The serum calcium was measured in 122 dogs. From the diseases they had been affected with, they were divided into six groups: respiratory, digestive, dermatologic, epizootic, parasitic, and miscellaneous. In the present studies, a survery was conducted on dogs suffering from diseases belonging to the scope of internal medicine, with a view to finding out what influence the decrease of serum ionic calcium might have over the body defence reaction. As a result, a tendency was noticed that the serum ionic calcium decreased when the liver and kidney had been damaged by such diseases as distemper, hepatitis, heartworm disease, leptospirosis, pleuritis with remarkable hydrothorax, and hookworm disease with anemia as a main symptom.
The intradermal test is an effective means for the diagnosis of canine filariasis, particularly in the early stage of infection. This study was performed as a preliminary experiment to clarify the antigen-antibody reaction which takes place in the intradermal test. In the present experiment, changes in amount of protein nitrogen in each protein fraction of the serum, which might be related to the degree of removal of adult worms of Filaria from a dog administered with arsenical preparation, were investigated by using the micro-Kjeldahl method and paper electrophoresis. As a result, interesting findings were obtained from animals immunized.
Fifteen chickens, Nos. 1 to 15, were infected with 300 to 500 metacercariae. Then young flukes were found in the liver parenchyma in Nos. 1, 2, and 15. They were 7.0×2.7mm in size (No.1), with oral and ventral suckers and enteron clearly visible. Liver changes were recognized in 4 birds and divided into two types, acute (Nos. 1, 3, and 15) and chronic (No.2). a. Acute type: Macroscopically, this type showed surface lesions cream or gray in color, some of which were nodes 3 to 5mm in diameter and others streaks about 10mm long and 3 to 5 mm wide. The parenchyma exhibited homorrhagic inflammation, focal necrosis, and cloudy swelling. The bile ducts remained normal in size. Histologically, these lesions were necrotic tracts caused by the migration of young flukes. The space left in the wake of the flukes was filled with cell debris, lymphocytes, eosinophils, and erythrocytes, or involved in hemolysis. Hepatic cells near by were atrophic with pyknotic nuclei. Infiltration of lymphocytes, plasmacytes, and eosinophils was observed in some lobules and around blood vessels near the necrotic tracts. b. Chronic type: Macroscopically, this type was characterized by atrophy and cirrhosis. Yellowishwhite nodes were seen on the posterior surface. Dilated bile ducts had thick walls, containing yellowish-brown masses of coagulated bile. The parenchyma showed focal necrosis and cloudy swelling. Histologically, necrotic foci and bile ducts completely surrounded by connective tissue were scattered in the parenchyma. Infiltration of lymphocytes and eosinophils appeared in some lcbules and around bile ducts. Fibroblasts, mostly arranged concentrically, were seen in the periphery of the lesion. Argyrophil fibers increased around necrotic foci and bile ducts.