The aim of this research is to make it clear how the custom of retirement from the headship of family has been succeeded and changed in the rural area of the Western Japan. The summary of this research is as follows; The custom of retirement from the headship of family has been succeeded, because the separate living type has been shown in over 60 percent of the examined families in each district. But the percentage of the separate living type differs in districts. In some districts, the ratio has been decreasing. That means that the principles of living and economic independence have been collapsing. In other words, the custom of retirement from the headship of family has shown the aspect of the diversification. The decrease of living in the separate house in the same lot results from the aging of the parents, the decline of the self-support ability, and the decline of financial ability. Most of the family hopes to live in the separated houses. In which, the mutual interference can be avoided. Still, some old parents hope to live together.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the necessary supports for the elderly to staying at home as long as they want. This paper is intended to consider how demands for life support of the elderly appear as a decline in their ADL. For this objective, we conducted interview surveys to 13 elderly people who use "Machikado-Day-House" in Higashiosaka-city. The results are as follows; 1) To keep community life, "Machikado-Day-House" plays an important role for the elderly whose independent level is changing. 2) According as a decline in elderly people's ADL, demands for life support are extended.
The purpose of this study is to compare and analyze the actual conditions of the parking space installation methods as a preceding work of research on the quality of interface spaces between the streets and the apartment housings. We selected 89 cases out of architectural magazines and Kobe/Nishinomiya cities. The results can be summarized; 1) the parking space installation methods are influenced by the ratios of outdoor spaces relative to the parking spaces. 2) Regarding the magazine examples, such ratios are largely influenced by the land use zoning. 3) Regarding the Kobe/Nishinomiya cases the influential factors are the dwelling supply methods.
This paper clarifies the present conditions of crime prevention in private rental houses, compared with 'model apartment with anti-crime performance' in Osaka. The results are as follows; 1) When residences select their apartment, the priority of the anti-crime performance is low. 2) In private rental apartments, there is much damage including crime. And a lot of residences that have little communication are scared of crime in standard apartment.3) Single householder can't independently do activity to achieve anti-crime condition. Therefore rental apartment must be considered about crime prevention, since they plan the apartment, and it needs that expert in crime prevention advise them to improve their existent apartment.
By recent trends such as decrease in numbers of children, increase in nuclear families and working women who are bringing up children, and declining of local community, home and/or local community may not take a role for place-making of children after school, Moreover, atrocious and terrible crimes to children occurred recently have make difficult outdoor-playing by only children. Therefore, prompt improvement of place-making with safety and security is required. This paper examined the trends and actual situations of place-making after school in urban areas, with viewpoint of the balance between "safety and security" and "comfortable space". The target was put on the children in first to third-year students of elementary schools that need still enough nursing and the future direction was tried to approach.
In this paper, a method to extract sites that can be constructed a building on university campuses is described. The method uses the vertical direct daylight factor as an index to decide whether a new building can be constructed or not. The sites that can be constructed a building(the constructable site) are calculated for 71 national university campuses. Conventional plans for national universities reveal that the interval between buildings has provided for sufficient distance between buildings. Most campuses were planned so that the density of buildings would be homogeneous on the campuses. As a result, in spite of their low building coverage ratios, these campuses are in the situation where the areas available for development are insufficient in size. For long-term planning of university campuses, it is thus important to clearly establish areas that will, at some stage in the future, be dedicated to the erection of buildings, and other areas where large outdoor spaces are retained with a view to taking advantage of the site effectively while maintaining a certain level of environmental quality.When zoning plans such as these are about to be implemented, the methods developed in this paper can be utilized as an effective tool for planning campuses.
The main problem of Japanese day care centers for the elderly is an institutionalism with collective treatments. The purpose of this paper is to examine the actual conditions of collective treatments there, and to discuss on its factors, structure, and solutions from the point of activities within a place. On-site observations were held in a Japanese day care center and also in Danish senior centers in Aarhus for comparison. Conclusions are as follows; I .In the Japanese day care center, several activity programs are held in a room according to time. Therefore, condition of activities within a place changed as time. 2.Actually, scenes of collective treatments, such as an exercise with all users, were not so much seen. Rather, scenes of mixture of individual activities within a room were most seen. However, it is only a free condition in a 'free program', in a limited time and place. 3.Three conditions of collective treatments were seen: long staying time, stay in a limited room, and uniformity of users' activity patterns. 4. A narrow and limited space is thought to promote collective treatments. That is, classical framework of institution, institutional area = area where services are provided, is thought to be a basic reason of collective treatments. 5.As a solution for collective treatments, it is needed not only to make space divided but also to improve service providing systems and framework of institution.
