Serological investigation of the bovine herpesvirus 4 (BoHV-4) was performed on sera collected from 91 farms in 9 sub-prefectural districts on the island of Hokkaido, Japan. A B11-41 strain isolated in Japan was used as the antigen in indirect fluorescent antibody tests (IFAT). A commercial kit was used for ELISA. The results of these tests showed that farms in 3 sub-prefectural districts were antibody-positive. Detailed epidemiologlcal investlgations were then performed in the Shiribeshi district, where farms positive for the BoHV-4 antibody were located. IFAT showed 5 farms to be positive on the basis of sera collected between 1998 and 1999 and 9 farms to be positive on the basis of sera collected between 2000 and 2002. Furthermore, 4 farms that had been serologically positive in 1998 remained positive in sera collected between 2002 and 2003. Three farms positive in 2002 housed cows and heifers together. On those farms, from 64.7 to 100% of animals were positive. On 2 of those farms, more than 50% of the heifers were serologically positive. On one farm positive in 2002, where cows and heifers were separatly housed. 21.9% of the animals were positive. These results in dicate that, before its first isolation in Japan, in 1999, BoHV-4 had already existed and had spread in the Shiribeshi district. Epidemiological investigations suggest that heifers may play an important role in spreading infection and that repeated infections between cows and susceptible heifers may maintain the virus in the herd.
The foramen ovale closed prematurely in two calves-(case 1) a Holstein-Japanese Back crossbred female nine days old and (case 2) a Japanese Black female 11 daysold. In case 1, the heart, had a ventricular septal defect and a double-outlet right ventricle with no hypoplasia of the left ventricle. The heart of case 2 demonstrated left atrioventricular-valve atresia, and the left ventricle was observed to be a minute myocardial mass.
To investigate the influence of animal body position and mean particle diameter of contrast media on canine upper gastrointestinal examinations, barium sulfate (1ml/kg, 30%w/v) was orally infused to dogs in the right lateral, left lateral, left dorsoventral, or ventrodorsal position. Fifteen minutes after oral infusion, gastric barium-sulfate content was significantly less in the case of the right lateral than in the case of the ventrodorsal position. To obtain information on transit times, barium-sulfate preparations with mean particle diameters of 0.7μm and 4.0μm were evaluated. After 15 minutes, significantly less gastric barium sulfate was observed when the mean diameter of which was 0.7μm than when it was 4.0μm. These data indicate that the body position of an animal should be unchanged between different upper gastrointestinal examinations and that the initiation of gastric emptying may be affected by position during exposure interval. For the sake of reproducibility, the mean particle diameter of barium-sulfate should be standardized.
This study investigated immune responses in 5 normal male beagle ranging from 3 to 6 years old orally given an enteric capsulate preparation containing Bifidobacterium pseudolongum (JPB01). After 30 days, the number and ratio of CD4-positive lymphocytes, the number of CD3-positive lymphocytes, and the ratio of CD4/CD8 positive lymphocytes in peripheral-blood were significantly higher in all 5 dogs than those before inoculation. The number of CD25-positive lymphocytes after the stimulation by mitogen irritants (PHA, ConA and PWM) had increased significantly. No significant difference in granulocyte phagocytosis was observed between pre and post-inoculation. These data suggest that B. pseudolongum had immunepotentialized lymphocytes.
Physical examination of a 32-month-old male Japanese domestic cat with a 3-month history of exercise intolerance and hind-limb weakness revealed a grade-IV/VI systolic murmur at the left heart base. Echocardiogaphy and cardiac catheterization resulted in a diagnosis of right-to-left shunting patent ductus arteriosus with severe pulmonary hypertension. Exercise restriction and treatment with a vasodilator improved the Clinical signs immediately. The patient was doing well and free of clinical signs 24 months after initial administration. This is a case of successful control of canine Eisenmenger syndrome with medication.
High-dose rutin (500 mg, TID, PO) was used for medical management of a case of feline idiopathic chylothorax. The amount of pleural effusion decreased after the initial treatment. Daily doses of rutin were increased from 1, 500 mg to 2, 000 mg at 29th day of treatment. Approximately 150 days later, no pleural effusion was observed; after about 450 days it was possible to discontinue rutin therapy. Two years after the initial presentation, the cat was free of clinical signs and pleural effusion. This suggests that high-dose rutin may be clinically useful for the treatment of feline idiopathic chylothorax.