日本建築学会計画系論文集
Online ISSN : 1881-8161
Print ISSN : 1340-4210
ISSN-L : 1340-4210
66 巻 , 546 号
選択された号の論文の54件中1~50を表示しています
  • 原稿種別: 表紙
    2001 年 66 巻 546 号 p. Cover29-
    発行日: 2001/08/30
    公開日: 2017/02/04
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 原稿種別: 表紙
    2001 年 66 巻 546 号 p. Cover30-
    発行日: 2001/08/30
    公開日: 2017/02/04
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 原稿種別: 付録等
    2001 年 66 巻 546 号 p. App50-
    発行日: 2001/08/30
    公開日: 2017/02/04
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 原稿種別: 付録等
    2001 年 66 巻 546 号 p. App51-
    発行日: 2001/08/30
    公開日: 2017/02/04
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  • 原稿種別: 付録等
    2001 年 66 巻 546 号 p. App52-
    発行日: 2001/08/30
    公開日: 2017/02/04
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  • 原稿種別: 付録等
    2001 年 66 巻 546 号 p. App53-
    発行日: 2001/08/30
    公開日: 2017/02/04
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 原稿種別: 付録等
    2001 年 66 巻 546 号 p. App54-
    発行日: 2001/08/30
    公開日: 2017/02/04
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 田中 治, 安岡 正人, 久我 新一
    原稿種別: 本文
    2001 年 66 巻 546 号 p. 1-8
    発行日: 2001/08/30
    公開日: 2017/02/04
    ジャーナル フリー
    In this report : part-6, Calculations and experiments on structure-borne sound propagation in multi-storied plate construction model are compared. And they are shown that calculated values are fairly coincided with measured values, by introducing some corrections for lower frequency range. This calculating method is able to predict(estimate) frequency characteristics at important frequency range. But at the higher frequency range, measured values tend to show lower values than calculated. Additionally calculation programs are applied to study of the relation between the loss factor of material and the additional structure caused mechanical damping. The relation between experimental frequency response and material loss factor are explained as structural damping by calculated values.
  • 古賀 貴士, 田野 正典, 安藤 啓
    原稿種別: 本文
    2001 年 66 巻 546 号 p. 9-14
    発行日: 2001/08/30
    公開日: 2017/02/04
    ジャーナル フリー
    Impact sound improvements of wooden cover floor on concrete slab for heavy/soft impact sources are investigated. This paper shows three aspects of investigation for the spring effect of air space between floor covering and slab. First, the distributions of improvement due to the impact point are measured at a multi-family dwelling. Hence, the effect of covering is relatively high at the peripheral area, and the distribution differs from that of the ceiling. Second, it is shown that the improvement caused by the air spring between slab and wooden cover floor can be effective rather than the vibration transmission via supporting studs. Especially air spring transmission is spread equally to all of the covered area and it differs the transmission via studs. Furthermore, the effects of backing-impedance for vibration transmission of finite double-layered plate are shown using numerical calculation.
  • 大迫 勝彦, 山口 育雄, 荘 大作, 阿部 隆之, 林 篤
    原稿種別: 本文
    2001 年 66 巻 546 号 p. 15-21
    発行日: 2001/08/30
    公開日: 2017/02/04
    ジャーナル フリー
    Living environment of the building under the viaduct structure is very important to keep well. The exciting force is not grasped sufficient, in the research of the structure-borne sound that occurs at the time of train passing. Also, the vibration and sound isolation theory and measure remain and be not proven. We think of reducing traffic vibration by the system adjusting suspension devices. We report the result that we examined about the vibration reduction method of the building that is suspended to the elevated railway in the main discourse.
  • 山口 温, 佐野 武仁
    原稿種別: 本文
    2001 年 66 巻 546 号 p. 23-29
    発行日: 2001/08/30
    公開日: 2017/02/04
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    This is a study on dirt and changes over time of Polytetra fluorine ethylene (PTFE) membranes used for membrane structures. Using an electron microscope, the physical states of membrane material surfaces which were exposed for about 6 years to sunshine are shown. And there was a lapse of 6 years, twelve part of PTFE membranes were evaluated by rate of dirt. Main findings are as follow ; (1) Chromaticity of transmission color is more transformation thaji reflection color. (2) Membranes were washed clean once five or six years. So luminous characteristics improved. (3) After membranes were exposed to the weather, indoor thermal characteristics does not change. (4) Reflection rate of dirt is larger than transmission rate of dirt.
  • 村上 泰浩, 小林 朝人, 矢野 隆
    原稿種別: 本文
    2001 年 66 巻 546 号 p. 31-36
    発行日: 2001/08/30
    公開日: 2017/02/04
    ジャーナル フリー
    The proportion of the light and shade areas of the face is very important when the modelling is evaluated. It is necessary to investigate the features of the boundary between perceived light and shade areas and the relationship between the boundary position and the luminous quantities. An experiment was carried out in which the subjects judged the boundary position of the light and shade areas on a cylinder illuminated from one direction. It was found that the observation position (angle) and the cylindrical size did not affect the boundary position perceived on the cylinder surface. The angle at which the boundary was found was consistent with that showing the largest ratio of luminance at successive two points on the cylinder surface.
