The Shirako River basin had many small waterways of less than 4 meter wide. Most of them were waterways for rice fields, and some were river branches. These waterways have disappeared and trails remain without any effective uses. It will be nice if we can enjoy these waterway trails as a pedestrian pass with a stream of spring and rain which also can hold heavy rain water as a flood controling waterway. Then these waterways will gain various effects such as flood control, amenity, ecology and environment education. Therefore, we surveyed data of present waterway trails of the Shirako River basin on 1. policy of Tokyo and Saitama governments on flood control, 2. location and amount of the following items : (l) waterway trails, (2) rain and springs, (3) green zones and lands in public use. We calculated effects of the waterway trails and examined their potentialities. And we set up potential elements for planning the walkway with a stream in waterway trails in a river basin of a high density residential area.
The form of various border planes has appeared by being formed in Korean traditional dwelling of a set of many of another buildings, that there is open MARU as a middle domain of external space and internal space or that a level difference is in a floor, and those dwellings being arranged further intricately. In the colony, the clear boundary of the difference in the social status of YANBAN class and SANGMIN class was once prepared by the influence of the Confucianism of a Chosun time. However, the solidarity nature between social position class or a blood relative is also becoming low now, and housing arrangement and the feature of colony space are also changing with changes of a time. As a formation element of the border plane of the colony space composition in the present NAMSARI, comparing the road between each dwelling unit, the feature of each MAD AN and housing space, etc. according to a time, this research shows clearly how it is formed, and aims at solving the housing arrangement rule of colony space.
In a traditional Chinese house the place to dine was not specific. Chinese apartments built after the revolution were not equipped with a dining room but a hall (Ting). The hall was apt to be placed close to an entrance hall and to be used as dining space. As a number of apartments were built and rushed to market in the 90s, a dining room was laid out in the apartments. The dining hall tends to be placed close to, an entrance hall and to be used as a living room occasionally. However, it is not necessarily a LDK, which is a specific room in a Japanese house.
The purpose of this study is to understand tradition and change of dwellings and dwelling life of Dai Ryam Minority living in Menglian Prefecture in the Yunnan Province and explore for the way of people's response to space and pursue an order of space creating dwellings and the tendency of its change in recent years. In this paper, we understand how the housing aspect of dwellings of Dai Ryam Minority is to evolve by partly surmising. In addition, we will understand the way of recognizing space and the way of behaviors of the people in special occasions as well as in everyday matters and find out the concept of the way of their recognizing space. By so doing, we will explain the order which creates structure of space of dwellings, and pursue how such an order is to change. The order of space which has created dwellings in respect of the succeeded and maintained dwellings is changing. It is reflected in the change in people's response to space in everyday matters. No major change has, however, been seen in the way of behaviors in special occasions, which has been maintained to the present time. Dwellings of Dai Ryam Minority are made by putting a greater emphasis on the aspect of special occasions despite the change in the meaning of the aspect of succeeded everyday matters.
In the near future,the necessity of the housing based on 'Individualization' becomes more and more greater. The purpose of this paper is to clarify the capacity of the skeleton of the multi-story housing constructed by the Osaka Prefectural Housing Supply Corporation during the mass-housing from the view point of 'Individualization'. 73 Skeletons were categorized by the position of the utility and the positon of the balcony.In this paper,the capacity of of the skeleton was clarified by changing the spatial-structure in every categories from the view point of 'Individualization'.
The aim of this paper is to clarify the expansion of behavior and living territory held at each space of elderly inhabitants of "Silver Peer".The results of the analysis are as follows. 1)The place formed by various activities in room were fully understood and classified. 2) Features of living activity related with programs held at common space and other activities were clarified. 3) To act in outer space,inhabitants choose each facility and place.The effects to those acts and territories by environments of location were recognized. 4) Features of expanding territories were differ by each acts,seemed they had four qualities;staginess,selectivity,development and attachment.Points written above classified whole activities.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the effects of introducing adjustable wheelchairs in a nursing home.For this objective, a nursing home was surveyed by means of observations and interviews.The results are as follows. 1) The mobility of the elderly improved relatively by the use of adjustable wheelchairs. 2) The support of the seating posture became possible by the effect of the seating. The restraining straps of the wheelchair came off by the use of adjustable wheelchairs. 3) The elderlies whose behavioral patterns are improved by the use of adjustable wheelchairs are only few.lt is considered that the improvement of conciousness to the care staffs and of the surroundings which adjust the new type wheelchairs are necessary.
