This paper discusses house types and their transformation of Fuzhou city in Fujian（China）. Authors selected the old castle district of the central part of Fuzhou, which are called Sanfangqixiang and Zhuzifang at present, as an intensive field study and clarified the typology of dwelling units and the transformation process. The central areas of old castle are still occupied by low rise houses and shop houses and are designated as a preserved area. The formation of the target areas, the origin of which goes back to Tang dynasty, does not seem to follow a certain formal system, but we can point out the system of formation of street blocks, based on typology of traditional house dacao and its collective form. This paper classified 39 residences called dacuo , which we measured and collected from the others' documents, in terms of the numbers of spans and courtyards, into several types and discusses the collective systemof dacuo.
This article is the continuation of the previous paper concerning research on Income Generation Space (IGS) in a low-income housing project in Khon Kaen Province, Thailand.*1) This paper clarifies the self-customization and the contribution of IGS in the Baan Mankong Program (BMP) facilitated by the Community Organizations Development Institute (CODI) at Tawanmai community of Khon Kaen Province in Thailand. Self-customized IGS survival strategy was found to be used by the dwellers throughout their occupation period. It has unveiled the two major categorizations of IGS as well as the imperative outlook of spatial utilization and its time variation. The provided housing condition can be utilized apart from functioning as a living habitat, also can be used as a place for the facility to generate income for its users. More than one-third of the houses in the research area, where the houses are planned and placed in rows, are self-customized for IGS. IGS has also shed light on its flexibility of usage possibilities that can be adjusted according to the dwellers' purposes. The phenomena have shown the need of IGS in the BMP that could be implemented in future low-income housing scenarios, as well as for a wider scale of housing development, that pave the way for a sustainable low-income housing program in Thailand.
For designing, problem-setting is no less important than problem-solving, when design problem is a "wicked problem", which cannot be definitely formulated, but should be clarified or reframed through the design process. This paper develops a model of design process as an inquiry, where its logical, ethical, and esthetical dimensions are distinguished and related, based on a reinterpretation of C. S. Peirce's theory of inquiry and normative science. This model explains why and how problem-setting must depends on ethics and esthetics, rather than on logic. We use this model to explore how design problems are clarified and reframed.
In this research, how residential and vocational facilities for the person with physical disabilities adapt new service system of the Services and Supports for Persons with Disabilities Act is studied. The results are as follows: 1) Most of facilities switched their services to the support in residential care and the care for daily life. 2) Some of facilities were originally established as housings for the workers with physical disabilities. 3) The support for persons in residential could not be used with working programs, and some of residents had to quit working. 4) Social inclusion thorough Group homes and Care homes are difficult, because these facilities have to be accessible.
This paper aims to standardize the terminology of the horizontal members of vernacular timber houses in Japan. First the horizontal members were systematically encoded after the diverse framework systems were categorized. Secondly the standard names of the horizontal members were defined according to the description in the repair reports of the houses by analyzing their placement and function. Then validity of the standard names was checked comparing with the existing glossaries and literatures. Finally consistency and generality of the terminology were revealed by extracting the image of the word sense divided into a root word and a prefix.
The purpose of this study is to describe the features and generating mechanism of the regional scale office relocation flows of knowledge intensive business services (KIBS) within the suburbs of the Tokyo metropolitan area. Through quantitative analysis of the relocation flows using panel survey data of KIBS and the subsequent questionnaire for knowledge companies, following conclusions were obtained: 1) Locations of KIBS establishments had been centralized since 1996 but the location share within central Tokyo turned into decrease at 2006, which means relative suburbanization is in progress. 2) Relocation flow patterns between 2007-2012 show mixtures of centralization and suburbanization. Limited numbers of suburban business districts dominate most of the origins and destinations of those relocation flows, and function as important nodes of business relocations within the metropolitan area. 3) Centralization flows were generated by growing businesses when they "Move up" property ladder for seeking better locational conditions, while suburbanization flows were generated by less growing businesses, which were confronted with need of rationalizing, when they "Move down" property ladder for seeking cheaper offices.
The purpose of this article is to obtain the optimum three-dimensional urban form when compact city system is formed. This article assumed hierarchical district centers and transportation system according to the stage of life needs. As a result, the optimum urban form minimizing travel costs shows that the ratio of vertical travel cost to horizontal one determines the urban area and the distance between the district centers. This result suggests that forming a concentrated high-rise city with skyscrapers depending on elevators may be less efficient than developing the urban area in the horizontal direction by utilizing the transportation.
Quantitative measures for assessing the levels of human security and urban density of city wards have been previously formulated and applied to the data obtained for Mumbai, to investigate relationships between the two sets of data. Data mining techniques revealed that certain corollaries between the DM and DI data did exist and a regression equation for predicting ward-wise DI using respective DM values was found. Since this prediction was possible across the wards with little error, it was reasonably assumed that DI and DM were intrinsically linked, at least in Mumbai. To test this hypothesis, the same data mining techniques have been applied to Ahmedabad and Tokyo. These cities have been selected because the former presents differences in scale and urban character while retaining a similar socio-economic structure whereas the latter diverges completely in terms of socio-economic character, but has a similar scale of population. A test across many divergent factors is hoped to bring in universality in testing the hypothesis, and pose interesting situations which can then be used to amend the initial hypothesis to make it robust. Furthermore, the macro-level quantitative analysis is followed by a micro-level qualitative analysis of some parts of Mumbai to clarify errors of aggregation arising in the macro-level analysis and also to investigate the effects of Intensity density for which macro-level data was unavailable.
