We conducted psychological evaluation experiments on preference for the color temperature by using a laboratory whose air temperature was regulated at a constant value. The experiments demonstrated that the air temperature to which the subjects were exposed was low, as in winter, a low color temperature was preferred. On the other hand, the air temperature was high, as in summer, a high color temperature was preferred. Accordingly, it is strongly expected that the color temperature preference for general lighting varies depending on the air temperature in the room.
In this paper, a new evaluation method of radiant effect from each surface in atria through measurement is discussed. Angle factors between a human body and surfaces surrounding an atrium can be obtained by photographs taken with a fish eye lens, and representative radiant temperatures of the surfaces can be determined from thermal images taken by an infrared radiation camera. Contributive operative temperature (COT) is newly defined as an index of radiant effect from each surface, i.e. ceiling glazing, vertical glazing, floor, inner wall, furniture, foliage plant, pond, etc. Radiation environments of some atria were measured in a winter season and were evaluated based on this method. And the results proved this evaluation method to be available for grasping the feature of radiation environment in atria.
Indoor air pollution with VOCs emitted from building materials causes serious IAQ problems. It is important to predict their emission rate from the building materials and to evaluate indoor concentration of VOCs. Mass diffusion process in porous media and the convective and diffusive transfer process in room air are fundamentals in estimating VOCs emission. In this paper the physical model of mass diffusion in porous media is derived and three macroscopic IAQ prediction models based on the model are proposed. Analyses of short-term emission rate of VOCs from materials and long-term prediction of indoor concentration are demonstrated with the IAQ prediction models proposed in this paper.
In this study, we are the one which makes a quantitative way of calculation with tank characteristic value clear. We adopt the statistical technique to be used first in the field of the chemical engineering as it and we establish a quantitative way of calculating by the theory computation. It confirmed that the Gain fixed number showed Effective quantity factor as the result, that The average showed Effective capacity factor and that Mixing characteristic value could be calculated from The dispersion, The degree of the mixing from The average and The dispersion. Then, it judged that it was available for one of the efficiency evaluation techniques which can value performance with statistical analysis of heat storage water tank. In this report, calculated tank characteristic with statistical analysis and compared with check method of transient response line of one. Moreover, because comparatively high correlation was shown in each characteristic value through all the experiments after multiple regression analysis, it confirmed the thing which the mixing type, the temperature stratification type can be able to analyze. By depending and moreover, that gained detailed analyses such as the inner correlation in the future, extraction of the Non-dimensional experience formula was judged possible.
The objective of this paper is to investigate how to make the best use of the chilled-water thermal energy storage HVAC system and to find out the ways to save energy. As we set the temperatures of a water storage tank to 7 and 17 degree centigrade, the capacities of the chilled-water storage tank and the distribution system were decreased essentially. The delivering energy was reduced due to the high temperature differentials, keeping room humidity in moderate condition. We tried various temperature conditions of the chilled-water storage tank, for example at 7 and 19 degree centigrade, to find the critical water temperature conditions. And we also increased the temperature differentials of AHU supply and return water to verify its benefits in economics.
Effects of warm color and cool color on "thermal sensation", the "impression of hot-cold" and the "impression of warm-cool" were discussed experimentally under the thermal conditions of 20 and 24℃ in winter and 24 and 29℃ in summer. Significant effect of both colors on thermal sensation was shown under the 29℃ in summer. The effect of colors on the "impression of hot-cold" and the "impression of warm-cool" was larger than that on thermal sensation. It was assumed that the former is more usual in the daily life from the viewpoint of attention. The above observation showed that the alleviation effect of colors from the psychological thermal load is large enough.
This paper studied the direct causality relation among environmental evaluation items. Several environmental research cases were analyzed using a statistical causality analysis method named graphical-modeling. This result shows the validation to suppose that people evaluate their environment hierarchically. It was also shown that this analysis method enables us to improve the hierarchical structures, which is provided before the research, and especially to grasp unpredictable causality relation.