  • Hom Bahadur RIJAL, 吉田 治典, 梅宮 典子
    原稿種別: 本文
    2001 年 66 巻 546 号 p. 37-44
    発行日: 2001/08/30
    公開日: 2017/02/04
    ジャーナル フリー
    For the purpose of evaluation and improvement of thermal environment in traditional vernacular houses of Nepal, the winter thermal indoor environment was measured and investigated regarding 1) the relation between indoor and outdoor climate, 2) thermal environmental indices and 3) comparison with existing studies. 1) The thermal environment of investigated houses in ground floors / middle floor are as followings, a) indoor air temp, was 2.5K (daytime), 4.7K (nighttime) higher than outdoor air temp., b) specific humidity was 0.9g/kg' (daytime), 1.2g/kg' (nighttime) higher than outdoor specific humidity, c) vertical air temp, difference was 3.7K (daytime) greater than the ASHRAE ST-55 thermal comfort standard, that is 3K, while attic rooms are similar to outdoor. The results showed that the thermal environment are better in ground floors / middle floor than in attic rooms. 2) The mean PMV was -1.2 which was lower than the ISO 7730 standard , that is ± 0.5 and the mean SET* was 20.0℃ which was lower than the ASHRAE ST-55, that is 22.2〜 25.6℃. It was clerified that residents live in lower thermal environment than standards. 3) Compared with Japanese houses in existing studies, Nepalese houses were similar in indoor and outdoor temp, differences, while they were less in vertical temp, differences.
  • 佐藤 勝泰, 山下 恭弘, 橋本 潤一, 石川 清英, 内藤 克人
    原稿種別: 本文
    2001 年 66 巻 546 号 p. 45-52
    発行日: 2001/08/30
    公開日: 2017/02/04
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    This paper on a detached house clarifies the relationship of winter thermal environment with residents' awareness and living activities. Three different methods of research has been applied in Tokushima and Hyogo prefectures and in Hokkaido along with central Canada, areas with drastic differences in a natural thermal environment during the winter Through comparison, it has been concluded that in Tokushima and Hyogo, indoor temperature is kept rather low and living activities are inclined to be restricted, and there is a limitation in the usage of living space. In Hokkaido, more than any other space, there is a tendency to heat up a communal space such as living and dining rooms, and the temperature level of comfortableness is high, in central Canada, there is no limitation of living activities within the house because of appropriately controlled indoor temperature. When designing indoor thermal environments for a regional house, it is important to consider the view of selecting the indoor temperature based on dweller's living conditions.
  • 平岡 久司
    原稿種別: 本文
    2001 年 66 巻 546 号 p. 53-60
    発行日: 2001/08/30
    公開日: 2017/02/04
    ジャーナル フリー
    Modeling the balances of heat, water, vapor, and carbon dioxide within three-dimensional vegetation was tried. This model consists of three submodels: a model for turbulent flow within vegetation, a model for radiation transfer within vegetation, and a stomatal conductance model. This model was applied to a single tree. The numerical experiment resulted in the following : 1) A great deal of short wave radiation absorbed by leaves was released through transpiration. 2) The influence of long wave radiation on the energy balance within the tree was not negligible. 3) The sensible heat transfer due to water vapor flux from leaves hardly affected the energy balance within the tree. The fact indicates that the results from the turbulence model for dry air are almost equal to those of the turbulence model for moist air.
  • 稲沼 實
    原稿種別: 本文
    2001 年 66 巻 546 号 p. 61-68
    発行日: 2001/08/30
    公開日: 2017/02/04
    ジャーナル フリー
    Although the analysis of insolation heat transfer through a window with a blind shows that the convective heattransfer component accounts for a large proportion, many aspects of this heat-transfer mechanism remain unknown. Accordingly, it is very important that the amount of heat transferred by convection should be accurately known. Having been studying about windows from the standpoint of architectural environment planning, the author proposed a mathematical thermal (or insolation-heat-transfer) model and proved its validity as a part of the study. In that model, the convective heat-transfer coefficient α_<sC>[W/(m^2 K)] of slats on a blind was important. For instance, assuming the convective heat-transfer coefficient α_<gC>[W/(m^2 K)] of the inside surface of the window glass is 4.6 W/(m^2 K) and α_<sC>=10, when differences between the measured values and calculated values of the convective heat-transfer amount and slat temperatures were small, then measurements in which the room temperature was kept equal to the outside air temperature had values that nearly agreed1 with calculations. This paper reports on values of α_<gC> and α_<sC>, that best reproduce measured values of convective heat transfer through a sunlit window. We compared to data from 34 experiments that assumed a cooled or a heated room, and also to data in the previous study.
  • 中村 慎, 清水 孝昭, 鉾井 修一
    原稿種別: 本文
    2001 年 66 巻 546 号 p. 69-74
    発行日: 2001/08/30
    公開日: 2017/02/04
    ジャーナル フリー
    In this paper, a new technique of Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage (ATES) system which can be applied to the urban areas effectively is proposed. It is aimed at using a shallow aquifer. The thermal storage process in an aquifer enclosed by the cut-off walls under the building is investigated. An experiment on short term cold storage was done in a central part of Tokyo. The efficiency of heat recovery of 80% or more was obtained at a diurnal cycle, and the sensitivity was analyzed by numerical simulations.
  • 大塚 雅之, 臼井 政夫, 武田 仁
    原稿種別: 本文
    2001 年 66 巻 546 号 p. 75-82
    発行日: 2001/08/30
    公開日: 2017/02/04
    ジャーナル フリー
    The purpose of this study is to evaluate drainage performance and obtain fundamental planning data for drainage systems of low-rise detached houses. In this paper, we grasped characteristic of air resistance of vent caps for standard stack vent pipes, and clarified effect of drainage load on drainage performance at first. Next, the recovery efficacy of drainage performance was quantitatively obtained by employing the support vent device (using small air admittance valve [AAV]) installed on the fixture drain pipe. The device is used when an excessive air resistance exists in single stack system where the drainage performance will be hindered.
