One protein component corresponding to the γ1-globulin fraction (γ1-fraction) of bovine serum observed by cellulose acetate electorophoresis was recognized. This component (γ1-component) formed a precipitation line which was detected on the cathode side of the transferrin precipitation line and on the anode side of the IgG precipitation line by immunoelectorophoresis with anti-bovine whole serum. It was contained in fractions dissolved with 0.06 M and 0.08 M phosphoric acid buffer solutions in DEAE-cellulose chromatography. The γ1-component was precipitated after dialysis with distilled water. The crude γ1-component still contained a Small amount of IgG. The γ1-component was purified by removal of this IgG by the method of affinity choromatography using a Hormyl-Cellulofine-column (Seikagaku Kogyo Co., Ltd) combined with antibovine IgG. The γ1-component was a protein other that the main proteins of IgG1, IgG2, IgM and IgA, which are contained in γ-globulin fractions. This suggested that the protein component is not one of the immuno-globulins corresponding to the γ1-fraction of bovine serum and that γ1-fraction may be formed more clearly as the component increases.
Polyvinul pyrrolidone (PVP) was evaluated for beneficial effects as a solvent for FSH in superovulation treatments. Twenty-six Holstein parous cows and 16 Japanese Black heifers were used to determine the efficacy of two superovulation regimens using follicle stimulating hormone (Antrine, Denka Pharmaceutical Co., Japan). In regimen 1, 30 mg FSH-R dissolved in 10 ml of 30% PVP was administered by a single intramuscular (i. m.) injection. In regimen 2 (control), a total dose of 28 mg FSH-R was given by eight i. m. injections (5: 5, 4: 4, 3: 3, and 2: 2 mg a. m. and p.m.) at 12-hr intervals. All cows received 25 mg prostaglandin F2a 48 hr after initiation of the FSH treatment. Combined average numbers of total ova/embryos and transferable embryos were not significantly different between regimen 1 (9.4±4.1 VS 7.2±2.2) and regimen 2 (9.6±5.5 VS 6.4±4.8), respectively. The rate of transferable embryos 76.6%(72/94) in regimen 1 was significantly higher (P<0.05) than 57.7%(83/144) in regimen 2. There were no significant differences among treatments on serum progesterone concentration on the day of embryo collection. These results suggest that the treatment with a single i. m. injection with FSH-R dissolved in PVP was effective in superovulation treatments in cows.
In an attempt to synchronize estrus and ovulation, a total of 39 Holstein heifers, 13-to 19-month-old, in a pasture were injected subcutaneously with PGF2-alpha analogue (Fenprostalene, A-75). In Experiment I, 21 heifers in the luteal phase were administered with 2 ml of A-75 (1 mg of Fenprostalene). Nineteen heifers that showed estrus 2-5 days after injection of A-75 were inseminated, and 13 heifers became pregnant. In Experiment II, 11 heifers which were in the luteal phase 10 days after the initiation of the experiment I were injected with 2 ml of A-75. Five heifers showing estrus by 54 hr after injection of A-75 were inseminated, and all became pregnant. The remaining 6 heifers were administered with GnRH-A at 55 hr after treatment with A-75 and inseminated 24 hr after the GnRH-A injection, since they did not show estrus by 54 hr after the A-75 injection. Two heifers became pregnant as a result of this treatment. Consequently, 38 heifers (97.4%) out of 39 (31 in Experiment I & II, 8 in natural estrus) were inseminated, and 27 heifers (69.2%) became pregnant within 13 days after the initiation of the experiment I.
The authors reported that a crude preparation containing the root of a fern which was substituted for Guan Zhong to be effective against bovine fascioliasis in 1991. The fern used was identified as Matteuccia orientalis based on its growth, morphology and contents. The present paper describes the results of the anthelmintic efficacy of a crude preparation containing the root of freshly collected Metteuccia orientalis in cattle naturally affected with fascioliasis. Twenty-five cattle with natural fascioliasis were used for the trial. The animals were divided into two groups, 18 in the medicated group and 7 in the non-medicated control group. In the medicated group, the EPG of 10 animals was zero one week after the start of the medication, and remained zero for 8 weeks. The EPG in 4 animals started to decrease one week after medication, and became zero two weeks after the start of the medication, remaining at zero for the next 6 weeks. In the other 4 animals in the medicated group, a statistically significant reduction of the EPG was observed, though some eggs were found in feces. The EPG at the 7 animals in the control group was variable during the trial. From the present results, a crude preparation containing the root of Matteuccia orientalis was effective against bovin fascioliasis. No adverse effects of the crude preparation used were observed in any of the animals.
