This research aims to suggest the possibility that Home Sharing could be one of the lifestyle for single elderly in an aging society in Japan. We focused on ‘Inter.generational Home Sharing’run by a NPO in the U.S.; a living arrangement which two or more unrelated people share a home. The questionnaire, interview and measurement methods were used. We clarified followings 1) the conditions of actual living activities. 2) The history of usage change of the shared housings. As a result, it is shown that living together under one roof provides a sense of security and company, though it s life style can keep their lives high individual independence each other.
This study aims to clarify the structural changes in the exterior of the apartment houses built by the Japan Housing Corporation (JHC) and the user's behavior with regard to the structural changes. The results are as follows: 1. Apartment housing development shows remarkable changes in terms of scale, number, and structure. 2. In terms of size and age, the structures of the apartment houses were classified into seven types. 3. Apartment houses have a diversity of exterior spaces and therefore are a potential environmental resource.
The purpose of this research is to clarify the situation of space maintenance of unit type elderly-people living and nursing accommodations, and the feature of space composition through layout plan view analysis. The unit type welfare and healthcare facilities for the elderly requiring the long-term care, sum total about 2,000 institutions which are all over the country were collected, and it analyzed and considered. The installation situation of the equipment in connection with everyday life, such as the feature of the whole composition of institutions, the feature of the space composition of unit space, a toilet, a bathroom, etc. in a unit type institution, etc. became clear from the result. The situation where the toilet installation to a bed room, the bathroom installation to a unit, etc. were progressing every year also became clear from many years past analysis. Furthermore, the difference of the status of preparation by an all-prefectures and ordinance-designated city exception also became clear. In addition to an understanding and plan of the unit care of a management person or a designer, the plan of the autonomous department specializing in maintenance and the state of instruction clarified the actual condition which has had influence not a little.
The aim of this paper is to clarify the space characteristics of Work-Units composing Swedish advanced school buildings from the view point of pupils' and students' activities of learning. The results of this study are as follows. 1) A Work-unit is composed of 7-9 various kinds of rooms and 2 kinds of partitions. 2) A Work-unit held in four types of learning the same content together, and three types of learning in small groups or individual person. 3) Rooms in Work-Unit are divided or connected by opening or closing doors and removable partitions. This operation is easy for students to set spaces for learning by themselves. 4) With higher grade, students can be provided oppotunities to choose their own spaces and contents for learning.
Tactile walking surface indicators(TWSIs) were developed to help visually impaired people traveling alone, but TWSIs could be an extra barrier for pedestrians, wheelchair users and baby carriage users without visual impairment. The purpose of this study is to develop TWSIs of the height of bumps less than Japanese Industrial Standard(JIS)-type TWSIs. Especially, the subject of this study is guidance in indoor area for visually impaired people. We investigate the ease of detection and recognition of dot tile patterns which are different from the height(1mm,2mm) ,the diameter(20mm,30mm,40mm) and the number(64 pieces,113 pieces) of bumps by white cane. Participants are 12 persons with low vision and 2 totally blind persons. They wear eye mask in the experiment. The result in this study clear that it is possible to detect even the height of 1mm if there are 113 pieces of bumps.
Architecture is should be designed with climates, cultures, society, and so on. In specially, buildings in Asia have been created with various combinations of original architectural materials and construction methods. Therefore, their spaces are much more distinctive. Architectural spaces are generated by dividing into insides and outsides. In other words, both spaces are separated by boundaries. When focusing on borders, architectural characters can be found from windows and roofs and so forth. That is why the study cleared both commonalities and differences of construction principles of Asian traditional houses and then explored spatial principles based on the concept of “interior/ exterior”.
The aim of this study is to clarify the characteristics of outdoor spaces in contemporary Japanese courtyard houses. Analyzing the outdoor spaces' arrangement, and their visual openness and continuity with the surroundings, suggested 9 types of compositional schemes. The schemes include not only closed-type courtyards, but also courtyards that are partially open to the surrounding environment. Analysis revealed that the 4 most prevalent types feature outdoor spaces on multiple floors. This study also includes analysis of trends in these 9 courtyard house types since the 1960s.
Japanese people have longed to “live in mountain” since early times. Yamazato is mountain villas built by aristocrats in the Heian Period to satisfy the longing for such lives. This paper focuses on the attractions of nature in yamazato and clarifies the followings in reference to literary works from the Heian Period. 1.Aristocrats living in “miyako”(ancient capital of Japan) would put their worries aside and be relaxed with beauties of nature in yamazato such as “okashi”,”mezurashi” and “aware”. 2.The “miharashi”(views) seen from yamazato also healed their depression and took them to different worlds far away from “miyako”. The attraction of nature in yamazato was its ability to liberate minds of aristocrats from this annoying real world.
