In this report : part-6, Calculations and experiments on structure-borne sound propagation in multi-storied plate construction model are compared. And they are shown that calculated values are fairly coincided with measured values, by introducing some corrections for lower frequency range. This calculating method is able to predict(estimate) frequency characteristics at important frequency range. But at the higher frequency range, measured values tend to show lower values than calculated. Additionally calculation programs are applied to study of the relation between the loss factor of material and the additional structure caused mechanical damping. The relation between experimental frequency response and material loss factor are explained as structural damping by calculated values.
Impact sound improvements of wooden cover floor on concrete slab for heavy/soft impact sources are investigated. This paper shows three aspects of investigation for the spring effect of air space between floor covering and slab. First, the distributions of improvement due to the impact point are measured at a multi-family dwelling. Hence, the effect of covering is relatively high at the peripheral area, and the distribution differs from that of the ceiling. Second, it is shown that the improvement caused by the air spring between slab and wooden cover floor can be effective rather than the vibration transmission via supporting studs. Especially air spring transmission is spread equally to all of the covered area and it differs the transmission via studs. Furthermore, the effects of backing-impedance for vibration transmission of finite double-layered plate are shown using numerical calculation.
Living environment of the building under the viaduct structure is very important to keep well. The exciting force is not grasped sufficient, in the research of the structure-borne sound that occurs at the time of train passing. Also, the vibration and sound isolation theory and measure remain and be not proven. We think of reducing traffic vibration by the system adjusting suspension devices. We report the result that we examined about the vibration reduction method of the building that is suspended to the elevated railway in the main discourse.
This is a study on dirt and changes over time of Polytetra fluorine ethylene (PTFE) membranes used for membrane structures. Using an electron microscope, the physical states of membrane material surfaces which were exposed for about 6 years to sunshine are shown. And there was a lapse of 6 years, twelve part of PTFE membranes were evaluated by rate of dirt. Main findings are as follow ; (1) Chromaticity of transmission color is more transformation thaji reflection color. (2) Membranes were washed clean once five or six years. So luminous characteristics improved. (3) After membranes were exposed to the weather, indoor thermal characteristics does not change. (4) Reflection rate of dirt is larger than transmission rate of dirt.
The proportion of the light and shade areas of the face is very important when the modelling is evaluated. It is necessary to investigate the features of the boundary between perceived light and shade areas and the relationship between the boundary position and the luminous quantities. An experiment was carried out in which the subjects judged the boundary position of the light and shade areas on a cylinder illuminated from one direction. It was found that the observation position (angle) and the cylindrical size did not affect the boundary position perceived on the cylinder surface. The angle at which the boundary was found was consistent with that showing the largest ratio of luminance at successive two points on the cylinder surface.
For the purpose of evaluation and improvement of thermal environment in traditional vernacular houses of Nepal, the winter thermal indoor environment was measured and investigated regarding 1) the relation between indoor and outdoor climate, 2) thermal environmental indices and 3) comparison with existing studies. 1) The thermal environment of investigated houses in ground floors / middle floor are as followings, a) indoor air temp, was 2.5K (daytime), 4.7K (nighttime) higher than outdoor air temp., b) specific humidity was 0.9g/kg' (daytime), 1.2g/kg' (nighttime) higher than outdoor specific humidity, c) vertical air temp, difference was 3.7K (daytime) greater than the ASHRAE ST-55 thermal comfort standard, that is 3K, while attic rooms are similar to outdoor. The results showed that the thermal environment are better in ground floors / middle floor than in attic rooms. 2) The mean PMV was -1.2 which was lower than the ISO 7730 standard , that is ± 0.5 and the mean SET* was 20.0℃ which was lower than the ASHRAE ST-55, that is 22.2〜 25.6℃. It was clerified that residents live in lower thermal environment than standards. 3) Compared with Japanese houses in existing studies, Nepalese houses were similar in indoor and outdoor temp, differences, while they were less in vertical temp, differences.
