A two-month-old Holstein calf exhibited diarrhea and subsequently died. During the necropsy, a cream-colored pseudodiphtheritic membrane (papules) and severe erosion were found on the mucosal surfaces of the lips, tongue, palate, esophagus and forestomaches. Histopathologically, marked thickening of the epithelium, severe keratosis and epithelial proliferation with ballooning degeneration, and intracytoplasmic eosinophilic inclusion bodies in the cells comprising the prickle cell layer were seen on the lips, tongue, palate, esophagus, rumen, reticulum and omasum. Parapoxvirus antigens and parapoxvirus-like particles were found immunohistochemically and electronmicroscopically in the lesions of the omasum. Virologically, the viral DNA obtained from the paraffin-embedded tissue of the omasum lesions was classified as pseudocowpox virus by nucleotide sequencing or restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Based on the results, the disease was diagnosed as pseudocowpox with extensive papular lesions in the forestomaches of a Holstein calf.
This study was performed to determine reference intervals using a dry-system coagulation analyzer (COAG2V) for blood coagulation tests, including prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), plasma fibrinogen concentration (Fib), thrombotest (TB) and hepaplastin test (HPT) in dogs. We assessed the coagulation variables in citrated plasma samples from 123 healthy dogs with a median age of 5 years and evenly distributed sex. We first checked the data from each of the five variables for normal distribution, and then we identified and eliminated outliers using Tukey's method. We defined the reference intervals as the mean ±1.96 standard deviations of the data. The reference intervals were as follows: PT 7.1 - 8.4 sec, TB 11.7 - 14.6 sec, HPT 9.8 - 16.2 sec, and APTT 13.7 - 25.6 sec. For Fib where the data were not normally distributed, the values were log-transformed (to base e) and were then assessed in the same way as for the raw data. As a result, the reference interval for Fib was 113 - 385 mg/dl. This study provided reference intervals for coagulation variables using a point-of care coagulation analyzer COAG2V in dogs. The reference intervals will be useful in differentiating healthy dogs from dogs with coagulopathies.
A 135-month-old Japanese Black cow exhibited chronic anemia and weight loss and was slaughtered. The spleen was markedly enlarged, and the tracheobronchial and mesentery lymph nodes were dark red in color and enlarged. Petechial hemorrhages were frequently seen in the visceral organs, and the bone marrow was reddish in color. Histologically, the neoplastic lymphoid cells were large, pleomorphic, and infiltrated the spleen, lymph nodes and bone marrow. The neoplastic cells showed prominent erythrophagia in and around the hemorrhagic lesions. Immunohistochemically, the neoplastic cells were positive for CD3 and negative for CD20 and Iba-1. Based on these findings, the current case was of T-cell origin and was characteristic because of the senescent onset and prominent erythrophagia in the neoplastic cells.