Physiological respiration in animals is carried out by the increase and decrease of negative pressure in the thoracic cavity. This fact has been made clear by a number of research workers. The author confirmed it also in the dog. The present experiment was conducted as a basic one for the performance of artificial respiration under pressure at the time of thoracotomy in animals. A re-lationship between artificial intrapulmonic pressure and morphological changes of the lung was investigated in lungs in situ and excised ones of the dog, goat, cow, and horse. Interrelationships were studied among intrapulmonic pressure, amounts of naturally and artificially inhaled air, and body weight. Besides, pulmonary tissue under pressure was examined histologically in goats and cattle. The results obtained are summarized as follows. 1. The pulmonary weight was 1.0 to 1.5 per cent in every animal species. 2. Intrapulmonic pressure had a definite relationship to the amounts of naturally and artificially inhaled air and body weight. The higher intrapulmonic pressure, the larger becomes the inspiratory volume of air. 3. A larger artificial inspiratory volume of air was required for the excised lung than for that left in the thoracic cavity until the same intrapulmonic pressure was reached. 4. In dogs and goats lying on the right side with the left half of the thoracic cavity open, the lung was swollen moderately when the intrapulmonic pressure was in a range of 3.0 to 3.7 mmHg (unit omitted hereinafter), showed a typical form when the pressure was 8.0 to 15.0, and protruded partly from the opening of the excised thoracic cavity when the pressure was higher than 15.0. 5. The state of the lung was observed on horses and- cattle kept in the same position as mentioned in the preceding paragraph. The lung was swollen moderately in horses and cattle when the intrapulmonic pressure was in a range of 15 to 20 and in a range of 19 to 23, respectively. It adhered closely to the opening of the excision of the thorax when the pressure was 19.0 in horses and 22.9 in cattle. It protruded outside of the excised opening of the thorax when the pressure reached 20.0 in horses and 25.0 in cattle. When the lung was swollen moderately and when it adhered closely to the excised opening of the thorax, the artificialley inhaled air had amounted to 3 to 6 liters in horses and 6.0 to 7.4 liters in cattle. 6. Histological examination was carried out on lungs of goats and cattle swollen with artificially inhaled air. Congestion of alveolar blood vessels and splitting of pulmonary elastic fibers were observed and, in the case of cattle, dilatation of terminal bronchioli was obvious. 7. The experimental results indicate that when thoracotomy is performed, artificial respiration should be carried out so that intrapulmonic pressure might be 8 to 13 mmHg in goats and 20 to 23 mmHg in cattle. When the artificial inspiratory volume of air is so adjusted as to be in a range of 4 to 6 liters in cattle, the lung is to be swollen moderately and no alveolar walls will be broken. This seems to indicate a limit of artificial pressure inside the lung.
Generalized Canine demodicosis has been considered to be difficult to treat. Infested dogs were left to their fate or slaughtered with unfavorable prognosis. However, the authors applied Neguvon, a lowly toxic organo-phosphorous preparation (0, 0-di methy1-2, 2, 2-trichlor-ethylphosphonic acid ester), externally to dogs suffering from demodicosis, and found it very effective. The results obtained are as follows. The drug was used as 0.3-1.0% solution. It was applied continually once a day until papules and pustules dried. Then the foci were lubricated with 2. 0% ointment containing 5. 0-10. 0% washed sulfur. The ointment without sulfur was used for circumscribed demodicosis. The drug is free from harmful after-effects, so long as it is applied in the from of solution or ointment as mentioned above. When it is swallowed by a dog in large quantities, it produces symptoms of serious vagotonia in the dog. Its lethal dose is between 200 and 500mg per kilogram of body weight. The authors do not think it effective for treatment to give infested dogs 50mg of the drug per kilogram of body weight only two or three times.
A two-year-old Japanese native ox died suddenly after it was in slight depression for two days. Bacteriological examination on it and a very large number of Salmonella organisms were detected in pure form its spleen, liver, and blood. It was confirmed that these organisms were identical with Salmonella senftenberg. When agglutination tests were carried out with the serum of the ox and the isolated organisms, as antigen, the “O” and “H” agglutination titers were 1: 1, 600 and 1: 1, 600-3, 200, respectively. As a result, it was made clear that the ox had been infected with the isolated organisms.
The effect of a rabies vaccine is mostly dependent upon the method of inactivating virus. Taking this fact into consideration, ultraviolet-irradiated inactivated vaccine (UV) was compared with vaccines prepared by conventional methods using phenol, merzonin (a Japanese proprietary name for sodium ethylmercurithiosalicylate), and formalin for inactivation and glycerin for attenuation. Ultraviolet irradiation was carried out with the apparatus devised by Ando. The number of rotations per minute of the irradiation cylinder, the difference in height (in cm) between the fluid to be irradiated and the cylinder, and the inclination angle of the cylinder were so arranged as to make various combinations of factors for inactivation of virus. Samples of UV thus prepared were compared with those of vaccine inactivated by the other conventional agents, by calculating protection titers of these sample vaccines according to the Habel method. As a result, it was revealed that the vaccine irradiated at 400 r. p.m., at a difference of 73cm, and at an angle of 30° was the most excellent of those inactivated by ultraviolet irradiation, showing a protection titer of 11, 165. Phenol-inactivated vaccine followed it with a protection titer of 10, 892. Next came merzonin-inactivated, glycerin-attenuated, and formalin-inactivated vaccines in the decreasing order of protection titer as listed. Therefore, the superiority of UV was confirmed. By comparing protection titers of samples of UV prepared with different conditions of ultraviolet irradiation, it was found that samples of high protection titer were mostly obtained from irradiation at a difference of 60 or 70 cm and an inclination angle of 20 to 30°. UV was tested for keeping quality at 2 to 5°. As a consequence, its potency was maintained 6 months after preparation and decreased a very little even 12 months after. In short, UV is not inferior at all to the conventional vaccines prepared by other methods, in respe to safety and immunogenicity. The experimental results have made it possible to anticipate that a vaccine with more excellent immuno-genicity and keeping quality can be prepared by ultraviolet irradiation under appropriate conditions.