This paper on a detached house clarifies the relationship of winter thermal environment with residents' awareness and living activities. Three different methods of research has been applied in Tokushima and Hyogo prefectures and in Hokkaido along with central Canada, areas with drastic differences in a natural thermal environment during the winter Through comparison, it has been concluded that in Tokushima and Hyogo, indoor temperature is kept rather low and living activities are inclined to be restricted, and there is a limitation in the usage of living space. In Hokkaido, more than any other space, there is a tendency to heat up a communal space such as living and dining rooms, and the temperature level of comfortableness is high, in central Canada, there is no limitation of living activities within the house because of appropriately controlled indoor temperature. When designing indoor thermal environments for a regional house, it is important to consider the view of selecting the indoor temperature based on dweller's living conditions.
Modeling the balances of heat, water, vapor, and carbon dioxide within three-dimensional vegetation was tried. This model consists of three submodels: a model for turbulent flow within vegetation, a model for radiation transfer within vegetation, and a stomatal conductance model. This model was applied to a single tree. The numerical experiment resulted in the following : 1) A great deal of short wave radiation absorbed by leaves was released through transpiration. 2) The influence of long wave radiation on the energy balance within the tree was not negligible. 3) The sensible heat transfer due to water vapor flux from leaves hardly affected the energy balance within the tree. The fact indicates that the results from the turbulence model for dry air are almost equal to those of the turbulence model for moist air.
Although the analysis of insolation heat transfer through a window with a blind shows that the convective heattransfer component accounts for a large proportion, many aspects of this heat-transfer mechanism remain unknown. Accordingly, it is very important that the amount of heat transferred by convection should be accurately known. Having been studying about windows from the standpoint of architectural environment planning, the author proposed a mathematical thermal (or insolation-heat-transfer) model and proved its validity as a part of the study. In that model, the convective heat-transfer coefficient α_<sC>[W/(m^2 K)] of slats on a blind was important. For instance, assuming the convective heat-transfer coefficient α_<gC>[W/(m^2 K)] of the inside surface of the window glass is 4.6 W/(m^2 K) and α_<sC>=10, when differences between the measured values and calculated values of the convective heat-transfer amount and slat temperatures were small, then measurements in which the room temperature was kept equal to the outside air temperature had values that nearly agreed1 with calculations. This paper reports on values of α_<gC> and α_<sC>, that best reproduce measured values of convective heat transfer through a sunlit window. We compared to data from 34 experiments that assumed a cooled or a heated room, and also to data in the previous study.
In this paper, a new technique of Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage (ATES) system which can be applied to the urban areas effectively is proposed. It is aimed at using a shallow aquifer. The thermal storage process in an aquifer enclosed by the cut-off walls under the building is investigated. An experiment on short term cold storage was done in a central part of Tokyo. The efficiency of heat recovery of 80% or more was obtained at a diurnal cycle, and the sensitivity was analyzed by numerical simulations.
The purpose of this study is to evaluate drainage performance and obtain fundamental planning data for drainage systems of low-rise detached houses. In this paper, we grasped characteristic of air resistance of vent caps for standard stack vent pipes, and clarified effect of drainage load on drainage performance at first. Next, the recovery efficacy of drainage performance was quantitatively obtained by employing the support vent device (using small air admittance valve [AAV]) installed on the fixture drain pipe. The device is used when an excessive air resistance exists in single stack system where the drainage performance will be hindered.
The total material flow in Osaka Prefecture is estimated and the relationship between material flows of building sector and that of the other sector is discussed. Material flow is estimated from physical distribution of commodities, solid waste, discard and purchase of durable consumer goods and demolition and construction of buildings and civil infra-structure. Among the inflow categories, the amount of building material is the largest. In the latter part, solid waste from building demolition in the future is predicted. The results suggested that it will increase by two times as large as present value in 2030 and longevity of building is efficient measures for decrease the waste. The balance of the amount of scrap and steel required for started buildings in the future are also examined.