Building sector has a heavy role to create sustainable society, because CO_2 emissions associated with construction and operation of buildings are estimated to be 1/3 of the whole CO_2 emissions in Japan. These CO_2 emissions were estimated from 1970 through 2050 and the following results were obtained. (1) CO_2 emission between 2008 and 2012 will increase by 15% than 1990 level. (2) CO_2 emission can be reduced by 6% between 2008 and 2012, and reduced by 40% in 2050, if the 30% energy saving, long life and environment-conscious materials are adopted to new buildings.
This paper aims to study plans of typical dwelling units for multi-family housing which are recently proliferating in the Tokyo Metropolitan area, Japan. The object of this research is to investigate the influencing factors in the plans through the analysis of the data accumulated from consumer housing magazines. We derive numerical and graphical data of units from the formatted information available. The analysis is undertaken on the features, such as the wall length facing the exterior. Using these measures of planning of units, we point out that the typical 3LDK plan is efficient in spatial management in the Japanese circumstance.
In video analysis of movements, the result is impacted by, a) Condition of the Observer b) Content of the Object c) Equipment Used d) Entries shape This report will examine the impact of a) Condition of the Observer and b) Content of the Object which are two items difficult to control. Research Method: Experiment: Have multiple observers look at the same cooking movement and measure what percentage of the results match. Conduct Psychological Analysis of Observers: By conducting Uchida-Kraepelin Psychodiagnostic Test, the profile fluctuation can be measured and therefore the percentage of results that match can be estimated. With respect to the impact of Content of the Object, by setting correct parameters on what needs to be measured for each ADL, it is possible to secure high percentage of results to match. Conclusion: The reliability of video analysis can be secured by selecting Observers with high degree of accuracy and setting the correct parameters to measure.
This paper discusses the spatial compositions of the urban tissues of Manek Chowk Area in the old walled city of Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India. The Jain, the Hindu and the Muslim have been living together within the walled city from the beginning of establishment of the city. We can still see the mixed habitation and segregation of the religious groups. Manek Chowk is a typical Jain quarter. The neighborhood block has a hierarchical structure that is consisted of three levels of streets, i.e., pols, khancha (khanchos) and khadkis & galis. The objective of this paper is to clarify the relation between house form and block form. The authors carried out field studies in the area and found the typical house types and collective pattern. Based on the findings, we make the development process clear which the archetype of traditional rural house in north Gujarat was transformed into urban house prototype.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the changes of the exterior space composition of urban dwellings in local city. The main analysis results are the following five aspects. 1. The locational relation among house, main garden, and frontal road is classified into five types- This type is different according to the compass direction of frontal road. But, there occur the various types even in the same compass direction of road in recent years.2. The exterior space of dwelling is used mainly for planting, parking, access to parking, and multipurpose. Recentry, the space for planting decreases remarkably. On the other hand, the latter three kinds of space increase. 3. Among the interior spaces facing main garden on the first floor, the private room decreases remarkably recently. On the other hand, the Western-style rooms for family use increase. The windows of these rooms keep Japanese traditional "Hakidashimado". As a result, each room in the house is still connected directly with main garden. 4. The main garden is changing from the appreciative use mainly composed of "garden tree" to the practical use including "parking and access" and "multipurpose" space. 5. Recently, the housing site without enclosure facing frontal road increases. The materials of enclosure which do not intercept the eyes from frontal road increase. At the same time, the height of enclosure lowers. As a result, the enclosure in recent years becomes open to frontal road.
This present study examine two temporary care housings with the same plan which were built for the refugees of Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake and managed by different social welfare groups focusing on the interactions between care stuff and residents from environment-behavior viewpoint. Care and residents' activity, and conversation between residents and care stuffs were surveyed to measure the care's character. The result suggested;!) Care activities in private room were more active in a group-living with two stuffs in daytime. 2) Difference of resident-stuff relations were identified by the analysis of conversation concerning on care and residents' daily activity. 3) In a group-living unit residents' rhythm of daily life are sensitive not only to the working shift but also to care stance.