Nowadays, it becomes usual to consider dwelling with care for the elderly as home not as institution. One of the future subjects of such dwelling is how residents can get numerous chances to do outside activities such as daily shopping, eatin out, walking around and so on. This study aims to clarify the meaning of living in community for the people with dementia who live in groupe home. For this objective,one group home located in community was surveyed by means of visiting investigation over 60 times and analysing their care records. The results of the analysis are as follows: 1) Closer connection between architectural planning of group home and universal design in town is important. 2) Each residents goes out in one's own way. So staff need to control the environmental pressure depend on each resident's requirement and ability. 3) Resident's family, friends and neighbors visit the group home many times. Due to the fact, residents can take various roles and positions.
On this study, we aimed to evaluate the matters of building and site of new-education-system University (that reconstructed under the new educational system after the end of World War II) from historical view. Analyzing the process of approval of the new-education-system universities, and enactment of University Establishment Standards, We got results as follows. The new-education-system universities were established by reorganizing the higher school institutions under the old educational system. This reorganizing process caused problems of space like desperation of sites, especially at the national universities. To solve these problems, the 9th special committee was set up on the University Chartering Council. In spatial program on new-education-system University, the minimum standards about facilities were written into low. On the other hand, the issues about site were judged by the 9th special committee as individual. That is, administrative correspondence to spatial matters on new-education-system University was divided into building and site, especially location.
In this study we aimed to find out the actual condition of classroom, especially the appropriate class size in Japanese school. Thus we conducted a nationwide questionnaire survey on the teachers who were in charge of classes of elementary school, junior high school and high school. Through this survey we reached the findings as follows; 1)there were a little difference in environmental evaluation among the grade which they were in charge of, 2)there were significant difference in environmental evaluation among different levels of area per student, 3)from the factor analysis, we found out 2 factors; spaciousness and stability, 4)in the teachers' free description, width of the classroom was most important factor both in their satisfaction and dissatisfaction, 5)we could show the figuring process about the appropriate class size.
The purpose of this paper is to show the important roles of teachers and residents for extending school activities adapt characteristic of community arid school. The results are summarized as follows: 1) The important activities are not only activities with children, but also activities that residents help preparation and visit teachers. 2) It is important that PTA play the central role in supporting school. And it enables school to utilize the residents who adapted to the local situation. 3) It is important that teachers take roles that matched with the situation. In addition, it is important that parents are strongly conscious of one's role, that grandparents and the expert teach a child, and that a local organization supports school basically.
This paper analyzes a decentralization of nursing activities in hospital wards with centralized staff bases, by clarifying the nursing activities quantitatively and by extracting needs and requirements regarding locations of nursing activities. The study has revealed that the locations of nursing activities are in a gradual composition, and that, even in existing hospitals with centralized nursing bases, places for personal attentions to patients and their families may be decentralized. Also, 1) Places most of nursing staff are constantly positioned can be one place in a ward. 2)Storages and racks for non-consum-able materials like linen and medical equipment can be decentralized as well. 3)Places for preparation of procedures can be separately located from centralized staff base. 4)Full use of On-demand recording tools, e.g. PDA, PC in nursing activities are regarded as effective solution. And, the small scale renovations to realize the above will benefit the efficiency in nursing.
In architectural design, not only the structure and the form, but also the activity in and around the building is taken into consideration. However, the latter is not represented very often in the design models which are essential in the design process to externalize the designer's ideas. In this paper, we propose an original design model which can represent activity. Through comparison with other two models, ordinary volumetric model and 3D CAD model, the differences among three design models are clarified, in terms of the design process and the resulting spatial configuration.