As the Start of The Long-term Care Insurance System for edlerly on Apr. 1, 2000 there will be increasing the number of the elderly who are supported of home medical services as well as home help services. Therefore, the need to discuss the social, cultural, personal and physical environment surrounding the elderly of home care in terms of activity area will come out. Method and Survey : 13 elderly as users for I clinic located at Ibarati were chosen. The Method used is by reading records, questionnaire survey first to nurses, then interviewing the family(S) or nurses(8). Result : 1. They are almost house bound, five of them are bed bound, three of them are bedroom bound. 2. Personal element, social care element and living environment element, ect. have the effect to house, bedroom and bed bound phenomena. 3. The reasons for bedroom bound and bed bound : one is to be disincentive, the other is the shortage of personal care services. The reasons for housebound are attribute to not only presonal elements but also living environment.
The purpose of this study is to consider the phenomenon of reutilization of historic constructions in Milan. This study focuses on the re-use of historical constructions instead of how to conserve them. To clarify the actual situation of adaptation for the new function, five policies of renovations were extracted by examining the theories for historic restoration. They are "restorative", "harmonizing", "maintaining", "contrasting", and "decorating". Through examining the architectural interventions by enlargement and modification of inner space and by updating of building equipment, this research points out the tendency and characteristic of each policy of renovation.
The aim of this study is to provide some suggestions in the architectural planning and design of common space in nursing homes for the elderly. Findings are as follows ; 1) The residents's living patterns have a wide range of variation and they come from the relations between others and their use of spaces. (The relations between others and their use of spaces give variety to residents's living patterns.) 2) There is a unique communication group in each common space. 3) Other activities also have important meanings to know the residents's daily livings and many backgrounds have influence in their activities. After all, it is very important not only to understand the diversity of their livings and to reply to each activity but also to consider about the composition of spaces to be able to make the various relation between residents.
The purposes of this study are 1) to clarify the course of how the residents living in a sanitarium for Hansen's disease individually acquired their own spaces through the investigations on the changes seen in the plan, the problems in the environment and the settlements for them and, furthermore, 2) to obtain knowledge on the environment which leads the residents to improved life pattern by identifying the difference of their awareness level toward the living environment depending on the difference of the course of shifting to another living unit. The following results are based on the clarification of all the plan and on the interviews with the residents : 1) The course of changes seen in the plan of the sanitarium was clarified. 2) The residents preferred having their own spaces because of difficulty of the relationships among them, the sleeping spaces were separated from the dining space and, as a result, some residents eventually had three separated spaces: a living space, a dining space and a bed room. 3) Even if the residents live in the same plan, they have different awareness depending on the course of shifting to another living unit. And also the difference of structuring the relationships gives a great impact on their awareness to improve quality of life.
The purpose of this paper is to clarify the changes in quality of life of the elderly people with dementia in Groupliving environment. The method of this study is observations of behavior and interviews with staff. Behavior maps were drawn every Sminutes from morning to night. The survey was repeated 4times at the period of 2months,4months,6months and Smonths after the opening of the home. Some results show as follows: (l)In its early stages,the usage of spaces are limited around the private room. For the residents, common spaces around the private room were playing a important role in adapting to the new environment. (2)As the time went by.the spatial uses were spread out beyond around the private room, and the verbal communications between the residents were increasing widely and deeply. (3)The residents were gradually retaking the life-related behavior which had been prohibited or had not seen. Viewed in this light, these process can be regarded as the reorganization of daily life.
This study is intended to analyze the conflict of pedestrian crossing flow. The coordinates of head and rotation of body of crossing pedestrians are measured with motion capture system by experiments. Analysis of the result indicates that crossing pedestrian can avoid the conflict with adjustments in pace and direction, and they change the way of avoiding according to the density of pedestrians and crossed axes angle. It is also revealed that the rotation of body becomes maximum when they turn sideways to pass through the crossing pedestrian. Relative Position Pedestrian Diagram indicates the dynamic movement of crossing pedestrian as static model.
