Specific attention was devoted to using erythromycin to improve the mucus-cilium clearancefunction in the respiratory tract. The effects of long-term treatment with erythromycin onchronic respiratory diseases in calves were examined. Subjects of examination were 10 Japanese black calves aged 3 to 7 days and suffering from chronic respiratory disease. Erythromycin was administered to the 8 calves in the experimental group for from 30 to 60 days. Amoxicillin was administered to the 2 calves in the control group for from 10 to 14 days.Long-term erythromycin prescription was found to improve clinical signs effectively. Long-term usage of the drug produced no side effects.
Studies to compare populations of acid-resistant Escherichia coli were conducted on 70 samples of rectal feces from neonatal and weaning piglets 20 to 40 days old from 7 farms. Fordetermination of total E. coli, samples were diluted by a volume of 10 times. Acid-resistant E. coli was estimated by viability in TSB media at pH 5, pH 4, pH 3, and pH 2. Total E. coli count in neonatal and weaning piglets was 7.09±1.63 (mean±S.D., log10/g). The pH 5-resistant E. coli count was 7.24±1.80; the pH 4 count was 7.06±1.75; the pH 3 count was 5.76±2.37; and the pH 2 count was 3.19±2.68. Acid-resistant E. coli counts were frequently higher in neonatal than in weaning piglets, and diarrheal feces generally contained more than normal feces. Although in neonatal piglets there was no significant difference in pH 2-resistant E. coli between diarrheal (3.35±2.31) and normal (4.15±2.45) feces, in weaning piglets the population was greater in diarrheal (4.64±2.45) than normal feces (1.51±2.25). Moreover, 23 of the 24 hemolytic acid-resistant strains isolated from the diarrheal feces of weaning piglets possessed the VT2 gene.
Seventy-nine strains of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) isolated from diarrheic piglets (aged 1 to 43 days) between 1989 and 1998 in Okinawa Prefecture were investigated for their antimicrobial resistance, β-lactamase production, drug-resistance genes (TEM, SHV, Toho-1, MEN-1, gyrA), R- plasmid properties, and plasmid profiles. Percentagesof strains resistant to the following drugs were streptomycin (93.7%), oxytetracycline (87.3%), chloramphenicol (75.9%), kanamycin (38.0%), sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (29.1%), ampicillin (25.3%), and gentamicin (2.5%). All strains were susceptible to colisitin (CL), oxolinic acid (OXA), and ceftiofur (CTF). The isolates demonsrated 16 drug-resistance patterns. Multiple resistance was demonstrated by 73 isolates (92.4%), of which all were resistant to at least 2 antimicrobial substances. Only 1 strain was susceptible to all the antimicrobial agents tested.β-lactamases (penicillinases) were detected by means of the acidometric method in all strains resistant to ampicillin. TEM genes were detected in 21 (26.6%) strains, andgyrAgenes in 20 (25.3%) strains. Conjugated R-plasmids were found in 41 (51.9%) strains. An especially high frequency of resistance transfer was observedin multidrug-resistant strains. Several sizes (1-8) of plasmid DNA bands occurred in all strains. Plasmids from the same source displayed identical or similar profiles, whereas those from different sources showed distinct profiles.
Examination of their clinical significance showed that plasma leptin concentrations were significantly higher in 15 obese cats than in normal controls (P<0.01) and correlated significantly with body weight, chest and abdominal measurements, relative chest girth, relative abdominal girth, chest/abdomen size ratio, hematocrit values, and plasma concentrations of total cholesterol, triglyceride, and glucose. Like obese human beings and dogs, obese cats are in a state of leptin resistance. This means that plasma leptin concentration is an index of obesity and nutritional condition in cats too.
Twenty-five canine nasal carcinomas studied retrospectively had already been diagnosed as squamouscell carcinomas (4), adenocarcinomas (12), and undifferentiated carcinomas (9). The undifferentiated carcinomas demonstrated combinations of tubular structures and thick, solid, medulla-like or fascicular cords of cells with occasional glandular patterns. The cords were separated by thin connective tissue septa. In 8 out of 9 undifferentiated carcinomas, columnar cells consisting of tubular or acinar structures were immunoreactive to cytokeratin. In 4 out of 9 undifferentiated carcinomas, however, small, round, or spindle-shaped cells occasionally demonstrated neurofilament immunoreactivity. On the basis of histological and immunohistochemical findings, therefore, 4 out of 9 undifferentiated carcinomas were re-diagnosed as olfactory neuroepitheliomas
Two golden hamsters demonstrated general pruritus and erythema on the ventral trunk. Histophathological examination of the skin lesions showed moderate to severe infiltration of eosinophils in both cases. Diet change and treatment with systemic corticosteroids resulted in improvement in skin lesions in Case 1. In this instance, 4 days after return to the former diet, erythema reappeared. In Case 2, a change of bedding material and systemic corticosteroids resulted in improvement in skin lesions. Erythema redeveloped 3 days after the original bedding material was restored. These findings suggest that allergic reactions may be related to eosinophilic dermatitis in golden hamsters.
A 6-year-old castrated male golden retriever suffered from auricular and acromelic necrosis in winter. A white flocculent precipitate formed when the patient's plasma was cooled to 4°C. The precipitate was resolved at 37°C. Histological examination of a skin biopsy section taken at the margin of a leg ulcer revealed many thrombi in small vessels. The dog was diagnosed as suffering from cryofibrinogenemia, and the symptoms were resolved by avoidance of cold.
Pathological investigations of rectal constriction in 4 mal-developed pigs with abdominal distension were performed, and isolation of Salmonella spp. was attempted. Severe enteritis occurring several weeks after birth and sometimes causing thrombosis appeared to obstruct the rectal arterial supply. Inflammation lowered tissue regenerative capacity. Finally, rectal lesions resulted in incomplete regeneration, or annular fibrous constriction. No Salmonella spp. was isolated from the pigs.