We compared the positive- and the screening-rates in HCV-antibody test between public and occupational health examinations in 159,707 and 30,850 individuals, respectively. In the public and occupational examinations, the positive rates were 1.90% and 1.61%, and the relative rates in the under 60-year of age to all positives were 31.8% and 63.7%, while the screening rates were 99.9% and 27.2%, respectively. The positive rate was higher in older and in male in the public examination, while there was no marked difference between genders and between age-ranges in the occupational examination. Establishment of HCV-testing system in all of health examination is desirable for early detection and treatment of HCV infection.
For Antimitochondrial antibodies (AMA) testing, both indirect immunofluorescense (IF) and ELISA (M2) are currently used. Herein we aimed to suggest which is better for AMA testing in clinical setting. Recent nation-wide surveillances for PBC demonstrated that AMA testing with M2 has been prevailed instead of IF. On the other hand, 3-5% of PBC patients had M2-negative but IF-positive AMA, and these patients might not be diagnosed as PBC if only M2 would have been tested. In another PBC cohort at our hospital we failed to detect any difference between patients with only IF-positive and those with M2-positive. Therefore, M2 should be used for screening for AMA, and if M2 was negative AMA should be reexamined with IF.
Recently distribution of hepatitis B virus (HBV) genotypes (GT) in the patients with acute HBV infection has been changing. It has been suggested that acute hepatitis caused by GTA HBV becomes chronic more often than that by other genotypes. We studied HBsAg-positive period in 88 patients with various HBV genotypes. HBsAg-positive period in GTA HBV is longer than that in GTB and GTC. HBsAg-positive period exceeded 6 months in 3 of 47 patients with GTA HBV. One of the three patients became chronic. GTA HBV, which is detected more than half of the patients, is related to prolonged or chronic outcome. Universal HBV vaccination program for the prevention of HBV infection should be launched in the near future.
A peculiar nucleotide sequence of HEV RNA was recovered from a wild boar (Sus scrofa leucomystax ) of male sex with about 10 kg of body weight, captured 1-Feb-2009 in the forest of Tenryu-ku, Hamamatsu, Shizuoka, Japan. The sequence (JBOAR135-Shiz09, accession number AB573435) showed only less than 80% nucleotide identity to so far reported sequences of HEV genotype 1 through 4 (72.7-76.4% vs G1, 75.5% vs G2, 71.2-78.2% vs G3, 74.9-78.2% vs G4) and also to the rabbit HEV isolates recently reported from China (75.5-77.3%). Since the rabbit HEV segregates to genotype 3 in the present phylogenetic analysis (CLUSTALW Unrooted N-J Tree Method), we propose our JBOAR135-Shiz09 isolate as the first member of new genetic group of HEV, "genotype 5".
To evaluate the effectiveness of Real-time Tissue Elastography (RTE) in staging of liver fibrosis non-invasively, we performed RTE on 310 patients with chronic hepatitis C (and/or liver cirrhosis) and 15 healthy volunteers. Nine image features were extracted from each RTE image and a multiple regression analysis was then performed to derive the regression equation. This equation calculates Liver Fibrosis Index (LF Index), which in turn predicts F stage of the liver. LF Index not only correlates highly with the F stage (r=0.68) of the liver fibrosis, but also it shows significant differences in LF Index values (p<0.001) between each stage of the fibrosis. Thus, we can conclude that RTE is a promising method to evaluate the liver fibrosis noninvasively.