The vacancy rate using the SUUMO-ZENRIN data (6.9%) is lower than that in Housing and Land survey (12.3%) (Fig. 2). - The SUUMO data cover 80% of the common housing residences in Tokyo's 23 wards (Table 2). - In Tokyo metropolitan area, the vacancy rate of housing with an area less than 25 square meters is high (12.2%) (Table 3). - In Tokyo metropolitan area, the vacancy rate of houses built after 1996 is high (10.1%) (Table 3).
The conclusions are as follows. 1. The vacancy rate in Housing and Land survey is likely to be exaggerated. 2. The actual vacancy rate is likely to be 10% or less. 3. The actual number of vacant houses is likely to be 4－5 million.
Future tasks are as follows: 1. To find an appropriate vacancy rate for each area. 2. To find a simple and accurate method of identifying vacant houses.
This paper is a study on the construction and subsequent history of Tokujin-do at Koishikawa Korakuen Garden, a site designated as a Special Historic Site and a Place of Special Scenic Beauty, located in Bunkyo Ward in Tokyo. Tokujin-do was reroofed and partially repaired from December 2012 to March 2014, during which time the building was examined from both an architectural and historical point of view. Until now, Tokujin-do was thought to have been built by Tokugawa Mitsukuni (1628-1701), the second feudal lord of Mito Domain, as a worship hall dedicated solely to Boyi and Shuqi, two ancient Chinese wise men he revered. However, historical sources have revealed that it was actually rebuilt during the period of July 1665 (Kanbun 5) to January 1668 (Kanbun 8) to enshrine the images of Boyi and Shuqi, which had originally been placed in Isei-do, together with the image of Taibo formerly enshrined in Shitoku-do. Furthermore, after the death of Mitsukuni, the name of the building was changed firstly to Koshi-do, then to Shaka-do. After 1718 (Kyoho 3), the name was changed again to Hachiman-do when the God Hachiman was transferred from Sanuki, the hometown of Munetaka, who was the fourth feudal lord of Mito Domain. Later in 1820 (Bunsei 3), the building enshrined solely the images of Boyi and Shuqi, changing its name once again to Tokujin-do. At this time, the images of Boyi and Shuqi together with the image of Taibo, which had until then been stored in a different place, were lost in a fire; thereafter the images of Boyi and Shuqi were made anew. As stated above, so far, the changes made to Tokujin-do have by and large been revealed purely from the analysis of historical sources and not from an architectural study of the building itself. Therefore, the building was architecturally examined with a focus on and around the alcove where the images were enshrined in order to shed light on the history of Tokujin-do. The following points were made clear in the study. 1. At the time of construction, the width of the frontage of the alcove was 2 bays with one circular pillar to the east of the center of the building. The western side of the alcove was wide and shelves were placed on the eastern side. 2. In the mid-Edo period, the alcove was renovated by replacing the original circular pillars with 2 new circular pillars and changing the width of the frontage to 1 bay. 3. In the late Edo period, the ornamental beam was raised and the sheets of timber that constituted the side walls were removed. 4. The renovation process of the alcove is not inconsistent with the placement and removal of the images that occurred according to historical sources. From this study, it is evident that the history of the enshrined images and the renovation process in and around the alcove is divided into 3 periods: 1. At the time of construction from 1665 to 1668 (Kanbun 5 to 8): Taibo, Boyi, Shuqi 2. From 1718 (Kyoho 3) onward: God Hachiman 3. From 1820 (Bunsei 3) to the present: Boyi, Shuqi.