In this paper, we examine how university students with visual impairments walk in the campuses, what clues they use, and relationship between visual performance and walking strategy Eight university students with visual impairments were instructed to walk independently in their university campuses, and to verbalize whatever they thought and felt. Every movements and comments were recorded. The results are as follows; 1) There was difference in the selection of clues according to the visual ability. 2) Some clues were used by almost all the subjects. 3) Two frameworks of environmental cognition were found. 4) More adequate way of planning was needed for the tactile tiles for visually impaired.
This article studies the openness of Community-Cafes by means of analysis of the narratives described by 3 masters. In this article, the openness of the place is defined as follows: It is a place where people can enter freely, but also can be and interact with other people if they want. This article clarifies 10 aspects of the openness of Community-Cafe. 3 managers have their own thought about the management, relationship and interaction. But there are many common aspects in their thought. And the relationships that the manager has formed with people enable some aspects of the openness to appear.
The purpose of this study is to establish the method of forecasting an increase in the number of toilet users by examining the influence on the toilet uses by the customers of the restaurants in the railway stations. At first, restaurant customer's toilet usage rate was shown from measurement survey of toilet uses and restaurant uses in the railway stations. Next, restaurant customer and toilet user's investigation results and the customer behavior investigation results in the restaurants were examined, and the influence that the duration of stay time of the restaurant exerted on the toilet use was shown.
Architectural space is formed by the interrelationship with two parts, substantial parts which constitute building components which form the building and empty parts like depth, expanse of space which is formed by substantial parts. On this research, we pay attention to the relationship between wall and room which lie at the base of two parts, define two kinds of factor, room floor area which means variation of rooms ' scale like concatenation and wall length which means variation of room layout like axis. Furthermore, we analyze floor plan characteristic in modern houses from both points of view, consider architecture planning of modern architects.
Chinese movies came to attract attention all over the world after middle of 1980's. Many of those works draw the living environment of modern China. Therefore, the living environment drawn there is impressed with as reality as well as an image for the people who watched these Chinese movies. This paper aims to interpret the family relations as such living environment in the Chinese movie "Postmen in the mountains" by Huo Jianqi who is the sixth generation director, from the viewpoint of constitution analysis based on cinematography, As a result, 12 chapters, 28 scenes, 637 cuts can be extracted from this movie. And based on these functions and relations, the following relations of a family can be interpreted: I. There exists gender in a family. II. Second son is placed in merge null of a family, and he has the role to connect a family to the outside. III. However, he also has family's center position that ties a family dynamically. IV. Second son is a metaphor of "a thing" succeeded to in a family. In other words, it was able to interpret second son's ambiguity in a family, and his position as mediation of the family succession.
Studies interest in the modernization process of housings in farm villages in China have been about transformations of spatial compositions, especially analyses of typology of floor plans and composition of living spaces of traditional houses and housings for ethnic minority. This study aims to clarify the process through the relationship between housing renovations including rehabilitations and the diffusion of living equipments such as electric home appliances. From the questionnaire and the supplemental interview survey, the modernization process of housing in farm villages can be described with not only the modernization of way of living and the democratization of domesticity but also the diffusion of living equipments in daily life, the change of livelihood and financial resources of housing improvement, the standard of life, the living conditions, the status symbol and kinds of ostentation like sense of identifying with others.