  • 下田 吉之, 井上 晋一, 山岸 源, 水野 稔
    原稿種別: 本文
    2001 年 66 巻 546 号 p. 83-90
    発行日: 2001/08/30
    公開日: 2017/02/04
    ジャーナル フリー
    The total material flow in Osaka Prefecture is estimated and the relationship between material flows of building sector and that of the other sector is discussed. Material flow is estimated from physical distribution of commodities, solid waste, discard and purchase of durable consumer goods and demolition and construction of buildings and civil infra-structure. Among the inflow categories, the amount of building material is the largest. In the latter part, solid waste from building demolition in the future is predicted. The results suggested that it will increase by two times as large as present value in 2030 and longevity of building is efficient measures for decrease the waste. The balance of the amount of scrap and steel required for started buildings in the future are also examined.
  • 王 青, 筧 淳夫, 長澤 泰
    原稿種別: 本文
    2001 年 66 巻 546 号 p. 91-96
    発行日: 2001/08/30
    公開日: 2017/02/04
    ジャーナル フリー
    As the Start of The Long-term Care Insurance System for edlerly on Apr. 1, 2000 there will be increasing the number of the elderly who are supported of home medical services as well as home help services. Therefore, the need to discuss the social, cultural, personal and physical environment surrounding the elderly of home care in terms of activity area will come out. Method and Survey : 13 elderly as users for I clinic located at Ibarati were chosen. The Method used is by reading records, questionnaire survey first to nurses, then interviewing the family(S) or nurses(8). Result : 1. They are almost house bound, five of them are bed bound, three of them are bedroom bound. 2. Personal element, social care element and living environment element, ect. have the effect to house, bedroom and bed bound phenomena. 3. The reasons for bedroom bound and bed bound : one is to be disincentive, the other is the shortage of personal care services. The reasons for housebound are attribute to not only presonal elements but also living environment.
  • 斎藤 哲也, 八木 幸二
    原稿種別: 本文
    2001 年 66 巻 546 号 p. 97-104
    発行日: 2001/08/30
    公開日: 2017/02/04
    ジャーナル フリー
    The purpose of this study is to consider the phenomenon of reutilization of historic constructions in Milan. This study focuses on the re-use of historical constructions instead of how to conserve them. To clarify the actual situation of adaptation for the new function, five policies of renovations were extracted by examining the theories for historic restoration. They are "restorative", "harmonizing", "maintaining", "contrasting", and "decorating". Through examining the architectural interventions by enlargement and modification of inner space and by updating of building equipment, this research points out the tendency and characteristic of each policy of renovation.
  • 山田 明子, 芦沢 由紀, 竹宮 健司, 上野 淳
    原稿種別: 本文
    2001 年 66 巻 546 号 p. 105-112
    発行日: 2001/08/30
    公開日: 2017/02/04
    ジャーナル フリー
    The aim of this study is to provide some suggestions in the architectural planning and design of common space in nursing homes for the elderly. Findings are as follows ; 1) The residents's living patterns have a wide range of variation and they come from the relations between others and their use of spaces. (The relations between others and their use of spaces give variety to residents's living patterns.) 2) There is a unique communication group in each common space. 3) Other activities also have important meanings to know the residents's daily livings and many backgrounds have influence in their activities. After all, it is very important not only to understand the diversity of their livings and to reply to each activity but also to consider about the composition of spaces to be able to make the various relation between residents.
  • 境野 健太郎, 山脇 博紀, 中島 美登子, 三浦 研, 外山 義
    原稿種別: 本文
    2001 年 66 巻 546 号 p. 113-119
    発行日: 2001/08/30
    公開日: 2017/02/04
    ジャーナル フリー
    The purposes of this study are 1) to clarify the course of how the residents living in a sanitarium for Hansen's disease individually acquired their own spaces through the investigations on the changes seen in the plan, the problems in the environment and the settlements for them and, furthermore, 2) to obtain knowledge on the environment which leads the residents to improved life pattern by identifying the difference of their awareness level toward the living environment depending on the difference of the course of shifting to another living unit. The following results are based on the clarification of all the plan and on the interviews with the residents : 1) The course of changes seen in the plan of the sanitarium was clarified. 2) The residents preferred having their own spaces because of difficulty of the relationships among them, the sleeping spaces were separated from the dining space and, as a result, some residents eventually had three separated spaces: a living space, a dining space and a bed room. 3) Even if the residents live in the same plan, they have different awareness depending on the course of shifting to another living unit. And also the difference of structuring the relationships gives a great impact on their awareness to improve quality of life.
  • 鈴木 健二, 外山 義, 三浦 研
    原稿種別: 本文
    2001 年 66 巻 546 号 p. 121-126
    発行日: 2001/08/30
    公開日: 2017/02/04
    ジャーナル フリー
    The purpose of this paper is to clarify the changes in quality of life of the elderly people with dementia in Groupliving environment. The method of this study is observations of behavior and interviews with staff. Behavior maps were drawn every Sminutes from morning to night. The survey was repeated 4times at the period of 2months,4months,6months and Smonths after the opening of the home. Some results show as follows: (l)In its early stages,the usage of spaces are limited around the private room. For the residents, common spaces around the private room were playing a important role in adapting to the new environment. (2)As the time went by.the spatial uses were spread out beyond around the private room, and the verbal communications between the residents were increasing widely and deeply. (3)The residents were gradually retaking the life-related behavior which had been prohibited or had not seen. Viewed in this light, these process can be regarded as the reorganization of daily life.