This article considered the portrait photograph of Daikiti Taki and the background of his transfer to Kansai, and it's following points to become clear. The published his portrait photograph can identify six pieces, and his portrait placed in first pages of the “Journal of Architecture and building science” 192 is regarded as his figure of about 34 years old by the decoration of the chest. Other his photographs show the figure of 30s latter half, too. He proceeded to Kansai on business for the Naniwa Spinning Company where the Teikoku-Kougyo-Kaisya was concerned and the Kobe Branch establishment preparations in December, 1887. In addition, it has be not clear until now at the time when he transfered to Kansai. The transfer to Kansai of Daikiti Taki is regarded as November, 1888, and it was one year or more after when the notice of the address change appeared in the “Journal of Architecture and building science” that he gone to there. At first, it was thought that the Meiji-Kougyo-Kaisya was established as Kobe Branch of the Teikoku-Kougyo-Kaisya, but by the internal troubles of the company, the company started as a the Meiji-Kougyo-Kaisya of the corporations. Daikiti Taki took office as a building director.
The legend that Daikichi Taki affected construction of 1890 of the Ryouunkaku as a taskmaster has been written down in the biography of Rentaro Taki repeatedly until late years, it inspects this point, and it is following many points to become clear. The opinion that Daikchii Taki affected construction of 1890 of the Ryouunkaku is listed in a biography of Rentaro Taki widely, but the clear grounds are not shown. There is the opinion that Daikichi Taki performed the taskmaster on the occasion of a building in 1890 of the Ryouunkaku, but it has been skeptical about before from the relations with the career of the Daikichi Taki by the building-related study. It was the investigation and repair after the Tokyo-Meiji Earthquake of 1886 that Daikichi Taki affected the Ryouunkaku. What Daikichi Taki showed as repair plan of the Ryouunkaku after the Meiji-Tokyo earthquake posted hoop iron in the window neighborhood and the trumeau and fastened it with an iron bolt and posted with metal fittings at the opposite angle of the octagon plane more. Kojiro Izumi of the original contractor of the Ryouunkaku and Daikichi Taki had the interchange since at least 1886. I can think that Izumi asked Daikichi Taki for the investigation of the Ryouunkaku which suffered from the Meiji-Tokyo earthquake of 1894 from these relations.
This article considered "the powder magazine" of the Nagoya Castle the third division which the J. Conder investigated after the Nobi earthquake, and it's following points to become clear. The notch was worked to the basis of the Nogi warehouse. Conder reported that the construction of the Nogi warehouse was carried out by the direct management of the military, the cost of construction with 5,363 yen, and tsubo unit price 145 yen. The drawing of the Kiko library is different from the basis cross section of the powder magazine to show in a part, but both resemble closely. The third division "powder magazine" which Conder reported is regarded as Nogi warehouse located at the Fuke-maru by the comparison of structure and dimensions. Because dimensions of the ground plan and the elevation are equal at the rate of 99%, I judge that the spare powder magazine of the Kigo library is the Nogi warehouse. Condor might acquire the drawing document through the Aichi prefecture.
The cross-in-square was one of the most common church forms in the middle Byzantine period (9th-12th centuries CE). This paper looks at how the architectural configuration of the cross-in-square developed, focusing on the threedimensional characteristics of all churches within Byzantine territories, unlike previous studies. These churches are classified according to their floor plan; horizontal shape and construction methods of supports; the arrangement of arches; and the support and arch connection methods. Two architectural groups emerge: the centralised church-like configuration, in which the arches are placed on the supports, and the two-direction configuration, where the arches penetrate inner walls.
