Electroluminescence and photoluminescence have been observed with cellulose films dyed with organic fluorescent compounds such as Acridine Orange and Auramine. Cellulose films dipped into solution of such dyes are dried and freed from oxygen. The films are mounted as the dielectric of a condenser having one transparent electrode and an alternating potential is applied. It is shown that as the concentration of organic phosphors in solution increases photoluminescence spectra of such solutions shift towards longer wavelength. In the case of electroluminescence, luminous intensity is proportional to the square of applied voltage and to the frequency. The spectral distribution is neither effected by the voltage nor by the frequency of the applied field; it resembles that of photoluminescence. Brightness waves of electroluminescence of organic dyes are similar to those of inorganic phosphors.
In order to eliminate undesirable electrical oscillations of a travelling wave tube, inside of the helix-supporting pipe is treated with Nesa-coating. For this purpose, several kΩ/_??_ is required as the surface resistance of the film. Nesa-coating is performed by the following processes: Fine drops of Nesa-solution, that is aq. HCI containing SnCl4 and SbCl3, are sprayed through the inside of the helix-supporting pipe previously heated above 420°C. The ratio between the constituents of Nesa-solution has considerable effects on the surface resistance of the coated film, and the higher the temperature used for coating and the longer the time spent for spraying, the higher the conductivity of the film. Well stabilized film is obtained if after coating the pipe is washed with aq. HCl and water, fired at 770°C for 30 min. in air and heated at 650°C for 1 hr. in vacuum. The mechanical stability of the film thus obtained proved to be excellent and the microwave characteristics satisfied the requirement in the use of travelling wave tube. In addition, these films showed high durability against electron bombardment, heating and corrosion by acids, but were only affected by gases, e. g. H2 or N2, at high temperature.
Linear differential equation for the transient response of dew point indicator is sought for measuring the dew point varying in accordance with a step function. The form G0=AB(_??_+1)(_??_) was obtained as the loop transfer function of the indicator. A dew point indicator with a mirror body of an iron cylinder of 0.5cm in outer diameter, 0.3cm in inner diameter and 1cm in length, 0.2cm of the length being so constructed as to be subjected to high frequency heating, satisfied the conditions for damped oscillation at around -50°C. However, for measuring high humidity, “hunting” is apt to happen by over-oscillation. To suppress it, a capacity of 0.1μ F was used in parallel with the resistance connecting the first and second tubes of the direct current amplifier. For non-linear type dew point variation of over 10°C, the responce of the indicator was quick with time lag of only a few seconds.
It is pointed out that a correction should be made to the wall thickness of glass hollow ware when measured by the visual difference in position of reflected images of a light source, one reflected by outer, the other by inner surface of the wall. A formula is derived for obtaining approximately the correction as a function of refractive index of the glass and ratio of observed thickness to radius of curvature of the ware, Over wide ranges of these variables, the correction is computed with the aid of the formula and an I. B. M. calculating, machine and the results are tabulated, a few special cases of which are shown by diagrams. Indirect measurement without damaging the ware as mentioned above and direct measurement by breaking made on samples of varied refractive index, wall thickness and radius of curvature proved the usefulness of the prepared table of correction.
The crystal growth of Fe and Fe-Ni alloy electrodeposited on electrolytically eched (111), (100), (110) and (311) faces of Cu single crystal is studied by means of electron diffraction. The results obtained are as follows. (1) Below 4000Å thickness, oriented Fe grows, and at 5000Å thickness, fiber struture which has  Fe axis (perpendicular to the substrate surface) as its axis begins to appear. (2) Orientations of Fe on any of the substrate surfaces mentioned above is mostly formed in such way that the plane of most densely packed atmos of Fe is parallel to that of Cu and rows of most densely packed atmos of Fe are parallel to those of Cu. (3) On (110) Cu face, (211) Fe face is not exactly parallel to substrate surface, but incline around some axis in (110) Cu face; the angle of inclination depends on deposition conditions. (4) Iron oxides (mainly γ-Fe2O3) are often produced during electrodeposition. (5) Fe-Ni is alloy eletrodeposited from a mixed solution of Ni and Fe sulfates. Composition of the alloy is varied by the composition of the solution. When the solution is of 0.75mol/l of Ni sulfate and 0.25 mol/l of Fe sulfate, γ alloy (ƒ. c. c.) of parallel orieniation is formed and when it is of 0.25 mol/l of Ni sulfate and 0.75 mol/l of Fe sulfate, oriented α alloy (b. c. c.) is mainly formed and γ phase appears only at high pH and high bath temperature. These two phases did not coexist in this experiment. Crystal structure, orientation and lattice constant of obtained alloy are examined. Orientations of Fe-Ni (α) alloy are the same with those of Fe.
Surface of pure polycrystalline copper and (100) and (111) faces of copper single crystal are electrolytically polished to remove worked layers and reduced in pure hydrogen atmosphere at 500°C. After cooled, coefficient of static friction μ between two such surfaces is determined, one surface being spherical laid on the other surface that is plane. The load applied is 45_??_65g. The value of μ ranges 20_??_40 for /(111), 40_??_70 for /(100), 70_??_100 for /(100) and 40_??_110 for polycrystal. Friction tracks under microscope show that the contact area produced by mere normal loading grows up to a width of 0.4_??_0.5mm. Adhesion takes place over nearly the whole width of friction tracks with a length about twice the width. Shear strength calculated by dividing the product μ×load by the estimated adhesion area gives correct order of magnitude for the shear strength of copper. Direct observation of worked layers is made upon sections of the lower specimens which shows that the shearing occurs within the upper specimens.