An in-depth observation survey of children's activities and play environments in six inpatient wards was conducted in National Children's Hospital as a step toward developing design guidelines. The play activity was found to be the largest group of activities both in number and hour and to amount to around 40 percent of total activities, which proved its relative importance even in those facilities the major purpose of which was medical care. Play environments in those inpatient wards were thus closely examined in terms of time, friend, method and space factors. A multi-variate technique was then applied to explain the number and hours of play activities.
This paper is aimed abstract the planning points in combined classes as the learnig space by investigation of learning activities . 11 cases in 6 School were investigated and then simulated the learning activity in other learning cases. Learning activities are classified into lecturer, discussion, exercise and practice. Some conclusions are follows; ・In combined classes, teachers and school children devise the layout of their desks and blackboards to keep away from disturb each grade. ・When there are two grades in one classroom, it is agreeable to set up another learning comer for the conversion of learning activities.
The Library Systems have been developed so that the users can reserve, borrow and return books at any preferable libraries. For effective planning of libraries, it is necessary to evaluate the effectiveness of Library Systems. First, we analyze the time-space distribution of users behavior using the data on the number of books transported by users or administrators of libraries. Second, we analyze the variation of the number of visitors using the information on months, days and weathers. Last, through the survey on the actual users behavior of Yokohama City Libraries, we investigate the characteristics of multiple-facility use and examine the relationships between users behavior and regional features.
The objective of this study is to clarify the relation between parts of the exterior design and the main factors acting on it: costs, developer's and user's demands, regionality, and design trends. The method of research was through surveying and questionnaires distributed to various architectural offices in Fukuoka. The results of the research showed that the "entrance" part is subject to cost reduction, but it is easy for designers to express their ideas in it. On the other hand, the "roof section" part is not easy to express because the users have little consciousness of roof design. And in the case of the "building's color" part designers choose the color according to regionality, regardless of their own consciousness.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the effect that the shape and the position of partition have on the subject's place and perception of room volume. The various shape and position of partition panel is presented randomly. In experiment 1, subject behavior is recorded by observation. In experiment 2, The Method of Magnitude Estimation is used; subjects are requested to compare the volumes of different types of room. This paper is reported about experiment 1. The results are summarized as below; 1. The subjects are prone to choose the neighborhood of partition, wall and reentrant angle as the place. Consequently, it tries to get a protection of the back, feeling of calmness. 2. The extent of the front space in the room and the relative position (especially the visual relative position) with the partner induces the tendency to decide the place to stay.
Contemporary aging and international societies have to respond to various needs of users whose traits are diverse. As to built environments, their size has been larger and larger, and purpose and usage of them have become more varied and complex. Accordingly, studies must be needed to develop systems assuring people's safety in potential emergent situations. From this point of view, we are trying to develop a mobile multimedia guidance system available in evacuation. And we made an experimental study to examine the effects of pre-learning and guide-information on evacuation behavior. It shows that walk-through tends to be effective pre-learning. As for guidance information type, arrow information is effective for evacuees. Though route map information does not facilitate evacuation behavior, it seems to provide evacuees sense of security, suggesting present position in the spatial layout as a whole.
The aim of the study is to acquire fundamental knowledge concerning the affective meaning communicated through thescenes of architecture. The method of study is to analyze the entropies of probabilities of occurrence (solid angle ratios) of symbols (faces/facets which divided the whole scene) of 4 images as the amounts of morphological information, and the average values of the load of the scenes on the semantic scale of "spacially private ⇔ spacially public" as the amounts of magnitude of affective meaning, on a constructed system of visual perception applying Stevens' law, information theory, perceptual circulation theory, 1-factor information channel model. The result of an experiment which treat perception of 6 images of architecture with sketches by the subjects shows that the time length of the observation closely reflect the perceived depth of layer (nested structure effaces/facets). The diagrams show the relationship between the hierarchical depth of layers and the amounts of morphological information, at the same time as the amounts of magnitude of affective meaning. As a result, it is supported that perceptual circulation enables instantaneous vision to get almost the same magnitude of affective meaning as careful vision, even in the case of peripheral vision which scarcely cares details compares with the case of foveal and paracentral vision, as is different from the case of morphological information.