The text description of building by mimetic words is a frequently used form of communication for Japanese architects to express their architectural design intent. The mimetic words describe a material building vividly and sensually as if it gains its own life and express connotative meaning of architecture that the architect imbues through the depicted building posture and gesture. The objective of this paper is to identify material aspects of architecture rhetorically characterized by mimetic word expressions used in the explanation of works of architecture through the text description of buildings in a monthly Japanese architecture magazine, Shinkenchiku. The flow of this research is as below: 1. Extract sentences which contain mimetic word expression used by architects to explain their design from Shinkenchiku published during 1950 - 2010. 2. Extract Subjects, Mimetic words and Regulating verbs. Subject refers to a building itself or a physical constituent of architecture depicted by a mimetic word in the sentence. Mimetic word is defined as a sound-symbolic word that describes Subject in the sentence. Regulating verb is a verb of the Subject, a word grammatically forming the main part of the predicate of the sentence, to describe an action, state, or occurrence of the Subject together with the mimetic word. 3. Classify mimetic words by the sound-symbolic meaning, then cross-reference them with subjects and regulating verbs respectively to analyze and derive semantic tendencies when they are combined. 4. Map out material aspects of architecture rhetorically characterized by mimetic word expression with a matrix in which the horizontal axis is the tendency of meaning by the combination of the mimetic words and the subjects, and the vertical axis is that of the mimetic words and the regulating verbs. As a result, four semantic tendencies are found from the analysis of the combination of mimetic words and subjects: (1) Primary building component's behavioral gesture characterized by the visual configuration, (2) Environmental design element characterized by the elastic appearance, (3) Fluid environmental element that relates to the production of a space, and (4) From a part to the whole of a building grasped as grain by zooming. From the analysis of combination of the mimetic words and the regulating verbs, four semantic tendencies are found: (A) Fine-tuned movement, (B) Deviation from a steady state, (C) Manipulated joint, and (D) Correlation actualized by sharpness. In the end, 24 typical material aspects of architecture expressed in mimetic word descriptions are identified through the mapping. In summary, with mimetic word expressions, architects characterize the quality of architecture which is difficult to measure and describe by a single conceptual term with their sensibility through the sound-symbolic word in the text description of buildings. It recognizes architecture as a dynamic conglomeration of multiple assets and meaning ascribed to the material properties of the building constituents by assuming a human body positioned within architecture through which embraces real environments in and around which the building is set. Through the research of the mimetic word expressions, this paper revealed a lateral thinking of architects enabling the production of continuous and inclusive architecture of everyday.
Around 1860-1890, when there was almost no fossil energy nor electric power, a city in Gunma Prefecture, Kiryu, Japan developed itself into an extraordinary city of silk textile industries with a highly specialized urban zone structure to maximize production by harnessing their water resources for industrial power sources. Kiryu is located in-between two rivers, Watarase-River and Kiryu-River. Watarase-River runs through the southwest part of Kiryu and Kiryu-River, much smaller than Watarase-River, runs the northeast part of Kiryu, joining the former in its downstream. Two channels were developed to run through Kiryu already before the preindustrial revolution period. One was Ozeki-Channel irrigated from Kiryu-River running through the old city center and the other was Akaiwa-Channel irrigated from Watarase-River running through the west periphery of the old city. However, by now, the most part of the two channels except for some part of Akaiwa-Channel was covered to closed conduits. We charted out the channel map for the preindustrial revolution period around 1869, and compared the geographical distribution of the two channels with the distribution of textile industries' waterwheels to make clear that the urban zone structure specialized for each division of the textile industries was developed based on water-power along the two channels. Just about the same number of yarn twisting waterwheels was existing around both channels. However, hard yarn twisting with waterwheels, dyeing and weaving were concentrated around only Ozeki-Channel. Since hard yarn twisting, dyeing and weaving were for expensive textile products, those expensive textile productions are supposed to have been performed in the closest area to the city center, Kiryu-Shinmachi, around Ozeki-Channel. This coincides with the fact that the area was the home of Kiryu's industrial leaders since Tokugawa-Government established Kiryu-Shinmachi in 1591 (the early Edo period). Today, although few people recognize Ozeki-Channel, it was once utilized much more heavily than Akaiwa-Channel was. The utilization of Akaiwa-Channel increased after the Meiji Reform of 1868 because they needed the larger water-power to produce mass-productions for export. Indeed, Akaiwa-Channel area had a much larger potential of expansion than Ozeki-Channel area since water of Akaiwa-Channel was directly supplied from Watarase-River which is much larger than Kiryu-River. Later, in 1887 Nippon-Textile Corporation, the biggest commercial modern factory of that time, was established near Akaiwa-Channel and started modern water-power generation, as the first water-power generation in Gunma Prefecture. Although, people in Kiryu today do not know the fact that Kiryu was a textile industrial city developed with harnessing water-power massively in the preindustrial revolution period, Kiryu at that time deserves the name of "water-powered industrial city". To construct a scenario for local cities and towns to harness their natural energy resources is becoming more important today for the sustainable future. Revisiting historical processes of local cities, like Kiryu, to see how they harnessed natural energy resources for its development before fossil energy and electric power became popular should give us some important hints for the design of sustainable cities.