This research aims to analyze the actual conditions of number of community facilities by prefectures with DBA for achieving efficient facilities location. Firstly, numbers of various kinds of facilities are analyzed by using two DEA models; CCR and BCC with the local data such as population in comparison with the regression analysis. While the results show the between number of variables and accountability of DEA, it is proposed that the hierarchical structure method and the efficiency of scale driven from CCR and BCC analysis can show the improvement strategy of DMU.
The latent rules of space composition process in the experiment of Architectural Space Montage Technique (ASMT) was extracted by Inductive Logic Programming (IIP: one of machine learning methodology). The process of miniature disposition in ASMT is described as 4 attributes of miniatures: kind, direction, difference in order of disposition and geometric binomial relation, which is expressed in first order predicate logic. Four results of experiment of ASMT were analyzed by ILP. And the peculiar rules extracted in each experiment were L-shaped enclosure, composition with detached miniatures, lengthwise parallel, composition with mat, respectively.
The objective of this research is to construct a model to represent the expert judgment on the total safety grade of buildings. A mathematical model and an artificial intelligence model are examined if they represent the relation between nine aspects concerning fire safety of buildings as input and the total safety grade as output. A weighted-sum model built by regression analysis contains some negative weights even though it explains the input-output relation well. A neural network model, whose parameters are estimated by the back-propagation, represents the relation well. The latter model is expected to learn the relation on the fly.
The author extract 3 components such as solid angle ratio ・ components of connection ・ names of the faces which compose the scenes of architecture, as 3 components of identity ・ structure ・ meaning .This study argues especially solid angle ratios as identity of faces, and calculate properties of solid angle ratio such as averages and amounts of information, and make graphs in relation to the numbers of the faces also to the layers that are the stages of the depth of the hierarchical structure of the scene. It is shown that the distribution of the solid angle ratios of the faces reflect the characteristic of the images of the scenes of architecture very well.
The purpose of this paper is to clear the space composition of the plain farm village's house of the KIN race(VIET race) in northern VIETNAM. They are commposed of a main building, atached building, a courtyard wchich is called SUN,a kichen garden which is called VUON and a pond. A typical type of space commposition of the site is L shape of which a main building and an atached building enclose SUN and adding VUON. And there are some other types. The typical type of main building is composed of a wide room which is called KHONG KHACH and a bed room which is called BUONG. For a long time the traditional one story house has been built, but at present time'two or three stories houses appeared and are incresing.
The purpose of this study is to make clear the design method of collective form in collaboration for developing the Master Architect Design Method . To understand this subject, we researched the design process of the collective form and we extracted : 1) collective form design examples of collaboration method , 2) classification of design examples by collective form model and image, 3) design collaboration flame 4) design decision method, 5) design element coordination. 6) structure of design coordination process of each collective form model and image. As a result, the collective design model and design images are related to the collaboration design methods that can create a total collective form.
This paper deals with the system of control on advertising storeboards in France. Storeboards are classified into three categories according to their physical relationship to a store. They are storeboards attached to the store, before-storeboards which inform about the store ahead and advertising storeboards, which are general purpose advertisements. There are four types of advertising storeboards ; namely, storeboards attached to a wall, storeboards on the ground, storeboards using lights and storeboards attached to street furniture. Though advertising storeboards are permitted in the urban area, they are prohibited in historic landscapes. However this prohibition is lifted partly by setting special zones.
