Structure and properties of synthetic polypeptides in the solid state were discussed. Various conformations of polypeptides were reviewed. A stable 7/2 distorted α-helix was presented for poly [γ-(p-chlorobenzyl L-glutamate)]. Side-chain conformations were also discussed. Allowed conformations of the side chain of poly(γ-benzyl L-glutamate) (PBLG) were searched by computer simulation. Unindexed reflections of the α-helix were discussed in conjunction with the 1.5 A reflection. Magnetic resonance including NMR and ESR was applied to study molecular motions occurring in polypeptides. Dynamic mechanical and dielectric dispersions of PBLG in the vicinity of room temperature were interpreted in terms of side-chain motions and structural characteristics of PBLG. X-ray measurements were made to obtain thermal expansion of the side-chain region and fluctuation of the α-helix. The blended mixture of PBLG and its D body was also studied.
Local coherent transient phenomena associated with two-quantum (photon) coherence in a multi-level NMR system are reviewed. Stepwise excitation and detection as well as two-quantum excitation of the coherence are described. Attention has been paid on some parallels and differences between coherent phenomena in NMR and quantum optics. A brief description of the new coherent phenomena which we found is also given.
For gaseous substances, mass flowrate is more essential than volumetric flowrate because the measurement of density at a point is very difficult. Strictly speaking, flowrate of a gas is not known until its mass flowrate has been obtained. The method of calibration of gas flowmeters at present is to utilize the critical flow in a flow nozzle, the so-called sound-velosity nozzle. However, this method of calibration meets with considerable difficulties. In addition to the sound-velosity nozzle method, there exists a method of calibration using a movable-tube flowmeters. Absolute measurements of the flowrate of a gas can be accomplished with a movable-tube flowmeter and therefore it enable us to calibrate other gas flowmeters. However, this method also involves some difficulties. The objective of this paper is to discuss and compare the above two methods of calibr-ation, from the standpoint of calibration of gas flowmeters. It is concluded that the movable-tube flowmeter is more reliable than that of the sound-velosity nozzle.
The behavior of mobile Na+ ions in thermally grown SiO2 film is investigated by using thermally stimulated currents (TSC), thermally stimulated surface potentials (TSSP) and capacitance-voltage (C-V) characteristics. The samples used in the experiments are Al-SiO2-Si, MIS diodes. Results obtained by above three methods cannot be interpreted sufficiently by ionic space charge polarization due to Na+ ions, After bias-temperature (B-T) stress, the shift of the flat-band voltage does not correspond to the depolarization charge in TSC. Further, TSSP is not observed in the temperature region of one of the TSC peaks. These phenomena are considered to be caused by neutralization and ionization of some part of the mobile ions at the insulator-semiconductor (or metal) interface by B-T stress. Estimations of parameters related to the ionic space charge are discussed in the case that charge exchange occurs at the insulator-semiconductor (or metal) interface.
An attempt has been made to correct electron micrographs by using a digital method. A new algorithm to estimate the parameters of CTF has been developed which is based on the calculation of the diffractogram of the electron micrographs and the technique of smooth-ing and differentiation of data based on the least squares method. Suitability of the algorithm is shown through the computer simulation of image restoration by Wiener filtering in which the estimated CTF is inserted. This algorithm has been applied to the actual electron mic-rographs of carbon foils, and image restoration has been carried out successfully. The exp-erimental results for these images are shown. The feature of the digital method of image restoration adopted here is that it can compensate the combined effects of spherical aberration, defocusing, astigmatism, and chromatic aberration, simultaneously, which is almost impossible to realize when the optical method is used alone.