On the basis of matching parity and calving month, 38 Holstein cows housed in cubicles were divided into 2 groups (P and NP). The hooves of the cows in group P were trimmed at from 1 to 2 months before and from 4 to 5 months after calving. The hooves of the cows in group NP remained untrimmed. During lactation periods, hoof sizes and subclinical sole lesions of the right hind hoof of each cow were periodically measured. Examination immediately after trimming showed differences in outer-hoof shape between the two groups. After 6 months, however, the differences had disappeared, suggesting that hoof shape is maintained for up to 6 months. Scores for sole hemorrhage of the outer hoof were significantly lower in the P group than in the NP group only during the first 1 or 2 months after calving. No difference in disease occurrence was observed between the two groups. These results suggest that the effect of trimming on creating load balance between the inner and outer hooves can be maintained for only a short period under the cubicle housing system.
The objective of this experiment was to determine whether ruminally protected forms of methionine (RPMet) increase lactational performance of cows fed imported roughage. Supplements of either 0 or 20 g/day of RPMet were administered to 18 Holstein cows (16 multiparous and 2 primoparous) from late pregnancy (-20 days) to the end of lactation. According to the Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System (CNCPS), the lactation diet 40 kg/day milk yield were limited for Met, Leu, and His. In terms of fat-protein-corrected milk and milk protein, percentages of milk protein and solid not fat (SNF) increased significantly when RPMet was administered. Except for total cholesterol (TCho) and apolipoprotein B-100 (apo B-100) serum concentrations, health and reproduction measurements were similar in both groups of cows. RPMet increased serum concentrations of Met, total amino acids, and total nonessential amino acids. The results of this study suggest that supplenments of RPMet to a diet based on imported roughage administered during the early lactating phase overcome amino-acid limitations and increase milk production, thereby improving lactational performance.
A complete blood count conducted on a five-year-old mongrel cat with a history of anorexia and depression showed severe anemia and leukocytosis. Results of a test for feline leukemia virus antigens were positive in the peripheral blood. An examination of smears of peripheral blood and bone marrow aspirate showed increased numbers of blastic cells. A cytochemical reaction test for nonspecific esterase yielded positive results, and the reaction was blocked by sodium fluoride. On the basis of the French-American-British acute-leukemia classification, this case was diagnosed as acute monocytic leukemia, M5a. In spite of whole-blood transfusions and chemotherapy, the cat died 14 days after referral.
A total fo 2, 511 fresh fecal samples from healthy brood sows on 27 farms was examined for Salmonella. Of these, 58 (2.3%) samples from 10 (37.0%) farms were positive for Salmonella. Among 58 isolaties, 12 serovars were identified: S. Derby (13 strains, 22.4%), S. Typhimurium (12 strains, 20.7%), S. Infantis (11 strains, 19.0%), S. London (8 strains, 13.8%), S. Agona (7 strains, 12.1%), S. Anatum (1 strain, 1.7%), S. Brandenburg (1 strain, 1.7%), S. Meleagridis (1 strain, 1.7%), S. Muenster (1 strain, 1.7%), S. Salinatis (1 strain, 1.7%), S. Senftenberg (1 strain, 1.7%), and S. Weltevreden (1 strain, 1.7%). Isolation rates on the 10 farms were in the range of 26.0-12.2%. From 2 farms, 4 to 3 serovars were detected. S. Derby was detected from 3 and S. Agona from 2 farms.