  • 佐野 友紀, 志田 弘二, 建部 謙治
    原稿種別: 本文
    2001 年 66 巻 546 号 p. 127-132
    発行日: 2001/08/30
    公開日: 2017/02/04
    ジャーナル フリー
    This study is intended to analyze the conflict of pedestrian crossing flow. The coordinates of head and rotation of body of crossing pedestrians are measured with motion capture system by experiments. Analysis of the result indicates that crossing pedestrian can avoid the conflict with adjustments in pace and direction, and they change the way of avoiding according to the density of pedestrians and crossed axes angle. It is also revealed that the rotation of body becomes maximum when they turn sideways to pass through the crossing pedestrian. Relative Position Pedestrian Diagram indicates the dynamic movement of crossing pedestrian as static model.
  • 横田 隆司
    原稿種別: 本文
    2001 年 66 巻 546 号 p. 133-139
    発行日: 2001/08/30
    公開日: 2017/02/04
    ジャーナル フリー
    This research aims to analyze the actual conditions of number of community facilities by prefectures with DBA for achieving efficient facilities location. Firstly, numbers of various kinds of facilities are analyzed by using two DEA models; CCR and BCC with the local data such as population in comparison with the regression analysis. While the results show the between number of variables and accountability of DEA, it is proposed that the hierarchical structure method and the efficiency of scale driven from CCR and BCC analysis can show the improvement strategy of DMU.
  • 杉浦 徳利, 岡崎 甚幸
    原稿種別: 本文
    2001 年 66 巻 546 号 p. 141-148
    発行日: 2001/08/30
    公開日: 2017/02/04
    ジャーナル フリー
    The latent rules of space composition process in the experiment of Architectural Space Montage Technique (ASMT) was extracted by Inductive Logic Programming (IIP: one of machine learning methodology). The process of miniature disposition in ASMT is described as 4 attributes of miniatures: kind, direction, difference in order of disposition and geometric binomial relation, which is expressed in first order predicate logic. Four results of experiment of ASMT were analyzed by ILP. And the peculiar rules extracted in each experiment were L-shaped enclosure, composition with detached miniatures, lengthwise parallel, composition with mat, respectively.
  • 青木 義次, 藤井 晴行, 木下 芳郎
    原稿種別: 本文
    2001 年 66 巻 546 号 p. 149-154
    発行日: 2001/08/30
    公開日: 2017/02/04
    ジャーナル フリー
    The objective of this research is to construct a model to represent the expert judgment on the total safety grade of buildings. A mathematical model and an artificial intelligence model are examined if they represent the relation between nine aspects concerning fire safety of buildings as input and the total safety grade as output. A weighted-sum model built by regression analysis contains some negative weights even though it explains the input-output relation well. A neural network model, whose parameters are estimated by the back-propagation, represents the relation well. The latter model is expected to learn the relation on the fly.
  • 苅谷 哲朗
    原稿種別: 本文
    2001 年 66 巻 546 号 p. 155-162
    発行日: 2001/08/30
    公開日: 2017/02/04
    ジャーナル フリー
    The author extract 3 components such as solid angle ratio ・ components of connection ・ names of the faces which compose the scenes of architecture, as 3 components of identity ・ structure ・ meaning .This study argues especially solid angle ratios as identity of faces, and calculate properties of solid angle ratio such as averages and amounts of information, and make graphs in relation to the numbers of the faces also to the layers that are the stages of the depth of the hierarchical structure of the scene. It is shown that the distribution of the solid angle ratios of the faces reflect the characteristic of the images of the scenes of architecture very well.
  • 齋藤 輝二, 永野 義紀
    原稿種別: 本文
    2001 年 66 巻 546 号 p. 163-170
    発行日: 2001/08/30
    公開日: 2017/02/04
    ジャーナル フリー
    The purpose of this paper is to clear the space composition of the plain farm village's house of the KIN race(VIET race) in northern VIETNAM. They are commposed of a main building, atached building, a courtyard wchich is called SUN,a kichen garden which is called VUON and a pond. A typical type of space commposition of the site is L shape of which a main building and an atached building enclose SUN and adding VUON. And there are some other types. The typical type of main building is composed of a wide room which is called KHONG KHACH and a bed room which is called BUONG. For a long time the traditional one story house has been built, but at present time'two or three stories houses appeared and are incresing.
  • 北尾 靖雅, 内井 昭蔵
    原稿種別: 本文
    2001 年 66 巻 546 号 p. 171-178
    発行日: 2001/08/30
    公開日: 2017/02/04
    ジャーナル フリー
    The purpose of this study is to make clear the design method of collective form in collaboration for developing the Master Architect Design Method . To understand this subject, we researched the design process of the collective form and we extracted : 1) collective form design examples of collaboration method , 2) classification of design examples by collective form model and image, 3) design collaboration flame 4) design decision method, 5) design element coordination. 6) structure of design coordination process of each collective form model and image. As a result, the collective design model and design images are related to the collaboration design methods that can create a total collective form.
