Since 1957, 28 cases of bovine ophthalmic disease have been observed in the mountainous district of Niigata Prefecture. This disease occurred over a period from September to December, when farmers were very busy in threshing and many dust particles flying in the air. It affected cattle, regardless of breed, age, or sex. 1) The chief clinical symptoms were hyperemia, swelling and hypertrophy of the conjunctivae, sclera, cornea, and nictitating membrane. Photophobia, lacrimation, and thickening of the scleral and corneal conjunctiva were seen. Swelling covered more than one-third of the eye. In the severest case necrosis and erosion were seen. 2) Moderate eosinophilla and mild neutrophilia were seen. Neither eggs, larvae, nor adult worm. were present in the eye. 3) Severe eosinophilia was found in the samear Colonies of Micrococcus and mycetoid were seen on agar. 4) Severe eosinophilic granulomas were found in all cases. Eosinophilic masses of club-shaped or chrysanthemum-like structures surrounded by giant cells and inflammatory edema were also observed. 5) In mild cases, washing of the eyes with 2% boric acid and application of antibiotics and sulfa drugs were effective. In severe and chronic cases, swellings had to be removed surgically. The cause of the disease was assumed to be of allergic origin, and moulds seemed to be the most possible factors.
Putrefaction and degradation of meat are thought, to be caused partially by the proteolytic enzyme of contaminating organisms. In the present study, contaminating organisms were isolated from meat stored at various temperatures, and the rate of producing decomposed material from protein (casein) by the action of protease derived from these contaminating organisms were measured. 1) Micrococcus, Streptococcus, and Gaffkya were isolated at 37°C, Micrococcus, Staphylococcus, Bacillus, and Achromobacter at 25°C, Alcaligenes and Flavobacterium at 10°C, Pseudomonas, Flavobacterium, Achromobacter, and Alcaligenes at 5°C, and Pseudomonas, Achromobacter, and Alcaligenes at 1°C. 2) Comparison was made on the rate of producing decomposed material from protein (casein) by the action of protease derived from the isolated strains. The highest rate was observed in the case of the strains isolated at 37°C. It decreased invalue with the decrease in temperature of isolation. The production of proteolytic enzyme from the organisms isolated at low temperature was presumed to have some relations to the putrefaction and degeneration of meat stored at low temperature.
Two types of Newcastle disease vaccine, live virus vaccine derived from the B1 strain and formalininactivated vaccine with addition of potassium alum, were evaluated as means of immunization for middlesized chicks bearing transmitted antibody. 1. In the case of a single inoculation with live virus vaccine alone, intranasal inoculation was more effective than administration of the vaccine with drinking water. When the first dose of vaccine was given by the intranasal route, better influence was exerted upon immunization than when it was administered with drinking water. Antibody titer and preventive rate of infection were higher among chicks frequently given doses up to 28 days of age than among chicks inoculated in any other way. In the former chicks, however, re-inoculation had to be done at 60 days of age to maintain immunity. 2. In the case of simultaneous inoculation with the two types of vaccine, booster effect was expected from the inoculation with inactivated vaccine, which had been performed more than 10 days after the inoculation with live virus vaccine. When given a dose of live virus vaccine at 4 days of age and inactivated vaccine 10 to 17 days later, chicks showed a preventive rate of infection of more than 80 per cent up to 49 days of age. 3. In the case of inactivated vaccine, the preventive rate of infection was low 7 to 10 days after inoculation, but exceeded 80 per cent 2 weeks and more after inoculation. 4. Chicks inoculated with the two types of vaccine presented a higher antibody titer and a higher preventive rate of infection than chicks inoculated with live virus vaccine alone. Inactivated vaccine did not confer so sufficient an immune effect upon dayold chicks as live virus vaccine. Accordingly, day-old chicks should be inoculated with live virus vaccine for the initial immunization.