This is a study in person-environment relation at a group living: group home in Japan for people with dementia. Here the focus is on the environmental meanings and the changes for the residents from long-term and continuous point of view. The survey was carried out for over four years continuously at one group living for dementia opened in 1997. As survey methods, observation of behavior and interviews with staff were used. Some results shows as follows : (1) Private room plays important role. People with severe dementia can often use their private room by appropriate guidance and memorial things for themselves. (2) Relations with others are changing with progressing dementia or changing ADL. Using pattern and meaning of spaces changed in longterm, various form and characteristic of spaces were used effectively at specific period of one person. (3) Every resident plays an important role in a group dynamics. New and old residents influence each other directly or indirectly in their lives. That's an essential point and meaning of group living for people with dementia.
This paper aims at acquiring the effective knowledge in connection with a defined function of a Kouminkan. A viewpoint is considered on the side of a defined function of the actual condition of the program of a Kouminkan. The result of analysis, social education facilities and central facilities of an area take up as fundamental character of a Kouminkan. As an element which should be examined for the planning of a Kouminkan, the social education function as a social education facilities, the local self-government function and a community welfare function as a central facilities of an area are raised.
The escape of wheelchair users from buildings at fire has not been considered enough till now. In this study, we made two experiments to grasp the characteristics of crowd escape flow including wheelchair users. Through these experiments, we recognized as follows-' 1. In the range that crowd density is 2-8 persons/m, the flow coefficient increases as the density increases. 2. The flow coefficient decreases as the ratio increases of wheelchair users in the crowd. 3. The width of door has little affect to flow coefficient.
In housing environment design, the theme which should be planned and designed is not given to the client and also the specialist in advance. They have to decide the frame for their collaborative practice and set up concrete and suitable subjects in the complicate and uncertain situation. Ethno-design-method is inevitably working in such situated process practically. This paper aims to describe the ethno-design-methods which are found in the relationship between "being the buyer" and "being the seller" in design action by analysis of conversations between the buyer and the seller. Housing environment design develops through the negotiation in such the relationship. The ethno-design-methods as collaborative practice were found as comprising (a) controlling information, (b) affirming by the technical knowledge and (c) keeping silent and suspending evaluation.
The purpose of the present study is to make clear the relation between amount of psychology and physical amount which streetscape gives. Physical amount is the values of fluctuation computed by fourier transform of the photographs of 80 scenes and the CG images of 16 scenes in the central business distric. Amount of psychology is the values of disorder,regularity and attraction.which we get by the experiments using the same photographs and the CG images. The result show that fourier transform method is useful for evaluating landscape.
The purpose of this study is to clarifay the influence of the characteristics of area and length of stay on neighborhood in Wajima City and Hegura Island respectively. First, I comprehend the characteristics of the residence area from a historical background and the construction of the residence space. Next, I clear the influence of the characteristics of area and length of stay on neighborhood in Wajima and Hegura respectively. Finally, I found that a person who lives in Amamachi migurates to Hegura for a short point of time in one year is the best form in Seasonal Miguration.
This research is focused on the area which has suffered from many flood damage. I defined it as the "flood zone and attempted to suggest the relation between human and water in the future by grasping the actual condition of a village, construction and a lifestyle, and prevention-of-floods activity.Consequently, this research demonstrated the relation between flood damage and human in the Tonegawa and Ibigawa river were selected as a ground for investigation. It is based on three aspects; construction-side, construction-side, construction-side.I examined the two- dimensional and sectional structure of the local homestead, the flood control, the relation between bank and village each based on each three aspects.
The purpose of this paper is to research the influence of GIS based hazard map on people's attitude of natural disasters. Through the questionnaire, the changes of disaster recognition are analyzed by the relationship between a place of people' house and hazard map. Also, people's request for disclosing this information via Internet was researched. As a result, people had proper disaster recognition by getting detailed information around house, though many people had an unclear disaster recognition before. Moreover, it was obvious that many people requested to disclose this information via Internet.
This study aims to analyze the actual situation of Machizukuri for Restoration in a land readjustment project distoricts in Kobe city based on Activity reports of organizations by aiming to Machizukuri proposals. As a concludion,three facts are cleared -To make Machizukuri proposals is main target ; It's hard to reward residents' opinions because of a structural defect of Machizukuri proposals : What was expected immediately after earthquake is not quite achieved.
Many slope failures happen in whole country and its measures are required. Recently soft-measures are expected since hard-measures such as constructing soil fall protections are difficult in execution because of bad economy and environmental consideration. In this paper, the utilization of existing documents is examined in order to support disaster prevention management in administration. As a result, factors affecting slope failures in Yokohama are derived and represented in numbers by statistically analyzing "Investigation report for steep slope" using theory of quantification. This is an example for the utilization and digitizing existing documents in administration toward a realization of e-government.