  • 和田 幸信
    原稿種別: 本文
    2001 年 66 巻 546 号 p. 179-186
    発行日: 2001/08/30
    公開日: 2017/02/04
    ジャーナル フリー
    This paper deals with the system of control on advertising storeboards in France. Storeboards are classified into three categories according to their physical relationship to a store. They are storeboards attached to the store, before-storeboards which inform about the store ahead and advertising storeboards, which are general purpose advertisements. There are four types of advertising storeboards ; namely, storeboards attached to a wall, storeboards on the ground, storeboards using lights and storeboards attached to street furniture. Though advertising storeboards are permitted in the urban area, they are prohibited in historic landscapes. However this prohibition is lifted partly by setting special zones.
  • 白石 靖幸, 加藤 信介, 吉田 伸治, 村上 周三
    原稿種別: 本文
    2001 年 66 巻 546 号 p. 187-192
    発行日: 2001/08/30
    公開日: 2017/02/04
    ジャーナル フリー
    The main driving forces for the propagation of urban fires are the thermal radiation from the fire and the leaping flames due to the drifting firebrands. In the present work, drifting firebrands in an urban fire are numerically simulated by means of CFD with a turbulence model. Firebrands are treated as airborne particles subject to sedimentation due to the gravity. Characteristics of brand drifting are investigated under various wind conditions, sedimentation speed and locations of a brand source. 1) When the approaching flow is relatively slow, the vertical thermal plume is raised by the fire and reaches up to around 100m height. In comparison, when the approaching flow is fast, the incoming flow acts to suppress the thermal plume. 2) The sedimentation fluxes over the downstream building roofs increase under high wind conditions, so the risk of the fire spreading increases on the leeward side of the fire. 3) Drifting patterns measured with the sedimentation fluxes over the downstream building roofs and so on, depend much on the effective diameter of brands. 4) When the upward plane of the building catches fire, the circulation flow in front of the burning surface suppresses thermal diffusion in the horizontal direction. In contrast, when the leeward plane of the building catches fire, the leeward circulation behind the building promotes horizontal thermal diffusion. The latter flow results in the reduction in the velocity of thermal plume. 5) When the roof or the leeward plane of the building catches fire, it developed into hot ascending flow patterns which promote the drifting of the firebrand.
  • 鈴木 勉
    原稿種別: 本文
    2001 年 66 巻 546 号 p. 193-197
    発行日: 2001/08/30
    公開日: 2017/02/04
    ジャーナル フリー
    Multiple service facilities can often save total cost for provision of service because of the economies of scale associated with facility size and the ability to share resources including land. In this paper, two multiple service facility location problems are formulated as minimization problems of the sum of travel cost and building cost of facilities. One assumes that the total number of facilities is given exogenously, and the other assumes that the total number of facilities is determined endogenously. Some numerical examples show that co-location of different type of facilities increases as land cost increases for the exogenous case. Similarly, co-location of facilities increases as land cost increases for the endogenous case while keeping the number of facilities large.
  • 小早川 敏
    原稿種別: 本文
    2001 年 66 巻 546 号 p. 199-205
    発行日: 2001/08/30
    公開日: 2017/02/04
    ジャーナル フリー
    The author has developed and iirproved sane oxistruction methods by reinforced precast concrete ORPC) in almost two decades. This paper described the results of long study on the labor productivity based on the author's experiences. Tne summary of this study as followed : (1) Difference between labor productivity of on-site work using the RFC method and conventional methods (2) Relationship of labor productivity to the structural method used with the RFC method (3) Actual precast concrete member ratio in the RFC method (4) Relationship of precast concrete member ratio with labor productivity
  • Ahmad SARWADI, 東樋口 護, 橋本 清勇
    原稿種別: 本文
    2001 年 66 巻 546 号 p. 207-214
    発行日: 2001/08/30
    公開日: 2017/02/04
    ジャーナル フリー