This study focuses on the planning process of the cemetery and religious facilities in Senri New Town from 1957 to 1962 and mainly clarifies following three points. (1) The cemetery was not built inside new town area and the religious facilities had never been inside new town area through the analysis of official plans. (2) Eika Takayama laboratory had only proposed to include the historical communities, but its proposed plan did not reflect the final plan by Osaka government. (3) Kamishinden Tenjin shrine outside of new town area became the essential place for some residents in Senri New Town.
In Japan, traditional festivals in local communities have been held using town streets and private houses as festival stages. The aim of this study was to establish the policy of city planning that was appropriate to as the site of the festival of Yagi, where many historic houses are preserved. As a result, it became clear that it would be proper to set a guideline for building houses with long eaves along the street and to make the room which could be open to the street. Thus, it was not appropriate to promote to renovation for widening the streets.
This study aims to clarify the daily movements and living environment evaluations of the residents in developed suburb residential area by using questionnaire survey results. And the design of multi-core type compact city is also discussed based on the results. Major finding are as follows: 1) Movement areas vary depending on the purposes. Furthermore, the evaluations of the distance to destination are also different if the proposes are different. 2) Comfortable environment and natural environment of the developed suburb residential area are attractive for the residents. 3) Vacant lots get negative evaluations from the view of safety and comfortability. Taking measures will be needed for such lots.
The purpose of this study is to clarify a part of the process in spatial cognition by analyzing the relationship between the eye fixation behavior and the pedestrian movement. This moving experiment for searching the famous sightseeing spots was performed on the busy quarter street of Roma. From the experiments, the following can be concluded. 1) A subject's walking course pattern with low degree of spatial cognition has the "shortest path type" and the "semi-shortest path type". 2) Head moving action shows a tendency to be reduced in the "square" and linear streets.
The purpose of this paper is to clarify the management system of the Intergenerational Home Share. For that purpose, we focus on the COSI-network, which is the network of groups operating the Intergenerational Home Share programmes in France. The Intergenerational Home Share has been rapidly growing in France in a decade after 2003 and COSI network has been acted an important role. The Intergenerational Home Share in France has various approaches depend on the delivering group's background and relationship to other relevant organisations. Their management systems could be good precedents to Japan.
This paper attempts to find ways to understand spatial patterns in incremental process of low-income housing. The case study was held in Lusaka Sites and Services project area, Zambia, where house plans of each surveyed house for every expansion phase were translated into graphs to consider as networks, and reduced graphs were induced by applying the CONCOR method to represent information in a simple form that can illustrate structural equivalence of space. Then, 33 reduced graphs were classified into 9 types and were analyzed by referring to the onsite interviews on arrangements of owner and tenant spaces.
This is a comparative study on the operating agreement of the management services for building construction projects. Five operating agreements of building construction projects are analyzed by the viewpoint of roles, tasks and responsibilities between stakeholders of each project. As a result, three findings are presented in this paper. 1. An operating agreement affects other operating agreements. 2. There are thirteen important operating domains for the management services. 3. It is very important in a building construction project to interlock two or more operating agreements.
We considered the pictures of Hagi castle town and materials of Mohri family library, so the following points were obtained: 1. Besides the past results, we presumed some new conclusion about presumptive date about the pictures of Hagi castle town. 2. Hagi Clan used pictures to grasp residences and possessions of the vassals. 3. In the middle and late of 18c, Hagi Clan didn't prasp residences and possessions of the vassals well, because of usage conditions of the pictures.
This paper demonstrates the historical importance of GISHIKI-YAKUWARI and JYOTO-NARABINI-CHONAHAJIME-SHIDAI, both of which are documents in late Edo era and illustrates how a building ceremony was held by top leaders of construction organizations. This sheds light on the nature of the papers by comparing them with the same kind of other documents. This study also investigates the roles and attires of the leaders written in the documents to reveal how the organizations of top carpenters were.
Naha civic hall built in 1970 is a renowned modernism architecture as one of important works that express the regionalism design in postwar Okinawa that has a characteristic background of modern advanced concrete construction technology introduced by the US military till 1972 when Okinawa has been reversed to Japan. The paper has a focus on the significance and the process of the draft of the design competition that contributed greatly to the development of the regionalism architecture since then. Naha city office organized a committee to draft the competition accompanied by the encouragement of the quest for the new modernism that reflects the Okinawan identity and a genuine fair design competition.