The purpose of this study is to clarify a part of tiie process of the spatial cognition by analyzing the relation between the eye fixation behavior and the pedestrian movement This moving experiment was performed on the street of busy quarter in Venezia And we can get the following important result The subject with the low degree of the spatial cognition enumerates "guidance sign" as an index of wayfiding, and the subject with the high degree of the spatial cognition walks leaning on "context" and a "store", and tends to choose the same course both ways.
In this study, we propose the new method to analyze the composition of landscape pictures and indicate the practicality of new method This new method makes it possible to recognize the two-dimensional picture as the three-dimensional space again by projecting the landscape elements on the surface composed the three-dimensional space. In other words, new method can reduce the complicated landscape construction to simple three-dimensional space using landscape components of two-dimensional pictures. Therefore we call the method "Reduce Method". Using Reduce Method, on this paper, we analyze pictures sampled from tourism pamphlets. As the result, we obtain the fact that tourism pamphlets of Oita Prefecture have the six composition types and that the landscape type and the tourist resort type characterize the each composition type. And we make clear that landscape elements characterize the each surface composed the three-dimensional space.
This paper proposes a method for analyzing the change of road networks. Two frameworks are used for this analysis, that is, time-series spatial analysis and spatiotemporal analysis. Within these frameworks three concepts are introduced: extension, orthogonality, and penetration. These concepts are represented as quantitative measures and used to evaluate road changes with respect to the spatial relationship between links connected to the same crossing. To test the validity of the method the road network in Kyoto is analyzed. The two frameworks, time-series spatial analysis and spatiotemporal analysis are compared through the empirical study.
Constructing database of population distribution is an essential dynamic part in developing human damage estimation system. According to the regional permanent population and percentage of human activities, population distribution in residential and official buildings could be conveniently estimated by buildings' type and size. However, it becomes to be more complicated for commercial population dynamics estimation. Because "Uncertain Majority" gathering in commercial area are mostly affected by urban characteristics include parameters like commercial scale, accessibility and etc. In this paper, major factors such as commercial building density, shortest time-distance are discussed and a high correlation with region commercial attraction was found. It reveals the possibility to estimate commercial population distribution by urban structure factors.
This study aims to clarify the characteristics of the large-scale multi-story apartment houses that have been supplied in Taipei city. As the first phase of the study, this paper describes the brief history and the outlines of the housing policy of Taiwan and Taipei City. In addition, the supply condition of the Public Housing and the Private Condominium are analyzed from the viewpoint of time-line and development scale. The main conclusions are as follows. 1) In Taipei City, the subdivisions (apartment houses for sale) have widely spread than any other cities of Taiwan. 2) The result of analyses on the supply condition of the multi-scale apartment almost for 30 years from 1970 to 2000 shows that the basic character of the public sector as "the development on large-scale lot with small number of dwellings". 3) While the high-rise building and the floor area per dwelling tend to increase, the building coverage and the density of dwellings tend to decrease after 1990's, remarkably in the private sector.
This study examined the possibility of improving housing conditions in the twenty-three wards of Tokyo through practical application of leasing of existing privately owned dwellings occupied by elderly households. The results were as follows : 1. Many elderly households are able to lease the dwellings they own, move into leased dwellings especially designed for the elderly, and obtain income from the cost differential. However, by current market standards of rent, families seeking rental dwellings are unable to live in these because of the high rents. 2. However, by introducing public support into a system that applies such "housing chain," it is possible for the elderly to obtain their income, while at the same time ameliorating housing conditions for family households. 3. If the same funding can be applied as is currently budgeted for improvement of housing conditions, then it can be expected that a system for improvement which utilizes "housing chain" will turn out to be more efficient than the current system.
This paper analyzes the transformation process of the distribution of housing size by the index of number of surplus room. The main conclusions are as follows.1) The average of the number of surplus room has been increased. It is mainly because the decrease of household member and the increase of residential room of housing. But recently, only the former is effective. 2) The difference of housing condition among households of owner-occupied has decreased. However, after 1978, it turned to be expanded. 3) The average condition has wholly advanced but the difference within the region is vary by region. Regions of higher-condition make the transition to equalization, and regions of lower-condition seem to generate the difference within the region.
The purpose of this report is to analyze physical characteristics of the condominium from various viewpoints. In Chukyo Metropolitan Area, ratio of the condominium and proportion of the public condominium are low. It is predicted that it is delayed in the time of the generation of the condominium management problem. Site area and building area are small, building coverage ratio and floor area ratio are low and there are very much many small-scale condominiums. There is the total area of the condominium in no. of houses scale and correlation, though in the small-scale condominium, the building coverage ratio is high, the floor area ratio is low. The following can be grasped through the index to remainder building coverage ratio and remainder floor area ratio '・ Building coverage ratio and surplus condition of floor area ratio and insufficient condition. The condominium in which the remainder building coverage ratio is insufficient is about 7%, the remainder floor area ratio is insufficient is about 20%. The remainder building coverage ratio is high with that the no. of houses scale of the condominium is small, and the remainder floor area ratio lowers, and there is the relation in remainder building coverage area ratio or remainder floor area ratio and physical characteristic.