The main driving forces for the propagation of urban fires are the thermal radiation from the fire and the leaping flames due to the drifting firebrands. In the present work, drifting firebrands in an urban fire are numerically simulated by means of CFD with a turbulence model. Firebrands are treated as airborne particles subject to sedimentation due to the gravity. Characteristics of brand drifting are investigated under various wind conditions, sedimentation speed and locations of a brand source. 1) When the approaching flow is relatively slow, the vertical thermal plume is raised by the fire and reaches up to around 100m height. In comparison, when the approaching flow is fast, the incoming flow acts to suppress the thermal plume. 2) The sedimentation fluxes over the downstream building roofs increase under high wind conditions, so the risk of the fire spreading increases on the leeward side of the fire. 3) Drifting patterns measured with the sedimentation fluxes over the downstream building roofs and so on, depend much on the effective diameter of brands. 4) When the upward plane of the building catches fire, the circulation flow in front of the burning surface suppresses thermal diffusion in the horizontal direction. In contrast, when the leeward plane of the building catches fire, the leeward circulation behind the building promotes horizontal thermal diffusion. The latter flow results in the reduction in the velocity of thermal plume. 5) When the roof or the leeward plane of the building catches fire, it developed into hot ascending flow patterns which promote the drifting of the firebrand.
Multiple service facilities can often save total cost for provision of service because of the economies of scale associated with facility size and the ability to share resources including land. In this paper, two multiple service facility location problems are formulated as minimization problems of the sum of travel cost and building cost of facilities. One assumes that the total number of facilities is given exogenously, and the other assumes that the total number of facilities is determined endogenously. Some numerical examples show that co-location of different type of facilities increases as land cost increases for the exogenous case. Similarly, co-location of facilities increases as land cost increases for the endogenous case while keeping the number of facilities large.
The author has developed and iirproved sane oxistruction methods by reinforced precast concrete ORPC) in almost two decades. This paper described the results of long study on the labor productivity based on the author's experiences. Tne summary of this study as followed : (1) Difference between labor productivity of on-site work using the RFC method and conventional methods (2) Relationship of labor productivity to the structural method used with the RFC method (3) Actual precast concrete member ratio in the RFC method (4) Relationship of precast concrete member ratio with labor productivity
When private high school has a plan of rebuilding or enlargement, he has to study the economic feasibility for it in project planning stage. In this paper, the theoretic model of feasibility study is proposed from the viewpoint of investment theory, and the factors for income and outgo planning for the study are clarified and arranged for planning data through the survey of management documents in 28 private high schools. And from the economic calculation using these factors, quantitative relations between investment planning and income & outgo planning are clarified.
The purpose of this paper is to explicate how did the medieval city, Jinaimachi,relate to the pre-modern city.For that.it is the way to make clear the transformation of city structure by stages.In this study, it is taken up about Kaizuka Jinaimachi.The first formation of the basement of the pre-modern city, composed of the base road and the town including Jodo-Shinshu temple,was influenced by the madieval Jinai.And Jinaimachi,completed at the beginning of Edo period,was made by high level planning,and it suggests the city was reformed in the 17th century.And the city was advanced in the neighborhood.But after that,the speciality and the advantage of Jinaimachi disappeared because the gulf between rich and poor had been wide by the development of new economically current at the end of Edo period.
In this study , fe analyzed the block size and form of the Semba area and the Shimanouchi area and clarified the distinction of the four districts , zoned by the difference of development periodes. Type- I was the first peYiod of the Semba area, its inside measurement of the block was 42ken. Type-II was the second period of the Semba area, its depth of the subdivision was 20ken ; Type-III was the third period of the Semba area, its block form was the same as T. Type-IV was the Shimanouchi area, its block was type of turning Type- H to 90-degree angle.
This is a study on toryo's tranfer to Edobakufu-Kobushinkata & Fushinkata. As widely known, Edobakufu, or the Tokugawa Shogunate, had three offices called Sakujikata, Kobushinkata and Fushinkata. We already have some studies on each of them but not yet on toryo's tranfer from one office to the others, from Sakujikata to Kobushinkata & Fushinkata, and that's the main subject of this paper.
The purpose of this paper is to study the characteristics seen in the fagades of both merchant and fisherman houses in Mori-machi in the early Showa period (1926-1945). It is found that most of the fagades of Shoka (merchant houses) consisted of double hung windows, pilasters, capitals, cornices, and other ornamental details.It is also found that most of the bay windows of Gyoka( fisherman houses) were formed by an angle of 45 degrees and both sashes of double hung windows and bay windows were arranged in such a Japanese style often found in frames of Ranma or Shoji. And the rooms with the bay windows have been used as reception rooms from which one could see the seascape.
