Thirtysix Japanese Black cows infected with Fasciola sp. were divided into three groups. Group A of 12 was treated with 6mg/kg of tricrabendazole (T), Group B of 13 with 12 mg/kg of T and Group C of 11 with no drug. T was administered as a drench at once. Egg per gram (EPG) became negative in 83.3% of group A and 92.3% of group B. Plasma glutamate dehydrogenase (GLDH) decreased significantly in activity after treatment. No noticeable changes were observed in EPG and plasma GLDH in group C. One cow of group B showed mild anorexia on the next day of treatment, but recovered from it naturally after one day. Tricrabendazole was proved to be a practical anthelmintic against Fasciola sp.
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples were collected by lumbar puncture from 12 clinically healthy Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle 2-10 years of age, 9 cattle with the spastic syndrome (spastic cows), and 9 cattle with the Downer cow syndrome (Downer cows). CSF from the healthy cattle was transparent colorless fluid and contained 1.8 cells/mm3 and 42.3 mg/dl of glucose. The level of urea nitrogen in CSF, 11.3 mg/dl, was found to correlate (r-0.89) with the BUN level. The levels of total protein (29.8 mg/dl), albumin (16.5 mg/dl), globulin (12.9 mg/dl) and A/G ratio (1.25) in CSF were higher than those in serum. The levels of GOT (13.7U), GPT (1.4U) and LDH (34.6U) in CSF, onthe other hand, were much lower than those in serum. The levels of Na (145.8 mEq/l), Cl (122.1mEq/l) and Mg (1.8 mg/dl) in CSF were not notably different from those in serum. The levels of K (2.8 mg/dl), Ca (4.8 mg/dl) and Ip (1.4 mg/ dl) in CSF were apparently lower than those in serum. The spastic cows showed low urea nitrogen levels in CSF. In the Downer cows, the specific gravity of CSF was low, and the levels of total protein, albumin, A-globulin and A/G ratio in CSF were also low, but the glucose level in CSF was high. Although there was a correlation between CSF findings and blood biochemical findings in the Downer cows, further investigation is required to find outany clinical significance of the CSF findings.
Thirty-five domestic cats naturally infected with the diplostomid trematode Pharyngostomumcordatum were treated with praziquantel in Kanagawa, Hyogo, and Ehime Prefectures, Japan from February, 1986 to January, 1987. A single subcutaneous injection with 30 mg/kg of praziquantel completely eliminated the trematodes. Associated clinical symptoms, such as diarrhea, were improved in the treated cats. The pseudophyllidean cestode Spirometra erinacei, which infected 25 of the 35 cats in addition to P. cordatum, was also completely dewormed. Side effects were not noticed, except transient mucous diarrhoea in one case and transient pain at the injection time in three cases. It was concluded that praziquantel was an effective anthelmintic against feline P. cordatum infections.
A survey was conducted on the water pollution of the Iimori River for agricultural utilization by examining pyrogen contents, bacteria and BOD. Samples were analyzed by the Japanese pyrogen test (PT), Limulus test (LT), and synthetic substrate test (ST) for pyrogen contents. They were also examined for total colonies (TC), Gram-negative bacteria (GB), coliforms (CM) and BOD. As a result, the values of bacteria, pyrogen contents and BOD in river water were higher in the urban area than in the rural area. ST ranged from 899 to 6712 ng/ml. At an effluent point of the sewage treatment plant, a few bacteria were detected. Neither CM nor GB were detected. The results of PT tended to be parallel to those of LT.
A disease in broiler chickens characterized by excreting indigested food and stunting beginning about 14 days of age was found on three broiler farms in Miyazaki Prefecture. At necropsy, the pancreas was pale and atrophic, and the cecum dilated. The intestinal contents had many starch crystals. They were positive for the starch-iodine reaction. Histologically, the pancreas showed severe atrophy of the acinus, interstitial fibrosis, and formation of several ectopic lymphoid foci. Zymogen granules disappeared and vacuolar degeneration was seen in the acinar cells. The severer pancreatic lesions, the more intense stunting andthe smaller the quantity of a-tocopherol. The correlation was very high among them. It seemed that the main cause of stunting might be indigestion due to pancreatic disturbanc
All eggs produced from hens administered with no antibiotics were positive in the test of residual ampicillin. This positive reaction was caused by bacterial inhibitors, such as lysozyme, in eggs. Heat treatment (80°C, 60 minutes) was effective for inactivation of those bacterial inhibitors. It was necessary to improve the method of test as soon as possible.
Theileria sp. was found in two Shika deer (Cervus nippon nippon) protected in KyotoPrefecture in April, 1984. One of the deer died from a fracture of the cervical vertebrae.The other recuperated after treatment with 8-aminoquinoline compound. It was considered that Theileria sp. found in the Japanese deer might differ from T. sergenti, T. parva, T.annulata, and T. taurotragi, but be similar to T. cervi. No macropathological changes were noticed in the dead deer, in which hemosiderosis was recognized in various internal organs. Seven species of ixodid ticks were collected from both deer.
In July, 1986, three shika deer (Cervus nippon) died suddenly, showing no clinical signs, on a farm in the Iida area. Autopsy on one of them revealed severe hemorrhage in the small intestine. The mucous membrane was necrotic and hemorrhagic, and cell infiltrations were found. Toxic Clostridium perfringens type A (5×108/g) was isolated from the intestinalcontents. The disease was diagnosed as necrotic enteritis induced by C. perfringens type A
A male grass parakeet lost the upper bill was presented to the hospital because of depression and anorexia. So an artificial bill made of acryl plate was fixed to the lost area. Hebegan to feed little by little after that. On the 13th day, the artificial bill came off. Then a second artificial bill made of dental resin was fixed again. It lasted for only 7 days. At that time his upper bill was noticed to have grown a little in length and could feed a small amount of feed. He showed a favorable recovery by being assisted in feeding after that.