What is a meaning of "living room"? It is too difficult to give a clear definition although we use such word in daily works on architectural design. Same difficulties occur in using words related to architectural space. According to idea of L. Wittgenstein, we consider that the meaning of the word is the use of it. From this view point, we propose a method to define the meaning of a category by analyzing a set of data on the situations in experience. This method produces effective utilization of the knowledge having to do with experience.
This study researches extended families as the main object and suggests the condition of succeeding to the household and community and the condition of securing one's identity. The first we grasp the situation of self-government in a rural area and the share of roles in a household from the viewpoint of individual, a couple, a household and a community, the second we show the significance of social system and the prospect of society. For the progress of society in a rural area, it is necessary to educate the successor and to secure one's identity in a household and social system.
The Ministry of Home Affairs set the design standard for land readjustment action at 1933. Before then, the tentative design standards were proposed by the Ministry at 1925 and 1927, and some of local authorities tried to set the design standards themselves. Through reviewing of these design standards, we conclude that 1) the design standard at 1927 suggested that land readjustment action must be actively used as one of main strategies for urban development, and it contained some ideas for not only site planning but also district plan, 2) the design standard of Aichi Prefecture contained various ideas for district plan in the early stages.
In this Study, we have analyzed the circulative living and business style of the claimants with the urban redevelopment projects in order to verify if the urban redevelopment project can be placed as one of the community planning methods which maintain the community and support sustainable development of the community from now on. The reserching areas are two which held several urban redevelopment projects.As a result,we have clarified the ciculative living and business style of the claimants which could not be seized by the rate of remaining. And we have confirmed that "the coresponding method" by the project groups play a certain role to put the circulative living and business style into practice.
This study aims at making basic investigation for the future standard and regulation of building shape considering the quality of daylight around the building. Firstly, we simulated sky factor and relative illuminance in cloudy condition. Comparing their levels, it was found that sky factor could be representative index of the brightness in urban open space. Secondly, the relative solar energy in sunny condition and sunshine duration were calculated. Although the distribution of sunshine duration has wider spread toward east and west, these impacts spread to north intensively in the distribution of relative solar energy.
This study aims to find basic facts for the land use policy in the inner-urban area of Tokyo. To understand the structural change of the floor area and influence of appointed FAR and street area ratio, analysis of rate & share and regression analysis are carried out. As a result of analysis, the following fact are pointed out: a) In view of relative standard, the growth of commercial floor area in under 300% FAR district is larger than that of over 600 %FAR district. b) Appointed FAR has rarely influence on increase of land use density. c) To increase the land use density, redevelopment combined with upgrading of infrastructure is important.
This study aims to analyze the microeconomic effect caused by Reverse Mortgage System which is a measure of stabilizing the financial life of elderly people. First, I examined elderly households' financial state and their awareness of lifestyle. Secondly, emphasizing the necessity of Reverse Mortgage System, I observed the Reverse Mortgage System in America and taken hints from there. Next, through research, I became aware of the present condition of self-governing bodies that implemented Reverse Mortgage System in Japan. Finally, bringing to light the effect of income raise in the elderly households, by implementing Reverse Mortgage System which is anticipated on its pension complementing function, I investigated Reverse Mortgage System's microeconomic effect.