This paper will elucidate the planning and construction process of the Ikebukuro West General Public Station completed in 1951, and will review the 55 stations around the country that were constructed as General Public Stations. It will also classify the stations according to core planning, construction ownership, and division of construction cost burden to evaluate the status of the Ikebukuro West General Public Station, which was planned by Japanese National Railways as a pilot project for developing General Public Stations. During postwar reconstruction, since Japanese National Railways prioritized the devastated rail lines and the establishment of new railcars in order to focus on restoring the decreased transportation capacity, not enough funding was available for rebuilding the railway station buildings, and their thorough reconstruction was thus postponed. Therefore, a method for the smooth reconstruction of railway station buildings using private investment was introduced, whereby the buildings were opened to the public, and businesses such as stores, restaurants, and barbershops were incorporated to increase the convenience of the station to the extent that these businesses would not pose a hindrance to railway passengers. This was the concept of the General Public Station. Until the end of the war, the construction of railway station buildings was generally limited to private railway terminals in major cities. However, the postwar establishment of the General Public Station model allowed railway station buildings to be constructed in regional cities across Japan. The General Public Station model made possible the transition from railway station buildings being constructed at Japanese National Railway stations to railway station buildings being constructed throughout the country. A central figure in the discussion of planning the Ikebukuro West General Public Station is the Japanese National Railway architect Shigeru Ito. Ito developed the concept of General Public Stations within Japanese National Railways. After resigning from his job at Japanese National Railways, he became the vice president of Japan Railway Station Corporation, where he promoted the planning and construction of the Ikebukuro West General Public Station. In addition, the area planned for the construction of the Ikebukuro West General Public Station included the war-damage reconstruction and land readjustment project area, so construction could not be initiated until the re-plotting of the land was confirmed. Therefore, the construction of the Ikebukuro West General Public Station bears a clear relationship to the restoration of land development through re-plotting. Beyond this, this research classifies General Public Stations into two types: “Regional City Type,” “Capital Area Intra-City Transit Terminal Type” and “ Major Inter-City Transit Terminal Type.” The Ikebukuro West General Public Station is classified as a Capital Area Intra-City Transit Terminal Type.
The sugar industry was the most important industry in Okinawa Prefecture before World War II. The purpose of this paper is to examine the influence of sugar refinery factories' construction on area development in Okinawa Prefecture. This study focuses on the Nishihara (old/new), Takamine (old/new), Kadena, Tomigusuku and Ginowan sugar refinery factories located on the Okinawa Main Island, the Miyako sugar refinery factory located on the Miyako Island, and the Daito sugar refinery factory located on the South Daito Island, constructed before World War II. 1) Many old newspaper articles published in Okinawa Prefecture before World War II and other materials allowed us to reorganize their factory's construction processes and to examine the reasons to select each factory's location. These 7 factories' construction periods were divided into two phases; old Nishihara, old Takamine and Kadena factories were constructed around 1910, and other 6 factories were constructed around 1917. It is inferred that the former factory's constructions were caused by "Sugar Industry Development 10-year Plan" released at 1901 and the latter by "Okinawa Prefecture's Industry Development 10-year Plan" released at 1915. In addition, the water sources to cool their machines, the transportation of their sugar refinery machines to each factory site and the transportation of their sugar products from each site affected the selection of each factory's location. 2) Some aerial photos taken by the U.S. forces, in addition to some documents and other materials, were used to restore the former layouts for new Nishihara, new Takamine, Kadena, Miyako and Daito factories. However, Tomigusuku and Ginowan factories' former layouts were impossible to restore because of a lack of documents and materials since these two factories had operated for only a short time. New Takamine, Miyako and Daito factories were constructed later, divided their sites into their factory area and company-house area by using their geographical features. Three factories located on the Okinawa Main Island had a smaller company-house area than Daito factory located on the South Daito island, an isolated island, since their workers commuted from their surrounding villages at the former 3 factories. 3) Various materials and documents allowed us to examine the influence of these sugar refinery factories' construction in Okinawa Prefecture before World War II. Three factories; new Nishihara, new Takamine and Kadena, located on the Okinawa Main Island caused their surrounding area development by cooperating with light railways for transporting their sugar products to Naha, capital of Okinawa Prefecture. The Miyako factory caused the whole Miyako Island's industrial development since Miyako Island had few industries at that time and sugar industry was one of the main industries. The Daito factory caused the cultivation of South Daito Island itself since the pioneers for this island had started to cultivate sugar cane. In subsequent research, the comparison with the sugar industry in Okinawa Prefecture after World War II and the comparison with the sugar refinery factory and their company houses constructed in Taiwan, Hokkaido and other areas continue.