    1. 序論 : インドネシア・スマトラ島パレンバン市ムシ川の川辺居住地における住環境改善に向けて、本研究は、この川辺居住地の社会・経済的考察・分析を行うとともに、その住居および居住地の空間特性、居住者特性について考察・分析することを目的としている。本稿では、1996〜98年に行った、ムシ川とオーガン川の合流点に位置するRT1ケルラハン、ケルタパティ地域(筏住居18戸、高床住居21戸)と、ムシ川とケドゥカン川の合流点にあるRT10ケルラハン、5ウル(筏住居14戸、高床住居31戸)地域における、現地調査、世帯主へのインタビュー、住居・居住地の実測・スケッチに基づき、特に、筏住居と高床住居両者の差異とパレンバン市の中での位置づけ、居室配置の類型化、人々が集まる場所に着目しながら、川辺居住独特の住居・居住地、および利用方法について考察する。2. ムシ川川辺居住地における住居の物理的状況 : 平均建築面積では筏住居が44m^2と、高床住居(53m^2)や(58m^2)の平均よりも狭い。使用される建材は、筏住居と高床住居は、構造材の殆どが木材や竹で、屋根は7割以上がトタン板である。また両者とも電気は供給されているが、水は川水を使用し、全ての筏住居、高床住居では屎尿が直接川に流されており、ゴミ回収も行われておらず、パレンバン市全体と比べると衛生設備の不備が目立つ。3. 居室配置の類型化 : 筏住居、高床住居ともに住居専用、職住併用の二つのタイプがあるが、殆どが住居専用として用いられている。建築面積と家族人数、あるいは床面積と世帯収入との間には殆ど相関関係は見られない。だが、62.5%の筏住居と、42.3%の高床住居の居室は、DK-GL/GLS-S (Dinning+Kitchen, Guest+Living/Guest+Living+Sleeping, Sleeping)のパターンで配置されているおり、また高床住居では、床面積が大きい程、居室の単一機能化の傾向が見られる。このような居室配置の特徴から、筏住居と高床住居の居室配置において、(1)客間と台所の分離 : 客間は必ず台所と分ける、(2)寝室機能の優先的分離 : 寝室が先に単一機能居室となる、(3) DK (Dinning+Kitchen)、 GL (Guest+ Living)という結合傾向 : 台所+食堂、客間+居間といったコンビネーションの傾向がある、ことが分かった。屋外についてみると、筏住居の93.8%、高床住居の75.0%に、テラスが設けられており、テラス面積対建築面積の比率は、筏住居16.5%、高床住居12.4%と比較的広く、またテラスでは、日常的な会話、子供の遊び場、物干し、にわとりなどの飼育場として利用されている。4. 人々が集まる場所〜People Gathering Places : 川辺居住地では特に人々が集まる場所が重要な役割を果たしている。調査の結果、居住地の中には以下の3つのタイプの場所があることがわかった。(1)水上(川中) : 主に洗濯を行う、(2)川に向かう橋上 : 洗濯後の休憩、乗降時の待ち合い、(3)高床住居内の広場 : 子供の遊び場、ゲーム場として用いる。このような場所は、そのタイプによって使用する居住者が異なっており、(1)は3、4世帯毎に場所が決まっており、また(2)は調査対象エリア外の人も利用する。また形式的な行為はRTリーダーの家で行われることなどから、人々が集まる場所は、居住者が屋外生活を楽しむためのインフォーマルな近隣施設と位置づけられる。5. 結論 : 以上、調査結果に基づき、パレンバン市ムシ川の川辺居住地における住居・居住地の物理的特性を明らかにした。建築面積と家族人数、収入との相関が無いが、(1)居室配置がDK-GL/GLS-S (Dinning+Kitchen, Guest+Living/Guest+Living+Sleeping, Sleeping)という独特のパターンを有するものが多いこと、(2)「客間と台所の分離」、「寝室機能の優先的分離」、「DK (Dinning+Kitchen)、GL (Guest+Living)という結合傾向」という3つのルールが見出されること、(3)屋外の人々が集まる場所には「水上」、「川に向いた橋上」、「高床住居内の広場」があること、(4)屋内と屋外をつなぐテラスが筏住居、高床住居共にあり、特に筏住居では複合的機能を果たしていること、を見出した。そして筏住居・高床住居双方の居住者がこのような屋外空間の相互利用を通してコミュニティを形成していると考えられる。
  • 越部 毅
    原稿種別: 本文
    2001 年 66 巻 546 号 p. 215-222
    発行日: 2001/08/30
    公開日: 2017/02/04
    ジャーナル フリー
    When private high school has a plan of rebuilding or enlargement, he has to study the economic feasibility for it in project planning stage. In this paper, the theoretic model of feasibility study is proposed from the viewpoint of investment theory, and the factors for income and outgo planning for the study are clarified and arranged for planning data through the survey of management documents in 28 private high schools. And from the economic calculation using these factors, quantitative relations between investment planning and income & outgo planning are clarified.
  • 岩波 由佳
    原稿種別: 本文
    2001 年 66 巻 546 号 p. 223-229
    発行日: 2001/08/30
    公開日: 2017/02/04
    ジャーナル フリー
    The purpose of this paper is to explicate how did the medieval city, Jinaimachi,relate to the pre-modern city.For that.it is the way to make clear the transformation of city structure by stages.In this study, it is taken up about Kaizuka Jinaimachi.The first formation of the basement of the pre-modern city, composed of the base road and the town including Jodo-Shinshu temple,was influenced by the madieval Jinai.And Jinaimachi,completed at the beginning of Edo period,was made by high level planning,and it suggests the city was reformed in the 17th century.And the city was advanced in the neighborhood.But after that,the speciality and the advantage of Jinaimachi disappeared because the gulf between rich and poor had been wide by the development of new economically current at the end of Edo period.
  • 松口 輝久
    原稿種別: 本文
    2001 年 66 巻 546 号 p. 231-237
    発行日: 2001/08/30
    公開日: 2017/02/04
    ジャーナル フリー
    In this study , fe analyzed the block size and form of the Semba area and the Shimanouchi area and clarified the distinction of the four districts , zoned by the difference of development periodes. Type- I was the first peYiod of the Semba area, its inside measurement of the block was 42ken. Type-II was the second period of the Semba area, its depth of the subdivision was 20ken ; Type-III was the third period of the Semba area, its block form was the same as T. Type-IV was the Shimanouchi area, its block was type of turning Type- H to 90-degree angle.
  • 藤尾 直史
    原稿種別: 本文
    2001 年 66 巻 546 号 p. 239-243
    発行日: 2001/08/30
    公開日: 2017/02/04
    ジャーナル フリー
    This is a study on toryo's tranfer to Edobakufu-Kobushinkata & Fushinkata. As widely known, Edobakufu, or the Tokugawa Shogunate, had three offices called Sakujikata, Kobushinkata and Fushinkata. We already have some studies on each of them but not yet on toryo's tranfer from one office to the others, from Sakujikata to Kobushinkata & Fushinkata, and that's the main subject of this paper.