There is an “Illegality” on people's activity like hawkers on street. It can be considered coexistence of the spontaneous order as “code” and free behavior without restriction from the law. With that background, Hawker's behavior was analyzed through the comparison with the cases of 4 South-East Asian Cities based on following 3 aims. 1. To show the effective utilization through a classification of eating activities on the street as an urban public space. 2. To discover the “code” developed from hawker's relations between themselves as a making spontaneous order with their unspoken agreement. 3. To obvious the relationship between citie's “code“ and people's behavior.
The research clarifies how to discuss a semantic content based on what kind of a logical structure, vied from both main subjects and references. The research subject for the study is the series of “ANY CONFERENCE”. During the 1990's, experts from a wide variety of fields included architecture participated in “Any Conference” to discuss architecture logically with a good deal of concepts. Although architecture is based on concepts in many fields, architecture also affects them too. Therefore, the study focuses on discourses in the conferences of architectural experts, since the discourses are included underlying concepts in a number of fields.
Recently, with the advance of motorization, decline of the city center has come to be considered as a serious problem especially in local cities. To solve such a problem, a concept called “Compact City” is proposed. However, there are no concrete image and criteria of it. This study devises the evaluation indexes from the books and papers about Compact City, and evaluates some DIDs by applying the indexes. As the samples, 37 DIDs in Kyusyu are selected. In addition, DIDs of Aomori city and Toyama city are examined because there are Compact City policies practiced by each city government. The indexes are created to have high versatility by using the statistics data from open resources and GIS data. The relative evaluation and ranking evaluation are utilized. Hita, Amagi, and Shimabara ranked in the top 3 DIDs. Also, Yatsushiro, Omuta, and Nobeoka ranked in the worst 3 DIDs. Each DID's characteristics and assignments are clarified since the DIDs ranked in higher positions are not always evaluated as good enough to be Compact City in every indexes, and the relationship between the indexes and the ranking evaluation is not significant.
This study offers an understanding of the way to manage street spaces in Singapore involving the joint effort between public and private sectors. The research sites are three Historic Districts in Singapore, Chinatown, Kampong Glam and Little India. The sites used to be the residential settlements for ethnic groups during the British colonial period and now are commercial areas with preserved historical buildings. In Singapore, streets are in general administrated by the government with strict regulations. In these districts, however, business associations which represent the local stakeholders are given some autonomy to manage streets. As a result, these organizations differs in the relationship of the government and the local community, funds rising and thier operation, which enabled each district to develop its own management style suitable for the multi-ethnic society. Consequently, the study clarifies that the local characteristics of each Historic District could be remained and re-created.
In this paper, we clarified how relationships in local community are reorganized by focusing on economic relationship in housing relocation in Sri Lanka after the Indian Ocean Tsunami in 2004. We selected the resettlement site G which has high stable settlement ratio (nearly 90%) in Welligama, Southern Province. We selected 86 households living at "site G" as of January in 2009 and analyzed reorganization process and combination pattern of their neighborhood relationship, blood relationship, Micro Credit's relationship and owner/user-relationship of housing site. As a result, relationships in existing local communities have been maintained at previous settlement or succeed at "site G" and Micro Credit's relationship is probably essential for residents' economic. We also verified that Micro Credit's relationship is probably maintained or succeeds without neighborhood nor blood relationship and therefore it has feature of selective relationship which is important for residents' initiative.
In Part 1, we described and visualized urban modalities based on walkthrough experiments. Now, it's necessary to analyze the various data. Especially in this paper, we focus on “modal factors”, which are extracted based on the data which subjects of experiments described while walking through the routes. The results are as follows. 1) Possibility of various statistical analyses shows that methods of describing the urban modalities are appropriate. 2) We found much knowledge about how we grasp urban modalities: for example, 5 indexes to represent modal factors, hierarchies among them, how to categorize them, and “figure and ground” in modality.
This paper clarifies the development of the discussion about the historic monuments by the Commission of the Old Paris (CVP) from 1898 to 1934 by the proceedings published annually. As a result, CVP has succeeded in 1) referring the example of abroad in 1898, 2) creating the list of the non-classified buildings with value in 1898 to give notices, 3) giving notices strategically about Mansion of Rohan to be classified, 4) observing the advertising ban area after 1910 and 5) CVP creating the direct connection with the administration through architects-observers, by the discussion.
In this research, we have aimed to clarify the effects and the subjects of mix enforcement of the the land readjustment project and the urban redevelopment project as a technique of an urban update. As a results are follows, after law revision, many apart replotting became possible by mix enforcement. It is easily to facilitate consensus-building efforts among right holder. However, the land and building of nonparticipant did not make effective use. Moreover, because of technical complexity, foster aid personnel with the expertise for promotion of two projects in an integrated manner.