Bangladesh is prone to cyclones due to its social and geographical conditions. In recent years, coastal areas of Bangladesh suffered from the serious damages caused by two devastating cyclones; Sidr in 2007 and Aila in 2009. The government and international cooperation agencies have been tackling with mitigating cyclone disasters, mainly through construction of cyclone shelters, which can accommodate 500-2,500 people per shelter in case of cyclones (Paul et al, 2002). As a result of the construction of approximately 4,000 cyclone shelters, the death toll has been drastically decreasing. However, although these cyclone shelters are used as elementary schools in normal time, not enough consideration are given to be used as temporary living quarters during and after cyclones. At this point, there are only some researches mentioned the use of cyclone shelters during cyclones, whereas they did not focus on how the local people used cyclone shelters as temporary living quarters during post-disaster reconstruction. Dealing with these problems, BRAC University constructed a new type of cyclone shelters in the form of houses named ‘mini shelters’ in order not to evacuate to cyclone shelters when cyclones come. The objective of this research is to contribute the government's cyclone mitigation schemes, especially in terms of the proper utilization during cyclones and the construction of cyclone shelters which can be used in all cyclone prone areas. This research was conducted based on the literature reviews and the field surveys. The literature review revealed the damage of cyclone disasters and the mitigation program in Bangladesh. Field surveys were conducted from August to September 2015 in Padmapukur Union and Hatiya Isaland, which were affected by Cyclone Aila in 2009 and Cyclone Komen in 2015 respectively. Questionnaire and semi-structured interviews were conducted with 70 households in Hatiya Island and 66 households in Padmapukur in order to collect detailed information on the use of cyclone shelters during cyclones and post-cyclone reconstruction and actual issues of cyclone shelters. The research findings show that most of people in Hatiya Island made decisions to evacuate to cyclone shelters immediately after they have received cyclone waning signals, while most of people in Padmapukur Union did not evacuate immediately. Most of the evacuees spent their long-term evacuation period for several days to several months in cyclone shelters even after cyclones. It is proven that the cyclone shelters are used as temporary living quarters during post-cyclone reconstruction, although they were designed as evacuation centers only for a few hours during the inundation. Moreover, most of cyclone shelters are used as elementary schools in normal time hence some rooms such as storage rooms and staff rooms are locked during cyclones due to the poor management which led to the low of consideration of these cyclone shelters to be used as evacuation centers or temporary living quarters. Most of people in Hatiya Island are well-prepared for evacuation. The preparation includes packing dry foods and other daily necessities in advance of every cyclone season. Therefore, they are able to properly manage their long-term evacuation period at cyclone shelters. Another finding shows ‘mini shelters’ might be used not only as evacuation centers but also as livestock stores during cyclones. Local people doubt the safety of ‘mini shelters’ because the second floor is made of wood and the height from the ground level to the second floor is only 3.3m lower than the water level of the biggest cyclone's storm surge. In addition, the cost of construction of ‘mini shelters’ are too expensive to construct as houses. On the other hand, ‘mini shelters’ might be useful in remote coastal areas where limited space for cyclone shelters is.