Studies have been carried out on the amount of hydrogen chloride formed by the radiolysis of some chloroalkanes and the energy absorbed in the solutions. The samples were prepared by dissolving p-dimethylaminoazobenzene as a dye (1.0×10-4mol/dm3) in the chloroalkanes, and were irradiated at a dose of 2500 R at 20°C. The amount of hydrogen chloride formed in the irradiated sample was determined spectrophotometrically. The absorbed dose of the irradiated sample was calculated from the equation, DM=8.77×10-3× (Z/A) M/ (Z/A) A×RA (Gy) . G (HCl) values for hydrogen chloride formed in the solutions of chloroform, 1, 2, 3-trichloropropane and 1, 2-dichloroethane were 10.2, 8.5 and 5.7, respectively. On the other hand, the dielectric constants of the above chloroalkanes measured were 4.3, 7.8 and 10.7, respectively, being in inverse prorortion to G (HCl) . These results seem to suggest that the formation of hydrogen chloride and its reaction with the dye in the irradiated solution are influenced by the dielectric constant of chloroalkane.
This paper describes a revised software package for a personal computer to manage the individuals' exposure data. The software enables us to keep individuals' exposure record that is required by the amended law concerning prevention from radiation hazards due to radioisotopes, etc. which went into effect on April 1, 1989. The software was programmed in Turbo-Pascal. This automated system regularly records the individuals' data of the external and internal dose equivalent, effective dose equivalent and dose equivalent in tissues.
An application of the dual energy gamma-ray transmission techniques to gold alloy identification is presented. The measurement by dual energy gamma-ray transmission is independent of thickness and density of a sample. Due to this advantage, golden accessories such as necklaces, earrings and rings can be assayed inspite of their various thicknesses and irregular sectional shapes. Choice of a gamma-ray energy pair suitable for the object is important. The authors chose 511 keV and 1275 keV gamma-rays from22Na. With this energy pair, R value (a ratio of mass attenuation coefficients for low and high energy gamma-rays) is predominantly related to the weight fraction of gold of the sample. Using a 370 kBq22Na small source and a 50 mm dia.× 50 mm thick NaI (Tl) scintillator for 1200 seconds, a resolution of 2 % for the R value was obtained. This corresponds to approximately 5 % of the weight fraction of gold. A better resolution can be obtained by increasing the source activity or measurement time.
Serum PSA level in patients with urogenital disorders was measured by PSA kits using monoclonal antibody. Serum PSA values in 122 healthy men were 1.1 ± 0.3 ng/ml (mean ± S.D. ) and upper limit of mean+2 S.D. in healthy men was 1.7 ng/ml. Serum PSA levels in 15 male patients with prostate cancer were more increased than those in 11 male patients with prostate hypertrophy (556.9±896.1 ng/ml vs. 8.4±10.4 ng/ml, p<0.001) . It is our conclusion that the estimate of serum PSA level provided a useful diagnostic information of prostate cancer.