This study determined minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of orbifloxacin (OBFX), fosfomycin (FOM), and several antibacterial agents againstSalmonella Dublin andSalmonellaTyphimurium isolated from calves. For 90% of the isolates tested, MICs of OBFX were 1.56μg/mlagainst S. Dublin and 0.2μg/mlagainst S. Typhimurium. Antibacterial potencies of OBFX against tested organisms were higher than those of oxolinic acid (OA), kanamycin (KM), gentamicin (GM), oxytetracycline (OTC), ampicillin (ABPC), sulfamethoxazole (SMX), trimethoprim (TMP), fosfomycin (FOM), and bicozamycin (BCM). All isolates were considered susceptible to OBFX, FOM, GM, TMP, and BCM. After establishing these properties, we assessed the combined effect of OBFX and FOM in an attempt to determine efficacy against infections caused byS. Dublin andS. Typhimurium. The checkerboard method was used to examine the combinedin vitro effect of OBFX and FOM. Fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) indices of OBFX-FOM combinations against 5 strains of S. Dublin and S. Typhimurium ranged from 0.313 to 1.03, suggesting that the combined effects of these 2 agents are additive or synergistic. The effects of the 2 agents were additive or synergistic in 88.2% of all FIC indices. In timekilling experiments, the combined effects of OBFX and FOM on 2 strains ofS. Dublin were found to be synergistic.
Minimal inhibitory concentrations of ampicillin (ABPC), cefazolin (CEZ), oxytetracycline (OTC), kanamycin (KM), chloramphenicol (CP), florfenicol, bicozamycin, danofloxacin, and orbifloxacin were tested for 75 strains ofPasteurella multocidaserotype A isolated from the pneumonic lungs of 41 slaughtered calves at 16 farms in Hyogo prefecture and for 51 strains ofHaemophilus somnusisolated from the pneumonic lungs of 27 slaughtered calves at 9 farms in Hyogo prefecture during 1994 and 1995. Of the P. multocida serotype A strains, 6 (8.0%) were resistant to ABPC, 10 (13.3%) to CEZ, 32 (42.7%) to OTC, 17 (22.7%) to KM, and 17 (22.7%) to CP. Of theH. somnusstrains, 24 (47.1%) were resistant to OTC, 20 (39.2%) to KM, and 20 (39.2%) to CP. Twentyseven (36.0%) of theP. multocidaserotype A strains and 20 (39.2%) of theH. somnusstrains were resistant to plural antimicrobial agents.
In 1998, 36% of all test sera from Gifu Prefecture contained an antibody against the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) virus. A retrospectively serological survey employing the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) on sera collected from 1982 to 1998 showed that the antibody to PRRS virus was first detected in sera collected from fattening pigs in May 1988. Thereafter, the positive rate in Gifu Prefecture increased rapidly. No significant difference were observed between positive rates obtained with ELISA and those obtained from indirect immunofluorescence assay.
The cat had undergone enucleation for intraocular melanoma, but the tumor recurred with the signs of dyspnea, anorexia, and dysphagia. Local control was achieved by means of coarse fractionation radiation therapy with 4 8-Gy fractions for a total dose of 32 Gy. After radiation therapy, the size of the tumor decreased considerably, and clinical symptoms improved.
The Tsushima wildcat (Felis bengalensis euptilura) is a nationally designated protected species. During the period between September 1996 and January 1999, the corpses of 10 of these animals were taken to the Wildlife Conservation Center of the Environmental Agency of Japan, on Tsushima Island, Nagasaki Prefecture. Seven of the wildcats were killed in traffic accident; 2 died of bite wounds and 1 of an unspecified cause. A dog is presumed to have bitten one of the wildcats. The case of the bite wound in the other is unknown. The wildcat that died of unspecified cases displayed no wound, though many parasites were found in its gastrointestinal tract.
Drainage was performed to control infection in a domestic female cat with compound skull fractures, cerebral prolapse, depressed fracture, and an abscess. Contused brain and sequestra were then excised. Craniotomy was employed to elevate depressed bone fragments. After surgery, the cat demonstrated no nervoussystem symptoms caused by head trauma and improved clinically.
Fecal samples were collected from beef cattle bred in Hyogo Prefecture and examined by means of the centrifugal flotation technique for Cryptosporidium oocysts. Of the 582 samples examined, 10 (1.7%) were positive for the oocysts of 2 Cryptosporidium species identified on the basis of morphological characteristics observed under a phase-contrast microscope as C. muris and C. parvum. Prevalence rates were 1.5%(9 heads of cattle) for C. muris and 0.2%(1 head of cattle) for C. parvum. During an 8-month periodin 1998, an additional 116 head of cattle from 2 farms that had been proven Cryptosporidium-positive were examined as further study of the epidemiological features of Cryptosporidium. C. muris infection rates by the month at these 2 farms were as high as 12.5-28.6%, with a mean of 18.1%. These results indicate that C.muris distribution is high in specific farms but is not even throughout Hyogo Prefecture.