In this paper, unconstrained gravity model for urban trip pattern is formulated according to the entropy maximizing framework. It is reduced by maximizing the occurence probability of trip pattern subject to the total trip cost, which is the mixture of Wilson's and Sasaki's entropy models. Some characteristics useful to understand the structure of the gravity model were found by a precise observation on an analytical aspect of the model. A new method for parameter estimation for the gravity model is also proposed in our study: parameters for the unconstrained gravity model are estimated only by solving a non-linear equation witch is reduced from constraints of the entropy maximizing problem, and the uniqueness of the estimator has been veriaed mathematically.
This paper aimed to clarify the characteristics and effects of support given to elderly and other distressed people for occupying private rental housing. We examined 41 support cases managed by a non-profit organization (NPO) in Fukuoka City to observe the contents, frequency, and required time for housing support. An analysis of the cases revealed the following characteristics: (1) the necessity of support depends on the age and physical conditions of the people, the reasons for and process of shifting, and the existence of supporters apart from NPOs; (2) the support provided before a person occupies a house is basically consistent with the general procedure of rental contracts; (3) the support provided after the person occupies the house is provided flexibly according to each person's demands, and serious problems are prevented by regular monitoring as part of basic support; and (4) the support provided for vacating the house differs according to reasons such as shifting to another institution, hospitalization, and death.
The following became clear as the result of investigation of mortar coating finish of external wall with lath on site. 1. Inapplicable waterproof paper which is not shown on JASS 15 is used nationwide. 2. It is recognized that flat lath is used nationwide. 3. It is recognized that inapplicable staple is used in all areas. 4. Lightening of mortar has improeed, but it is recognized that light weight mortar as existing compounding does not yet spread the whole country. As a result of investigation, at the time of an earthquake of detaching and exfoliating external wall of lath mortar are concerned about.
Honmune style houses were built since late 17th century to late 19 th century, especially 209 houses still exist in Iida City. This paper reports about result of hearing investigation at 198 houses and measurement survey at 85 houses, explains architectural evaluation of Honmune style houses based on the research about the realities and change of living spaces and structures. Living space of Honmune style houses became gloomy and closed, because expansion the second floor since the middle of 19 th century and renovation it since mid the MEIJI era to sericultural works.
In this paper, based on drawings, we examined the spatial transformation of Hagi Clan's principle estate in the city of Edo by focusing on entrance spaces. Basically the spatial composition of the estate was transformed drastically just in the Meireki era and did not change until the end of the Edo period despite several reconstructions. But the transformation of entrance spaces both in the omote-goten and the ura-goten appeared more frequently. It is significant that although originally the ura-goten had started as feminine and dependent space, it developed into an independent space equipped with its own entrance and reception space.
This paper deals with images of the medieval warrior's residence in Kaoku-zakko and other early modern writings and examines what is common knowledge in the early modern period and what is characteristic of Kaoku-zakko. In early modern period, it was common knowledge that warrior's residence had changed in Muromachi era. But that change was usually described by the introduction of Shoin and Genkan, and description by the change in style from Shinden-zukuri to Shoin-zukuri as in Kaoku-zakko was comparatively rare. The notion in Kaoku-zakko that warrior's residence in Kamakura era was different from contemporary court-noble's residence was also rare.
In the dome of Hagia Sophia, the mosaics of the 6th century' have higher quality both in materials and technique employed than mosaics of the 14th century'. This paper examines the characteristic of mosaics based on the color spectral reflectivity survey, and proposes ideas to verify previous considerations. For example, recent researches assumed that the mosaics of 14th century have some salvage tesserae from earlier mosaics, however, this assumption has not been verified enough. By the color spectral reflectivity, the possibility of reuse of the earlier mosaic tesserae and application of some new tesserae in 14th century can be revealed.
The aim of this study is to clarify the rhetoric of composition on open bedrooms in Japanese contemporary houses. Continuity of spaces including open bedrooms is more complex because of the necessity of privacy and time-sharing. Thus new relationships emerge from the conflict of spatial continuity within private space. In this study, the compositional characters of open bedrooms are analyzed in terms of certain components: articulation, transparency, circulation, and relation to architectural elements. As a result, compositional patterns are defined by the combination of these components of the open bedrooms. Finally, the rhetoric of composition is revealed from overlapping of programmatic distinction and spatial contrast in the continuity of the common and bedroom areas.
Today, Jiyu Gakuen School Myounichikan is one of the most successful practices of dynamic conservation of the architectural heritage that was registered as the Important Cultural Property by the Government. In 1997, it was nominated as the Important Cultural Property together with a total of 56 items of requests that were proposed by the owner who considered improvement of the building for practical use after restoration. The scope of the present paper is to analyze those items of requests submitted to the Government at the nomination. A number of those requests were discussed and considered in the restoration plan, which would be effective in such successful dynamic conservation.