Transparent and conductive films of In2O3 were prepared by blowing indium chloride-hydrochloric acid onto a hot substrate (surface) in the temperature range of 450500°C. X-ray diffraction patterns of the deposited films showed a kind of polycrystalline In2O3 in nature. Crystal structure of these films was a cubic system (bixbyite type) with a lattice constant of 10. 12Å. The resistivities of Sn 2 wt.% doped In2O3 films were about 2×10-4 Ω·cm These films were n-type semiconductor having a free electron concentration of about 6×1020 cm-3 by Hall effect measurement. The Hall mobility was 4050 cm2/Vs. The absorption edge shifts to shorter wavelength with increasing carrier density were observed at sufficiently high carrier density (Burstein-Moss shift). The reproducible, high transparent and low resistive film was prepared by this spray hydrolysis process at low cost.
A doubly grafted thermometer composed of two thermocouples of different kinds, a transis-tor thermometer and a suitable operational amplifier is described. The proportional constants γ and β2 of the transistor thermometer and the auxiliary thermocouple are ajusted by the operational amplifier to be equal to the proportional constant β1 of the main thermocouple, and the sum of their outputs is measured. It is proved theoretically that the temperature to be measured is obtainable from the measured voltage even for a doubly grafted thermometer. Experiments are carried out with two typical grafted thermometers, in one of which the main and auxiliary thermocouples are grafted thermally, and in the other they are grafted directly. The results of experiments show that the outputs of the trial doubly grafted thermometer of both kinds agree fairly well with the e. m. f of a thermoelectric thermometer of the main thermocouple alone with the reference temperature at 0°C.
A water vapor saturator utilizing an aspirator is described. In the process of evacuation by the aspirator, the air is carried by a water stream, hence, the air passed through the aspirator is probably saturated with water vapor, the role of the aspirator in the saturator being to transfer the air and to saturate it with water vapor. The mixture of water and air discharged from the aspirator is separated in a vessel-The water in the vessel is flowed back to the aspirator by a circulating pump. It is observed that the air discharged with water from the aspirator passes through water as rather small. bubbles. The performance of the aspirator saturator is examined by using a psychrometer of temperature-difference and temperature type with a least necessary air velocity of very small value. The data of dew point of the air obtained by the aspirator saturator are presented and are compared with that of the air obtained by the bubbling saturator.
A direct indication psychrometer is composed of a platinum resistance thermometer to measure the dry bulb temperature t°C, a C-A thermoelectric differential thermometer to measure the difference of dry bulb and wet bulb temperatures (t-tW)°C, together with a divider to indicate the ratio of the temperatures from the two thermometers. The minimum air stream velocity necessary for the psychrometer is known experimentally to be about 0.5m/s. The output voltage of the thermoelectric differential thermometer is proportional to the temperature difference (t-tW)°C, The voltage proportional to the temperature difference (t+16)°C is obtained by the re-sistance thermometer with a constant resistor connected in series. The ratio of the above mentioned voltages is obtained as the output voltage of the divider. Therefore, the relative humidity is determined by measurement of the final output voltage of the divider. The results of experiments show that the relative humidity obtained by the trial direct indication psychrometer agrees fairly well with that obtained by a wet-and-dry-plate hygrometer
Department of Mathematical Engineering and Instrumentation Physics, Faculty ofEngineering, University of Tokyo, An electrical analog of a superconducting quantum interference device is shown, which has many advantages over the mechanical analog, with respect to its wide range of parameter adjustment, flexibility in signal handling, resemblance to the real junction system and easiness to assemble the analog system. It is assembled with several commercial IC's and is relatively inexpensive; accordingly, this analog system can easily be extended to a multiple junction system, such as a Josephson transmission line. In this paper, the most elementary SQUID which includes two junctions in a super-conducting ring is analyzed by this analog simulator. The existence and overlapping of vortex mode, switching between vortex modes and an application to a single flux quantum memory cell and its behavior have been confirmed by using this analog.
Imperfections are introduced in anthracene single crystals by low energy (≤20keV) X-ray irradiation. The imperfections are sensitively detected by using triplet excitons as a probe. The reciprocal triplet lifetime is approximately proportional to the density of quenching centers, which is considered to be nearly equal to that of imperfections and the quenching cross section. The triplet excitons are generated by irradiation of He-Ne laser, and the delayed fluorescence resulting from triplet-triplet annihilation is observed by a photon counting method. The triplet lifetime is computed from the decay rate of the delayed fluorescence. About 60% of these imperfections can be recovered by annealing, and the activation energy for recovery is measured to be 1.1 eV. They are considered to be misoriented molecular imperfections with the size of a unit cell.
Thin films of WO3, MoO3 and their mix-tures are deposited onto SnO2-coated glass substrates at temperatures about 100°C by vacuum-evaporation. The thickness of the evaporated films is about 1.4/tm. An electro-chromic cell composed of the evaporated films, mylar spacers of 25μm thickness, and H2SO4-glycerin mixed solutions (7N) is constructed. Very large contrast ratios between the bleached state and the colored state in the electrochro-mic effect are obtained in the amorphous films evaporated with the WO3 powders added with a few percent of MoO3 powder.