This paper aims to clarify the role of Kidomon and the meaning of application form for building up Kidomon. In the Edo era, town people put many Kidomons on street in Kyoto. Kidomon is town gate ; those are safeguard of town people against crime. Nevertheless, the Kyoto machibugyosho (the office of magistrate) ordered town people to put and manage Kidomon for municipal public peace. In the application forms for building up Kidomon to Kyoto Machibugyosho, the permission to close traffic is important for beginning construction.
In 1933, the Kwantung Army invaded the Jehol province of China. Just after that, the Manchoukuo government commissioned architectural historians to survey the "Heritage of Jehol". On the basis of this survey, the government established the survey and restoration office on the site due to the preservation of this Heritage in 1935. This paper tried to grasp some of Cultural Policy in the Japanese Colony during a prewarperiod. The subject of considered are as follows : 1) Investigation activities of the Heritage by historians. 2) Investigation and preservation activities of the Heritage by the preservation architects. 3) A way of Cross-Cultural Understanding by architects and architectural historians.
In order to define the architectural features of the residences of coal- mine owners at CHIKUHO, we analyzed the changes on the plans since the building of the first residence. As the subject of study, we chose the 5 residences, namely, the Former KURAUCHI RESIDENCE, the Former HORI RESIDENCE, the Former ASO RESIDENCE, the Former ITO RESIDENCE, and the Former KAIJIMA RESIDENCE. In conclusion, the following was indicated. In the site planning, there were the changes from a mass to the broader dispersion. Concerning the main entrance, the early one was contained in the main building, afterwards it was separated from the rest, and its function as the reception part was established. And the separate grand hall became a part of a bigger complex.
The purpose of the study is to clarify the plans of the light keeper's houses built of stone by R.H.Brunton, and to show his achievements. I would like to focus on the seven houses he began during his early stay in Japan (1869-1870). The important things are .as follows : 1) Six of the seven houses share a similar plan to Brunton's original Kashinozaki house, but the remaining one is not clear 2) There are slight differences between the six houses. I would speculate that they were based on the model of Kashinozaki and at the engineers' discretion.
The institute of Egyptology of Waseda University newly uncovered a tomb-chapel of the high official named Pashedw at the New Kingdom cemetery of the north Dahshur in the spring of 2002. The close observation of the remaining stone pavement and numerous incised preliminary lines on it revealed the whole superstructure consisted of an impressive portico at the front with four columns, a pylon gateway, a courtyard with tomb-shaft, a tripartite offering-chapel at the rear and a small pyramid at the western end, and that the plan is basically determined in multiples of the royal cubit (ca. 52.5cm). This structure would shed new light to the historical study on the development of tomb-style in the Memphite necropolis.
The Academic Royals d'Architecture discussed especially two aspects of the Tuscan capital, that is, the vertical proportion of three parts (abacus, echinus, and necking), and the mouldings in the abacus and under the echinus. First, the Academy approved Vitruvius' system interpreted by S. Serlio, then that interpreted by Cl. Perrault for a short period, and finally, as early as the beginning of the 18th century, the proportion and the moulding of the Tuscan capital of the orangerie in the Versailles Palace, designed by Fra^ois Mansart. The Academic admitted also Vignola's Tuscan capital that presents similarity to Mansart's one. This paradigme sift from the antique architecture to the French classical architecture preceded that of the general proportion system of the five ordres.
Western gardens have traditionally been considered under the rhetorical topic of locus amoenus, which promote the intellectual activities. Taking the intellectual upheaval of early modern European world into account, this rhetorical topic of garden must have also suffered a certain change. And it is said that the art of memory has a great influence on this change of the intellectual world. Comparing the Art of Locational Memory (1591) of Dominican friar Agostinno Del Riccio (1541-98) and his ideal garden project, this study argues that the representation of encyclopedic knowledge in the early modern gardens were the result of the mnemonic spatial structure that they had.
The purpose of this paper is to clarify the space structure of the spa village in the Edo period. At that time, Yamanaka spa prospered as a famous spa. Then, it had the characteristic space structure that concentric circle which had So-Yu (is the joint bathroom built on the source) in the center of that. I tried the consideration about background and characteristics of it by using the old picture map, which that was drawn in. The treatise is organized in the following manner : Introduction Chap1 The history and control structure of Yamanaka spa. Chap2 The examination of the old picture map which Yamanaka spa is drawn in. Chap3 The characteristics of the space structure of Yamanaka spa and that background Conclusion.