The Gion festival held in central district of Kyoto in every July, which has long history, is so famous that attracts many citizens and tourists. Nevertheless, it is not well known that the carpenters who prepare the Yamahoko, the festival chariot, support the Festival. They formerly lived and worked in the area, so had the close relations with the Yamahoko-cho community. This paper focuses on the activities of house production organization (carpenters and craftsman) who takes part in Gion festival and clarifies the relations had become not so intimate. Yamahoko-cho area still has a lot of traditional townhouse called Kyo-Machiya, which should be rehabilitated and maintained. The reconstruction of house production system is urgent and important tasks we have to take into considerations.
We analyzed judgement of building utility performance with physical, social, functional element of buildings. The following point became obvious. 1. At present repair plan is rational, for close to an optimal repair-plan. 2. It needs to maintain it more briskly than a standard repair plan, to raise the rationality of a repair-plan in an architecture main body.3. It is ideal to make a little maintenance-cycle long than it's standard, to raise the rationality of a repair-plan in equipment. 4 It is necessary to measure long-life-ization of a building from an administrative face, to improve a long-term effect in equipment.
This study aims to clarify the building regulations in agricultural district of Yamashiro province through the Edo period. In Yamashiro province, official notices by Kyoto machibugyosho (magistrate's office) obligated every farmers to present the application forms for building up to Kyoto machibugyosho till 1767. But, in south Yamashiro province, there are some documents prove the existence of buildingregulations by Kyoto daikansho (regional office of administrative official) or Jito (manner's lord ) till the late 1730's. This paper takes up them.
The purpose of this paper is to make clear states of Akakura-Kanko Hotel and its development of tourist resort for foreign tourists. The Board of Tourist Industry had promoted the development of ski resort in East-Asia for foreign tourists to attain foreign currency since 1935. They financed Niigata prefecture so that new ski-hotel enterprise could construct its resort at Akakura. Akakura and Shiga Height were called "Joshin-etsu Ski Resort" by them. Kishichiro Okura managed its enterprise included plans of hotel, spa and access. Sadataro Takahashi who designed some hotels managed by Imperial Hotel, its owner was Kishichiro Okura, designed Akakura-Kanko Hotel. Its design was referred to Swiss-cottage style.
The Restration of Todai-ji Daibutsu-den in the Meiji Era began in 1891 and was completed in 1913. The design of restoration changed many times, but the last they designed "Katetsutyu", it put steels into wooden pillars and fasten steel truss. This paper introduces these designs, and analyzes the last plan based on 1) the plan of wooden truss designed by Suketaro Kagotani and others, and 2) the hoop-iron construction it was also known as Tsumakishiki-koho. It is the transitional technique in the first stage of introducing steel structures to Japan.
This paper examines the winery and the brewery established in Sapporo by the Kaitakushi, or Colonial Department (1869-1882) in 1876.Both were among the earliest buildings of their type in Meiji Japan, and the stone warehouse of the winery is one of the earliest stone buildings in Sapporo. As the result of this study, the following points have been clarified: 1. The site and building plans which constructed in September 1876, and their relationship to the production system. 2. Details of the architectural specification of the stone warehouse of the winery. 3. The changes and additions made to the buildings form their establishment until Meiji 16 (1883).
The posterity of Zhang Guying built Shangxinwu such as an apartment in Zhangguying Village in Qing period. In this village living systems conform to rules of three axes that we defined in this study. They are the main axis, the sub axis and the little axis. In Shangxinwu the main axis crosses the sub axis in the both sides. These axes are consisted of some fundamental units. They have variety of plans(type 4, type 5, type 6 and type 7). We clarified that the type 5 is related with the type4 and guessed that the type 6 is related with the type 5.
In ancient Greek architecture, dowels were used to have vertical joints of blocks fixed well. The object of this paper is to analyze the dowels, which were used for three marble buildings at the Sanctuary of Athena Pronaia in Delphi. Our study of the dowels themselves and their traces on the blocks shows that they could be categorized into several groups by their shape, size, use, etc. It would be also observed that the accuracy of construction is in particular conspicuous in classical period, judging from the transition of use.