This paper intends to clarify block formation and building types of Pettah, Colombo, Sri Lanka, and analyze their transformation process. The research on which this paper is based is the further study of the project called 'Field Research on Origin, Transformation, Conversion and Conservation of Urban Space of Colonial Cities', which the major targets are Dutch colonial cities all over the world. Further to this project, comparing colonial cities in South Asia, in terms of spatial formation and transformation is the ambitious objective of this research. Another purpose is to elucidate the Dutch way of houses construction in their colonial cities, where in Pettah. Dutch developed the form of town houses for high-density living. Colombo was once a head quarter of Ceylon, which was one of five administrative districts laid by Dutch East India Company (VOC) on South Asia. Pettah was planned for a city centre of Colombo as a residental area for European citizens. Pettah also played important roll as a commercial centre in British period when the city experienced rapid growth. At present, a large part of town houses are reconstructed. However its street network, block formation and plots are still remaining. This paper clarifies transformation of spatial formation of Peuha from Portuguese ruled period to today, highlighting Dutch ruled period. First of all, this paper illustrates the following topics: the spatial structure of the former Portuguese fort, the construction process of Colombo fort by the Dutch East India Company (VOC) and its spatial structure, and its influence over the British ruling period. In addition, this paper also examines the influence of Simon Stevin's plan of the 'Ideal City' on the spatial formation of Colombo fort. Simon Stevin, was one of the most famous scientists in Europe in the Seventeenth century. Simon Stevin had great influence over military engineering and city construction in his own country. Finally, based on our field survey, this paper clarifies the spatial organization of the present Pettah by analyzing its block formation and distribution pattern of facilities. The authors suggest that the Dutch colonial town planning is still playing a critical role in the spatial formation of Pettah
The aim of this study is to propose the method of making easily an index of the complexity of the surfaces, and to clarify various features in the sectional dimension. Initially the 14 elevation images are made using the image processing software. Based on the assumption that the complexity of the surfaces is proportional to the amount of the lines where the elevations are composed, the outlines are measured, and the density of the outlines and their differences are assumed to be index of the complexity of the surfaces. It was possible to present the method of making an index by objective and concise procedure. The feature elevations are extracted form the comparative study of the index of the complexity of the surfaces. Moreover, there exists a weak relation between the complexity of the surfaces and the mixture degree of the sectional usage, and each feature of the elevations was understood in the relation.
Providing desirable public space environment against snow and strong wind, and protecting people's activities in winter is one of the big issues on urban design in snow and cold cities. Author developed the original and unique approaches for the environmental assessment on public space comparing between high-rise and medium-rise building block using the wind tunnel simulation. At the result, the high-rise building block caused much snow scatters and snowdrifts on the surrounding public space. For protecting the pedestrian environment on public space against snow and strong cold wind, the medium-rise development with unified height of the building is better.
This research focuses on better understanding with respect to common spaces by investigating role and characteristics of common spaces for local residents in housing environment amelioration program of the hillside high-density areas of Dong-Gu Busan, Korea. We found five main characteristic points as follows: 1) All of common spaces were located on and around roads. 2) The common spaces were freely utilized as multi-usage space without any prohibition for using. 3) The common spaces could be divided into two patterns. First was newly developed by both the housing environment amelioration program and the adjoining land: new common space. The other was the space which has been continuously using by local residents before, and applied by those two programs: conventional common space. 4) New common spaces were more distributed than the conventional common space. 5) The common spaces belonged mostly to public lands (90%) and managed by the local resident rather than the community association.
As a result of the case study on two cities in the south west coast, it was clarified that the way of restoration of settlements was quite different. (1) In Moratuwa, victims have restored their settlement for themselves although there is few support by aid groups due to the coastal regulation. (2) In Hikkaduwa, restoration has been advanced initially with support of external people such as international organizations and NGO. However, residents in the buffer zone have been confused by the revival policy and coast construction regulation. Especially, through the reconstruction process of the settlement in Moratuwa, it was understood that people can reconstruct their settlement for themselves, if the settlement has enough physical basements such as common infrastructure and houses suitable for their life style and social relationship for mutual aid based on closeness to job or blood relationship.
The objective of this study is to identify general conditions of urban design that could stimulate strolling activities of citizens in a downtown shopping district, by observing relationships between people's behavior while strolling around downtown shopping districts, and visual stimuli in each section of the streets. This paper discusses that the characteristic of visual stimuli to encourage citizens to enter the alleys or to return to the main street, through observing people's behavior by a linked QTVR simulator. The observation was carried out for 19-newcomer to the site as well as 19-resident who were acquainted with the site. The result suggests that visual richness and a sense of continuity of the shops will encourage the strolling activities.
A large body of subdivision of building lots have been observed in established urban districts. Such subdivision of standard lots into smaller lots could be the cause of serious problems of the city disaster following great earthquakes, as well as the environmental deterioration. In recent years, a regulation of minimum lot size has been enforced by local governments in order to prevent lots from being subdivided into excessively smaller lots. In this paper, the lots subdivision and lots consolidation in the city area are simulated using the models previously proposed, and the effects of the regulation of minimum lot size are evaluated.