  • 佐藤 修
    原稿種別: 本文
    2001 年 66 巻 546 号 p. 245-252
    発行日: 2001/08/30
    公開日: 2017/02/04
    ジャーナル フリー
    The purpose of this paper is to study the characteristics seen in the fagades of both merchant and fisherman houses in Mori-machi in the early Showa period (1926-1945). It is found that most of the fagades of Shoka (merchant houses) consisted of double hung windows, pilasters, capitals, cornices, and other ornamental details.It is also found that most of the bay windows of Gyoka( fisherman houses) were formed by an angle of 45 degrees and both sashes of double hung windows and bay windows were arranged in such a Japanese style often found in frames of Ranma or Shoji. And the rooms with the bay windows have been used as reception rooms from which one could see the seascape.
  • 河東 義之, 中村 光彦, 浅羽 英男, 海老原 忠夫, 今井 正敏
    原稿種別: 本文
    2001 年 66 巻 546 号 p. 253-259
    発行日: 2001/08/30
    公開日: 2017/02/04
    ジャーナル フリー
    Nikko Tamozawa Imperial Villa set up in 1899 is the only Imperial villa constructed at the Meiji era, which has been left as for the main part. The purchase negotiation of the site started in 1896, and construction was begun in January 1899. Main building of this villa was composed of the removing and reconstructing building from Akasaka Detached Palace, the existing building, and the newly built building. Nevertheless, construction was completed in a surprising short term. Though a lot of workmen were mobilized to the construction, It was only several engineers in the Imperial Works Bureau of Department of the Imperial Household who managed construction and supervised them.
  • 青木 祐介
    原稿種別: 本文
    2001 年 66 巻 546 号 p. 261-267
    発行日: 2001/08/30
    公開日: 2017/02/04
    ジャーナル フリー
    The first version of "Seigen-Zu" to be established as the design format of shrines in the Meiji era was presented by the Ministry of Finance in August 1872. The second version by the Ministry of Religion followed three months later. The third version, again by the Ministry of Finance, was prepared in April 1873, and was to finalize the design process of "Seigen-Zu". In 1875, "Seigen-Zu" was to be applied to the construction for more shrines, thereby occasioning the need to circulate copies of this final version in woodblock print form.
  • 中西 章
    原稿種別: 本文
    2001 年 66 巻 546 号 p. 269-274
    発行日: 2001/08/30
    公開日: 2017/02/04
    ジャーナル フリー
    This paper is about the changes in construction work organization, "Do-Gam", during the Yi-Dynasty of Korea. The findings are as follows. At the ealy stage of the dynasty, the organization of construction work took over that of Koryo-Dynasty. It underwent some changes during the 15th and 16th century. Toward the second half of the dynasty it was greatly enlarged, mainly composed of bureaucats from the central government. But its scale was reduced after the middle of the 18th century.
  • 高松 由子, 土居 義岳
    原稿種別: 本文
    2001 年 66 巻 546 号 p. 275-282
    発行日: 2001/08/30
    公開日: 2017/02/04
    ジャーナル フリー
    From the second half of the 18th century to the early part of the 19th century, "the Aryan theory" was established. The first Governor-General of Bengal, W. Hastings applied this theory in his India administration. After he retired from his part for the Governor-General, he was impeached by the House of Commons. In 1800, "The Hindoo Temple at.Melchet Park" was built to tell future Hastings's administration and the retrieval of his lost honor for the Governor-General. Hastings had the Aryan theory, which was reflected the inscriptions, the architecture, and the landscape at Melchet Park by the designer T. Daniell.
  • 崔 康勲
    原稿種別: 本文
    2001 年 66 巻 546 号 p. 283-288
    発行日: 2001/08/30
    公開日: 2017/02/04
    ジャーナル フリー
    Buildings of Hosei University designed by professor Hiroshi OHE architect are known as most important works of university campas after World War Secound. They are constructed according to total master plan during five years from 1953 to 1958. After "55's Building ", he had "design-alteration" for 58's Building". In this time and at a foreign land, he had imaged a university and had recognised that university is a community and coopration. We surmise that he had been thinking for idea and sketch of "university", foilwing production management for "Japanes Pavilion in Sao Pauro" designed by Sutemi HORIGUCHI architect.
  • 大東 俊介, 久野 紀光, 斎藤 潮
    原稿種別: 本文
    2001 年 66 巻 546 号 p. 289-296
    発行日: 2001/08/30
    公開日: 2017/02/04
    ジャーナル フリー
    The purpose of this study is to analyze the tendency of the "scenes" chosen by architectural photographers and to clarify the characteristics of these locations where the "scenes" exists visually and emotionally. The procedure for this study will be evaluated in three steps. First, the "scenes" chosen by the photographers were modeled quantitatively from the aspect of the condition of architectural faces and sides. Second, twenty-one actual architectural examples were categorized with their value. Last, the points chosen by the photographers were reviewed to obtain the maximum architectural information by working with such restrictions as lot conditions.
  • 柳沢 和彦, 岡崎 甚幸, 高橋 ありす
    原稿種別: 本文
    2001 年 66 巻 546 号 p. 297-304
    発行日: 2001/08/30
    公開日: 2017/02/04
    ジャーナル フリー
    By the "landscape montage technique", 480 landscape pictures were sketched by subjects from kindergarten children through university, students. Ten types of disposition of river with relation to a frame as a fence in order of the development; the fiver along the bottom frame; between left and right frames; between top and bottom ; at the bottom corner; between top and side; between bottom and side; the tapering river; etc, and characteristics of landscape spatial composition according to the types were clarified.