This paper deals with Adolf Loos's alterations to Duschnitz house and Mandl house, which have been positioned in a germinal stage of the Raumplan. The purpose of this paper is to clarify developments of house-alteration by Loos on the basis of analyzing these works and show it as a process of forming the Raumplan. Therefore having an eye to fragmentization in both works, this paper makes clear various phases of fragmentization. In a word, fragmentization gradually spreads to various phases of the interior and exterior of a house and intensifies to the extent of arising conflicts between fragmentary parts.
In this second paper about "A study on the trend of architectural thought between France and Germany in 18th century enlightenment", I tried to make clear the histrical adoption of "maison de plaisance" in Germany. The meanings and functions of "maison de plaisance" was a country house-style of late baroque-rococo in France and Germany. In the first paper, I treated of the problem of the original notion of "maison de plaisance" in France. From this viewpoint, one can say that the remarkable book was "De la distribution des maison de plaisance et de la decoration des edifices en general (2. vol., 1737-38)" of Jacques-Francois Blondel (1705-1774), who was one of the most important French architectural theorists in the 18th century. The notion of "maison de plaisance" was connected with "bienseance (convenance)", "commodite", "distribution", "economic" and "variete". They made the turning point of architectural thought from 17th century to 18th century. On the adoption of "maison de plaisance" in Germany, "Blondel-School's architects" took an important role. Generally, the development of adoption is divided into three periods. In the short, the first period is late baroque (1720's-30's), the second is rococo (1740's-50's) and the third is early classicism (1760's-70's). In conclusion consequently, I publish to more profund investigation of the transformation in architectural thought between France and Germany.
The purpose of this study is to make clear the ideas and practice of Robert Mallet-Stevens, a French modern architect, for the film set design. He designed about 15 film sets in 1920's, some of which are for historical dramas, and succeeded as a set designer. Now simply considered as a person who introduced "modern architecture" into the films, he was one of the leading architects who also introduced the technique of architecture into the film set. The most important of his ideas for the film set is to create the sens of perspective, and he proposed various technical ideas for it.
This paper is an analysis of the architectural form and proportion of Le Corbusier's principal work, Unite d'Habitation, by the analysis method used by C. Rowe in his famous thesis, "The Mathematics of the Ideal Villa". The model (source or reference) work of Unite" d'Habitation is, as we analysed and concluded here, the Pantheon; the normative proportion applied in both works is the golden proportion. The golden proportion applied to Pantheon is not hitherto a historical fact, which Le Corbusier discovered creatively for himself. Unites west and east elevations are determined by the module (13M : 32M), by the proportion (1:4/Φ) from the theoretical (1:Φ^2); south and north elevations by (5M:13M), (1:3Φ^2); the plan by (5M:32M), (1:4Φ) from the theoretical (1:Φ^4).
We analyze the plan of Farnsworth House by Mies van der Rohe from a viewpoint of the connection with the theory "Dynamic Symmetry" advocated by Jay Hambidge in 1920's. Dynamic Symmetry is found in the figures of old Egyptian and Greek design. Although it had been said that there were no golden sections and whirling rectangles in the configuration of external shape of this house, we found that there were the geometric relations to whirling rectangles and the proportion within beautiful Dynamic Symmetry by analyzing. And also, we found that there was a logarithmic spiral in the configuration of its interior plan.
We already researched about the estimation of the haze effect of aerial perspective using Frequency Space and its contrast sensitivity (CSF). This study is the next one to propose the way of representation of haze effect using image processing of Computer Graphics. First we define the condition of perspective and its parameters. The number of pixels of landscape image that can be omitted by haze is calculated from the relation with the parameters and the CSF estimation value. Next we propose the way of representation of haze effect on the landscape image making use of image processing "Low Pass filter" and render the haze image for mountain landscape as a case study.