The Japanese New Town Act Law have made 49 New Towns. These New towns have 150 Neighborhood center. It was found in neighboring center that it is three functional similar types of"shopping center type""supermarket type""establishment type".Also the place where the empty store increases is seen in neighboring center. As for Japanese New town Act law because planned characteristic is strong, the building changing and the like is difficult.
Applicability of dynamic discounted cash flow approach upon capitalization of real estates is inclusively investigated, and it was found that evaluation of the direct capitalization must be carried out analytically, since Monte Carlo simulation may not be employed because of time consuming due to a nonlinear stochastic cash flows involved in the mathematical derivation. This paper proposed an approximate analytical method of discounted cash flows based on a logarithm random walk process in order to evaluate the stochastic direct capitalization of real estates. Numerical results by the proposed method is verified by Monte Carlo simulation, and a good agreement was obtained. It is emphasized that the procedure is simple and the calculation is easy, because an analytical technique is used.
In this paper the comparative analysis is conducted on architectural manual books about manuals of architectural design systems (the KIWARI systems) of one-span shrines. First, this paper examines the plan design methods on each architectural manual books. Next, the plan design methods of each style of shrines are examined, respectively. These studies yield the results that 19 plan design methods belong to the design system based on the column diameter (HASHIRA-TYPE), 38 methods to the design system based on the number of the rafter (TARUKI-TYPE) and one method to the design system which shows the dimension (JISSUN-TYPE). The HASHIRA-TYPE is older plan design method than the TARUKI-TYPE. The TARUKI-TYPE seems to be various and more precise than the HASHIRA-TYPE.
In this paper, the development of the front area of the West Gate of the Kenninji Temple is described as an example of the "urban development" in the Outou area during the early modern era, to show a means of securing the land for development development process and the space design method. There existed complex issues, such as the existing rights and relationship with surrounding communities, because the developed area was adjacent to the established urban area. The development of the area itself played a role of linking different urban areas while adjusting vested interests and rights to possessions.
Okitsu was a place suitable for retreat villa area between the end of the 1 9th century and the second world war. Famous person's villa was built in Okitsu, and an excellent villa area was formed. Okitsu was located in the far from Tokyo in the beach villa area formed along Tonkaido Line. There were not a lot of numbers of villas in the small scale. Therefore, owners had a personal connection. In this text, the villa made in Okitsu is researched. The historical background of Okitsu and the connection of owners are clarified. This is connected with knowing what place was ideal for famous persons.
Kaitakushi invited Dr. Clark, William Smith, the President of Massachusetts Agricultural College, to Sapporo Agricultural College for introducing the modern American agriculture in 1876, and he brought some important books at that time. They are Todd's Country homes, Draper's Helping-hands for American homes and Waring's The handy-book of husbandry. Isometric projections of balloon framing appear in Todd's and Draper's books. In Waring's book, general drawings of a barn, similar to S.A.C.'s, are illustrated, and concepts and specifications of this barn are also described. The balloon framing and the American barn had been introduced into Hokkaido through these three books.
This series of studies aims to clarify Case Study House Program's (CSHP) pursuit of housing to "dwell in view" as to triumph the state of rootlessness in modern houses The generation of "arcas" was the key to this type of living. Space was considered as "area", a field of activity with a view towards the distant, rather than "room" in CSH. Diverse activity areas were structured by effective use of furniture. Furniture was an essential method to organize inside and outside of the CSH with living (activity) areas possessing magnificent views. This study discloses the generation of areas in CSH as a method to "dwell in view".
It is pointed out that both risk control and risk financing are needed to reduce the seismic risk. Since an earthquake insurance, which is the most popular measure, is limited from the viewpoint of its market size, focused are the other measures that are called alternative risk transfers (hereinafter called ARTS). In many cases ARTS employ full parametric trigger to evaluate compensation, so that basis risk occurs as the difference between the real loss and the compensation, causing the higher risk cost. In this paper, the schematic design method to determine the parametric trigger that was characterized by several grids and forfeiture functions are proposed. A model portfolio consisting of 10 buildings was applied in analyzing the performance of the method. Through the application, the following findings were obtained ; the existing method has a room for improvement, the proposed method can reduce the basis risk corresponding to the surplus compensation and the risk cost can be reduced without increasing the risk hedger's risk.