The Former House of archbishop of Nagasaki construction work entailed the construction of a stone wall behind the Former House of archbishop, and the new construction of servants' quarters, toilets, and a basement. These were incidental to the work of the Former House of Archbishop, which was then performed. Yosuke Tetsukawa, an attorney of the construction team, signed contractual agreements with the contractors and supervised the construction work. The construction cost exceeded 16,997.553 yen, with cash payments made prior to September 16, 1913. The construction costing employed an actual cost plus free contract system. The construction period spanned five years, with the plan commencing in 1910, and the construction being completed around March 1915.
The pier arrangement in Suger's choir of Saint-Denis is partially ambiguous. The Carolingian choir reconstructed by Wyss, which was based on Lobbedey, confirms that Suger's choir included two compound piers adjacent to the east side of the crossing and a series of ten round piers further east than the compound piers. This is the same arrangement of piers as in the choirs of Noyon cathedral and of Saint-Germains-des-Prés in Paris; the three churches introduced the round piers in the entire area of their choirs, except that the supports adjacent to the crossing retained compound forms. The early stage of the diffusion of round piers is characterized by the partial subsistence of compound piers in both groups of churches.
The purpose of this paper is to clarify the meaning of "Charcoal-Construction" presented by Horiguchi Sutemi in his architectural thought through analyzing his treatise titled "Charcoal of Sen Rikyu". The paper consists of three chapters : Chapter 1 suggests that Horiguchi found "complete unification of function and expression" in "Charcoal-Construction" and he made it as a basis for understanding tea ceremony. Chapter 2 tries to explicate the meaning of "Charcoal-Construction" in comparison with "the flower", where "contemplation" to appreciate "the flower" is required. Chapter 3 argues that "asymmetrical" structures in "Charcoal-Construction" make it possible for us to see it like "the flower".
The purpose of this paper is to examine the change of the village design of "Nagele project" that Aldo van Eyck engaged as the principal architect for determining the master plan of the project. The analysis consists of three chapters as follows; Chapter 2 scrutinizes the construction process of Noordoostpolder where Nagele is located in and the design process of "Nagele project" that many architects who belongs to the architectural team "De 8" participated in. Chapter 3 analyzes the chronologically ordered design sketches, to find out the structural characteristic of the master plan of Nagele. Chapter 4 examines van Eyck's design methods through his contribution to the "Nagele project".
In this paper, as well as clarification about the relation between architect Benji TOYODA a global presence prewar Kure, Hiroshima Prefecture and former Hiroshima Joint Savings Bank head office building, which aims to consider the various building activity and career of Benji TOYODA to. 1. I will elucidate career of TOYODA. 2. To clarify about the relation between the former Hiroshima Joint Savings Bank head office building and TOYODA. 3. By considering, including the comparison with the architectural works of a series of TOYODA design and features of the former Hiroshima Joint Savings Bank head office building, we discuss architectural design of his activities.
This paper considers the funeral rites places of Ryu's family on traditional "UNJORU" houses in the Joseon Dynasty. The funeral rites are based on ideas of confucianism, while there are variety of opinions about the places. Throughout this paper, we discuss the places by the daily life of Ryu's family, and discover its meanings and feature. As a result, we obtain the major conclusion that Ryu's family did not obey the usual convention but did choose the places according to status order in family, and clearly interpret the meanings that why Sarang-room was not be used during the process.
Mies searched for architectural 'order' in his life-time. He told that there were different stages of 'order,' from a practical order to a spiritual one, according to a hierarchy of values. In Crown Hall possessing the highest value Mies took the grid in a larger measure than the 24 feet grid. The analysis of Crown Hall and the other buildings on the IIT campus derived that a spiritual order was realized by not only a larger measure but also golden proportion. It reveals that the golden proportions in his works related to his architectural idea, 'order.'
To consider the usefulness of exterior space (access root) of the facility that is designated as a Tsunami Evacuation Building through field survey to Yokohama. As procedure, organize the form of access to the site on the basis of the relationship between site form and approach, it is found access form of 24 types. And, divided into 11 kinds of architectural form. Furthermore, found 79 kinds of plane form of exterior space on the basis of the relationship between access form and building form. In addition, assuming the evacuation routes, it is found evacuation routes of 63 types. As a result, grasped that it is expanded exterior space is not always appropriate as Tsunami Evacuation Building.
Computerization and sharing of information regarding forest resources and timber distribution are important topics for sustainable forest management. Based on the example of Japanese cedars in Nagano prefecture this research study investigates precision and accuracy problems encountered when using portable 3D laser scanners for computerization of information on forests, therefore considering possible future forest management methods. The discrepancy between the scan-derived measurement and the manual measurement (by measuring each tree separately) as well as the technical aspect of both methods were evaluated. The scanner proved to be precise in measuring trunk diameter, tree height, and tree position. When all the parts of branches and leaves can be measured by a single 3D laser scanner, a significant correlation is seen between the number of reflection points from branches and leaves and their weight. The following regression equation was obtained for this case. However, the validity of the equation cannot be confirmed because of the small quantity of collected data (with only ten samples being investigated). It is assumed that more measurement data collected continuously in the future will enhance the accuracy and validity of the equation, which can be useful for accurate estimation of the amount of tree canopy.