An attenuated Aujeszky's disease virus (ADV) vaccine with deletions in thymidine kinase and glycoproteing III genes was evaluated in pigs with maternal antibodies. Fifteen 7-week-old pigs were vaccinated intramuscularly with one dose of the vaccine, and challenged intranasally with a virulent strain of ADV 4 weeks after vaccination together with 5 non-vaccinated pigs of the same age. Maternal antibody titers renged from 8 to 128 at the time of vaccination. Following vaccination, there was no increase in antibody titer. After challenge exposure, the vaccinated pigs developed no clinical signs except for fever. On the other hand, two of the control pigs developed mild clinical signs such as reduced appetite and nasal discharge. The duration of fever and viral shedding of the vaccinated pigs were reduced compared with nonvaccinated pigs. Mean weight gain of the vaccinated pigs was higher than that of the non-vaccinated pigs at 1 week post-challenge. Efficacy of the vaccination showed a tendency to decrease with increasing maternal antibody levels at the time of vaccination. Serum neutralizing antibody titers in the vaccinated pigs, especially those with low maternal antibodies at the time of vaccination, increased rapidly after challenge.
Vitamin D toxicosis caused by commercially available cat food was examined clinically and experimentally. Four patient cats which had been primarily fed on the same dry cat food were referred for evaluation to Iwate University Veterinary Hospital. The vitamin D content of the cat food was 5, 290 IU/100g. X-ray examinations in all cases revealed mineral depositions of various sizes in the lung, trachea, stomach and small intestine. Plasma Ca concentration was more than 11 mg/dl in all cases except case 1 and plasma 25 (OH) D concentration was more than 100 ng/ml in all cases. Subsequently, plasma concentrations of Ca and 25 (OH) D in Case 1 increased to 16.0 mg/dl and 311.9 ng/ml, respectively. Cases 1 and 2 developed uremia and the other cases showed a moderate increase in plasma concentrations of BUN and creatinine. Histopathologically, systemic calcification was observed in the soft tissues of Cases 1 and 2. Four healthy cats were experimentally fed on the same commercially available cat food to determine the changes in plasma concentrations of vitamin D metabolites and minerals. The concentrations of Ca and 25 (OH) D had increased by 40 days later. These findings suggest that all patient cats may have developed vitamin D toxicosis due to eating cat food containing excessive amounts of vitamin D.
Thymoma was found in a 10-year-old, female, mongrel cat. She was referred to our hospital with a history of anorexia and acute severe respiratory distress. Physical examination revealed muffled heart sounds and lung sounds were inaudible. Thoracic radiography revealed accumulation of intrathoracic fluid and a mass in the mediastinum that displaced the heart caudally and compressed the cranial lung lobes. About 100 ml of intrathoracic fluid removed by thoracocentesis contained small, mature lymphocytes. After removal of intrathoracic fluid, the general condition improved temporarily. At necropsy, a circumscribed tumor measuring 10×8×5 cm was found in the anterior mediastinum. The mass was soft and contained cystic cavities of various sizes filled with a pale yellowish-red fluid. Histologically, the tumor was characterized by cystic, solid, or cord-like growth of epithelial cells, diffuse infiltration of small, mature lymphocytes and formation of Hassall's body-like structures.
Isolation and enumeration for causative organisms of zoonosis were investigated in the oral cavities of 65 dogs. Of them, 50 were kept as pet dogs and 15 were captured and brought to the administration center for animals. Streptococcus (92.0%), Staphylococcus (86.0%), coliform groups (78.0%), Candida (26.0%), Clostridium perfringens (12.0%) and Pasteurella multocida (8.0%) were found in the oral cavities of pet dogs. On the other hand, coliform groups (100%), Staphylococcus (100%), Streptococcus (100%), C. perfringens (100%), Candida (40.0%), P. multocida (33.3%) and Yersinia (13.3%) were detected from those of captured dogs. It was indicated that the mean number of coliform groups, C. perfringens, Staphylococcus, Streptococcus and P. multocida in captured dogs was higher than that of the pet dogs.