Nikko Tamozawa Imperial Villa set up in 1899 is the only Imperial villa constructed at the Meiji era, which has been left as for the main part. The purchase negotiation of the site started in 1896, and construction was begun in January 1899. Main building of this villa was composed of the removing and reconstructing building from Akasaka Detached Palace, the existing building, and the newly built building. Nevertheless, construction was completed in a surprising short term. Though a lot of workmen were mobilized to the construction, It was only several engineers in the Imperial Works Bureau of Department of the Imperial Household who managed construction and supervised them.
The first version of "Seigen-Zu" to be established as the design format of shrines in the Meiji era was presented by the Ministry of Finance in August 1872. The second version by the Ministry of Religion followed three months later. The third version, again by the Ministry of Finance, was prepared in April 1873, and was to finalize the design process of "Seigen-Zu". In 1875, "Seigen-Zu" was to be applied to the construction for more shrines, thereby occasioning the need to circulate copies of this final version in woodblock print form.
This paper is about the changes in construction work organization, "Do-Gam", during the Yi-Dynasty of Korea. The findings are as follows. At the ealy stage of the dynasty, the organization of construction work took over that of Koryo-Dynasty. It underwent some changes during the 15th and 16th century. Toward the second half of the dynasty it was greatly enlarged, mainly composed of bureaucats from the central government. But its scale was reduced after the middle of the 18th century.
From the second half of the 18th century to the early part of the 19th century, "the Aryan theory" was established. The first Governor-General of Bengal, W. Hastings applied this theory in his India administration. After he retired from his part for the Governor-General, he was impeached by the House of Commons. In 1800, "The Hindoo Temple at.Melchet Park" was built to tell future Hastings's administration and the retrieval of his lost honor for the Governor-General. Hastings had the Aryan theory, which was reflected the inscriptions, the architecture, and the landscape at Melchet Park by the designer T. Daniell.
Buildings of Hosei University designed by professor Hiroshi OHE architect are known as most important works of university campas after World War Secound. They are constructed according to total master plan during five years from 1953 to 1958. After "55's Building ", he had "design-alteration" for 58's Building". In this time and at a foreign land, he had imaged a university and had recognised that university is a community and coopration. We surmise that he had been thinking for idea and sketch of "university", foilwing production management for "Japanes Pavilion in Sao Pauro" designed by Sutemi HORIGUCHI architect.
The purpose of this study is to analyze the tendency of the "scenes" chosen by architectural photographers and to clarify the characteristics of these locations where the "scenes" exists visually and emotionally. The procedure for this study will be evaluated in three steps. First, the "scenes" chosen by the photographers were modeled quantitatively from the aspect of the condition of architectural faces and sides. Second, twenty-one actual architectural examples were categorized with their value. Last, the points chosen by the photographers were reviewed to obtain the maximum architectural information by working with such restrictions as lot conditions.
By the "landscape montage technique", 480 landscape pictures were sketched by subjects from kindergarten children through university, students. Ten types of disposition of river with relation to a frame as a fence in order of the development; the fiver along the bottom frame; between left and right frames; between top and bottom ; at the bottom corner; between top and side; between bottom and side; the tapering river; etc, and characteristics of landscape spatial composition according to the types were clarified.
The purpose of the study was to explain the exterior composition of oceanic architecture at the plane form type and the difference. As the result, the exterior composition of facilities parts was integrated as the simple substance composition of mass. Also, characteristics of spatial composition, architecture located on sea with Independence was cleared as the center composition of the building, and architecture located alongside the pier was exterior composition which makes connect element of composition. In addition, fixed type was the exterior composition whereby a freedom degree is high, and the floating type was cleared as the symmetric spatial composition.