  • Leila AYOUB, 小林 英嗣
    原稿種別: 本文
    2001 年 66 巻 546 号 p. 305-313
    発行日: 2001/08/30
    公開日: 2017/02/04
    ジャーナル フリー
    建物の開口や空間を通して、人間は周辺環境、他人、自然や神との関係を規定している。見、聞き、呼吸し、建物内部から外部を感じることは、人間が「開放性」や周辺環境における自らの存在を通して刻み込まれている実存的な要求である。本稿の目的は、建築的な空間をデザインしていく過程において、また、異なった形で存在する要求、文化、社会的な興味への対応において、どのように「開放性」の概念を反映させることができるかを、伝統的建築とモダニズム建築を通して模索することである。方法としては以下の通りである。人間の知覚・感覚を通しての「開放性」の意味を抽出するために、理論上の検討を行なった上で、「開放性」の概念を定義する。その際Marleau Ponty、Jean Cousin とChristian Riccordeauの言説を参照した。このアプローチは、「開放性」の概念は「閉鎖性」の概念や領界性と深く相互関係があることを考慮する上での基本となる。伝統的建築やモダニズム建築の空間において示されている「開放性」の表現をみる。建築において、領界をとおした開放は、内部と外部の間で機能的な要求(光・眺め・通気・空間的で時間的な接続)を調節する異なった表現や配置・形状をもたらす。よって、内部と外部の関係やそれらの接合の仕方を通して、「開放性」の多様な表現を見た。得られた知見を以下に示す。1.「開放性」の定義 はじめに、「開放性」を人間の感覚や歩行能力と関係する概念として定義した。すなわち、それは領界を通して、領界や人間の身体における外側との接続と伝達を可能とするような、人間の感覚である。さらに、歩行している身体を通して得られる自身の感覚の拡張である。Gaston BachelardとChristian Riccordeauの研究を参考にしたことにより、以下のことを導いた。それは、人間の性質の同義性である開放/閉鎖、すなわち、人間は領界における「開放性」を通して自らを拡張できることを望むだけでなく、安全で保護されていると感じたい欲求があることが知られているということである。2. 多様な「開放性」の表現とその依拠 次に、伝統的建築やモダニズム建築を検証し、異なるコンテクストの中の様々な「開放性」の表現の探求を行った。その結果を以下に示す。・「開放性」にもとづいた空間的処理によってもたらされる多様な建築的空間は、多くの指標に依存していると考えられる。具体的には社会・文化的なコンテクスト、物質的なコンテクスト、気候、機能的なコンテクスト、実存化、使われた技術、最後に建築家である。・これらの指標の影響を調べた上で、建物において最も重要なことは、我々の必要性を満たす解決策の型であり、文化的に定義されるものであると結論づけた。それは、窓やドアの存在の有無ではなく、それらの位置や方向である。・外部の周辺環境や内部で要望される雰囲気の特性を知ることや、周辺環境を顕在化させたり内部に異なる雰囲気を創出するために「開放性」をデザインすることは重要である。3. 結論 この研究の目的は、建築のデザインにおける技法的な概念として、「開放性」の領界を検証することであった。そしてこれは最初に「閉鎖性」ではなく、「開放性」に焦点を当て、建築的な空間について考えることにより可能であった。次に、人間の経験的、文化的、社会的な事柄の具体化のために、どのように「開放性」はデザインされることが可能なのかを提示した。具体的には、以下のように結論づけることができる。・ 物理的かつ社会・文化的なコンテクスト、すなわち、与えられた環境の土地に自ら立った上で企画を行なうに際し、「開放性」の概念は、与えられた環境に対する答えとなる計画の極めて初期段階に検討されるべきである。・周辺環境を感じ、場所に帰属するプロジェクトをつくり、それに"地域性"をもたらすために、我々ははじめに、環境(光、眺望、空気、音)から何を選択するのか、内部と外部の間をどのように接合するか、構成の段階において開放と閉鎖をどのように組み合わせるかを考えるべきである。・おそらく、「開放性」が視覚的な透明感だけでなく、すべての感覚に関係しているという事実に気づくことにより、人間の要求に対してより敏感な計画を実行することができる。(内部の変化する雰囲気を感じることにより、人間に十分に喜びあふれる経験をさせる)。人間の感覚と「開放性」を組み合わせたり分割することによって、性格とアイデンティティを、雰囲気の相違に応じて空間に与えることができる。・「開放性」にもとづいた空間のデザインのプロセスを展開することによって、最近の課題をも解決しうる点で、日本の伝統的建築は優れていると考えられる。
  • 畔柳 昭雄, 佐々木 隆三
    原稿種別: 本文
    2001 年 66 巻 546 号 p. 315-320
    発行日: 2001/08/30
    公開日: 2017/02/04
    ジャーナル フリー
    The purpose of the study was to explain the exterior composition of oceanic architecture at the plane form type and the difference. As the result, the exterior composition of facilities parts was integrated as the simple substance composition of mass. Also, characteristics of spatial composition, architecture located on sea with Independence was cleared as the center composition of the building, and architecture located alongside the pier was exterior composition which makes connect element of composition. In addition, fixed type was the exterior composition whereby a freedom degree is high, and the floating type was cleared as the symmetric spatial composition.
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