A new concept called 1cm dose equivalent rate constant with shielding effect is introduced for estimation of radiation dose. This new concept represents an expansion of the former standard 1 cm dose equivalent rate constant (defined as μSv·m2·MBq-1·h-1) adjusted attenuation for any given thickness of shielding material (iron, lead and concrete) . The 1cm dose equivalent rate constant with shielding effect for various shielding conditions can be rapidly computed with a free-software application, KINGS-B621, which may be easily downloaded from the internet. The computed rate constants can be put out as text files which are compatible with commercially available spread-sheet software, so it is easy for users to apply the data to creation of documents concerning radiation dose.
History of the synthesis and discovery of heavy elements starting from 93 is reviewed. This article describes the story of thrilling competition for the discovery of new elements with increasing difficulties as the atomic number increases, beginning the 93 element, neptunium. Particularly, competition between USA and USSR has lasted from 102 to 106 element and was unsettled until a new aspect was developed in relation with the superheavy elements theoretically predicted. Here, the search of naturally occurring superheavy elements is briefly explained as an introduction to the present and future perspectives of the research on the superheavy elements which is appearing in the succeeding article.